Historic Resource Study/Special History Study
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After the initial 'basic construction' at Manzanar was completed by contractors working under the supervision of the Corps of Engineers, additional new construction, remodeling of existing structures, utility system extension, and refrigeration and land improvements became the responsibility of the relocation center's Engineering Section. Arthur M. Sandridge, who was appointed by the War Relocation Authority as Senior Engineer at Manzanar in June 1942, provided leadership for this section until February 1946. Sandridge was responsible to the Assistant Project Director in charge of Operations when that position was filled. Otherwise, he was responsible directly to the Project Director. The responsibilities of Sandridge included general supervision of the engineering program at Manzanar "so that the efficiency and standards of the section could be maintained for the operation, maintenance, and construction of the Relocation Center." He was also responsible for conducting a training program for supervisors and other appointed WRA personnel in the Engineering Section designed to acquaint them with the policies and methods for training Caucasian and evacuee employees in their respective units. Prior to leaving Manzanar in February 1946, Sandridge observed:

Very few of the Japanese in this Center were carpenters, plumbers, electricians, or trained for the other building trades. This necessitated the small appointed personnel, 8 to 14 people, to train and supervise the evacuees in construction and maintenance for this Center. To obtain a comparison of what this involved, imagine a city of 10,000 people without contractors or repair shops, where the city Engineer's office staff was responsible for training employees, operating the water and sewage plant system, electric distribution, steam plant for the hospital, all hot water boilers, distributing oil for cooking and heating, and doing all the repair work for the entire plant or city, and at the same time to construct houses complete for a staff of approximately 190 employees and their families, a chicken farm for 10,000 chickens, a hog farm for 500 hogs, to construct streets and roads, and an irrigation system for 350 acres of agricultural land developed for growing vegetables for the resident's food supply.

The problems of organizing and training crews for this work was more difficult, due to the fact the evacuees were only paid $16 to $19 per month but were furnished quarters and food whether they worked or not.

This program was carried out only by cooperation of the appointed personnel and the evacuees. A great many evacuees worked because of personal loyalty and respect for their supervisors.

Many of the evacuees learned trades such as, surveying, drafting, carpentering, plumbing, painting, refrigerator repairing, boiler and pump operating and to become electricians. . . . The maintenance problem was difficult for several reasons: first, because the temporary buildings deteriorated very fast and required constant repairs; second, because the original plans and construction, especially the utilities, were not planned for easy operation and maintenance. The electrical system had only one main switch which necessitated shutting off the electricity for the entire Center when any repairs were to be made. . . .

The water mains had valves for each six blocks which made it difficult to repair broken mains. . . .

Since the Center was laid out on a hillside with the hospital and blocks 6, 12, 18, and 24 at a higher elevation without any check valves in the water mains, consequently, they had a maximum water pressure of 26 pounds which would decrease to 16 pounds or below when the metal storage tank was low. This caused back siphon, making it necessary to install siphon breakers in the hospital and endangered the fire protection sprinkler system which was designed for 50 pounds pressure. This factor also made it necessary to maintain constant close supervision over the operation of the high pressure steam boilers. The lower part of the Center had an average pressure of 65 pounds which was adequate. [45]

New Construction

Staff Housing. In January 1943, Manzanar had nine family and 16 single apartments housing 29 WRA employees, one U.S. Post Office employee, and 22 dependents. Thirty-six WRA employees and 42 dependents lived in Independence, five miles north of the camp, Lone Pine, 12 miles south of the camp, and Cartago, 25 miles south of the camp. Seventy-seven employees and nearly 50 dependents were living in what Project Director Merritt described as "evacuee barracks so unsatisfactory that many employees have quit due to housing conditions." [46] Accordingly, the WRA determined in June 1942 to build wood frame housing for up to 250 staff members based on plans provided by the Farm Security Administration, including a combination of apartments for families and dormitories for single or married staff without children. [47]

Between January 15, 1943, and March 31, 1944, the WRA erected 19 buildings, having a combined area of 32,000 square feet, to house the center's appointed personnel at a cost of $110,633. The staff housing units, although temporary structures, were more substantial and commodious than the evacuee barracks, including among other things refrigerators, electric ranges, and space heaters.

Of the 19 buildings "14 were of the 4-family unit type, 3 were dormitories , and 1 was a central laundry." One of the "4-family unit type" structures served as a residence for the project director. Eighteen of the structures were constructed south and adjacent to the "administrative group." One four-family unit was built near the hospital group" for use by the center's Chief Medical Officer and appointive nurses.

The four-family unit staff buildings were divided into two two-bedroom and two one-bedroom apartments. Each apartment had a kitchen, living room, and bath. These staff buildings were "20 ft. x 94 ft., supported on three rows of concrete piers spaced 10 feet on centers the full length of the building." Girders "of 6 in. x "10 in. Douglas fir, built up from 2 in. x 10 in. timbers, supported 2 in. x 6 in. floor joists spaced 24 inches on centers." All walls and partitions "were framed from 2 in. x 4 in. Douglas fir excepting the dividing partitions between the apartments." The partitions were constructed with "2 in. x 8 in. plates, top and bottom, with staggered 2 in. x 4 in. studding spaced 24 inches on centers." The double partitions, as well as all water pipes for the adjoining baths and kitchens, were "sound-deadened with Kimsul insulating felt."

The rafters were "2 in. x 4 in. spaced 48 inches on centers with a 1 in. x 6 in. placed flat and midway between each set of rafters." The "1 in. x 6 in. redwood sheeting was securely nailed to the rafters and to the 1 in. x 6 in. which acted as a stiffener for the roof." Roofing was "the split-sheet type, each sheet overlapping the preceding sheet by more than half the width of the roll giving a double thickness to the whole roof."

The building exteriors were covered "with 1 in. x 6 in. V shiplap." A "1 in. x 3 in. sloping water table was placed around the building[s] 4 inches below the finished floor line, and the space below this point was boxed in with 1 in. x 6 in. redwood sheeting, forming a tight base to keep out cold, trash, animals, and the like."

All floors were "single thickness 1 in. x 4 in. tongue-and-groove Douglas fir." The "interiors of these buildings were lined with 3/8-inch plaster board," and "awning-type windows" were "used throughout." Cabinets were installed in each kitchen.

The three dormitories were "the same in type," as the four-family unit staff buildings. Each dormitory was "24 ft. x "140 ft. in size," and each building contained "10 double- and 3 single-bedrooms, 2 shower rooms, 2 toilets, "1 bathroom, 1 linen room, and 1 furnace room." The latter was used as a utility room and was equipped "with 2 double-compartment cement wash trays and a hot-water boiler."

The staff housing building at the hospital for the nurses and the Chief Medical Officer was "of the same type of construction, but was built 10 feet longer, 20 ft. by 104 ft." It contained "a 1-family apartment consisting of a kitchen, living-room, bath, and two bedrooms." The nurses' portion of the stricture was divided into "3 double- and 6 single-bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, 1 central living room, and a small kitchen."

The laundry building for the staff housing units was 16 feet x 20 feet and was equipped with tubs and a hot water heater.

Heating for the staff housing buildings, except for the dormitories, was supplied by "H.C. Little oil-burning space heaters." Hot water for the kitchens and bathrooms in the apartments was supplied by a "60-gallon H.C. Little automatic oil-burning hot-water heater, located in a 6 ft. x 8 ft. outside boiler room, built as an integral part of each building." Fuel for the space heaters and hot-water boilers was piped "from a 100-gallon tank centrally located outside and adjacent to each building." Flues were "of 22-gauge galvanized metal, one-piece construction."

The three dormitory buildings were heated from a "central heating plant" installed within the heater room of each structure. This plant consisted of "an H.C. Little D.A.C., size 2, oil burner with forced draft." The heat was forced through "overhead ducts into each room, and was regulated by wall registers." Hot water was supplied by a "60-gallon H.C. Little automatic oil-burning hot-water heater located in the utility room."

All staff housing buildings were supplied "with 120- and 220-volt electrical current, the former for lighting and the latter for cooking." The buildings were "painted two coats on the exterior wall, interior trim, and floors." The ceilings and interior walls were "painted with cold-water paint or kalsomine." [48]

Gymnasium-Auditorium. The gymnasium-auditorium, generally referred to as the auditorium, consisted of 14/140 square feet of floor space, and was constructed between January 28, 1944, and September 30, 1944, at a cost of $30,355. The building was located in the firebreak between Blocks 7 and 13 and faced west to B Street. [49] A ceremony for laying the cornerstone of the building was held on February 19,1944. The ceremony featured musical numbers by the camp band and the high school chorus, a flag raising ceremony led by George Nishimura, high school student body president, and an address by Project Director Ralph Merritt and a response Kiyoharu Anzai, chairman of the Block Managers Security Administration, was the only building of the proposed "school group" to be constructed. Construction of other units for the schools was canceled, and "the school buildings that were used were provided by remodeling existing barrack-type buildings." Construction of the auditorium, which was expected to take three months, was delayed by labor shortages resulting from evacuee relocation and seasonal leave and absence of many young evacuee men who were serving in the military. [51]

Construction of the auditorium was supervised by O. E. Sisler, construction superintendent with direct supervision assigned to J. W. Lawing assisted by K. Kunishage, an evacuee resident at Manzanar. Construction of forms for the footings was commenced in early February 1944 by a crew of internees under the foremanship of I. Sakata. The mill work for the door jambs, casings, and interior finish was prepared in the carpenter shop in Warehouse 34 by Jimmy Araki and his evacuee crew. Electrical work was installed by R. D. Feil and an evacuee electrical crew. The plumbing and hot water systems were installed by K. Bowker and an evacuee plumbing crew. Painting and interior decorating was performed by J. Nakahama and an evacuee painting crew. [52]

The gymnasium-auditorium building was "classified as gymnasium type A." The aforementioned "Appraisal Report" noted that "the best of materials were used in this building." "Even the under floor and the inner sheeting" were constructed "of No. 1 fir and cedar lumber, much of it practically clear of knots or sap." It had an overall width of "118 ft. and a length of 119 ft." The main auditorium floor was "80 x 96 feet square." The stage at the east end of the main floor was approximately four feet high and "22 feet deep with an overall width of 30 feet." On each side and adjacent to the stage were dressing rooms that "provided space for equipment and stage trappings." A "wooden truss, supported on each end by wooden columns, supported the proscenium arch which had a clearance of 12 feet from the finished floor."

One-story shed-type sections were constructed along "the full length of the main section, and, on each side" of the building. These sections housed "the toilets, dressing-rooms, lockers, and offices." The "one-story shed-type section on the south side" of the building "extended 40 ft. 9 in. beyond the east end and was used as a health unit."

The auditorium building was built "on piers placed approximately 8 feet on centers each way." Girders were "of 6 in. x "10 in. material with 2 in. x 6 in. floor joists, spaced 12 inches on centers." All floors were "double." The subfloor was "of 1 in. x 6 in. Douglas fir shiplap laid diagonally," while the finished floor was "1 in. x 4 in. tongue-and-grooved Douglas fir, sanded and varnished."

The walls of the main section of the building were "of double thickness of 1" lumber" and "20 feet high." Posts, "12 in. x 12 in., supported five Pratt-type wooden trusses." The trusses were constructed with "split ring connectors and bolts." The ceiling joists were "of 2 in. x 6 in. material." Roof purlins were "2 in. x 10 in. lap jointed at each end and solid at each lap." Diagonal sheeting "was laid over the purlins," and "split-sheet roofing was applied, mopped on with hot asphalt."

A "shed-type roof" was built "over the stage," using "2 in. x 12 in. joists spaced on 24-inch centers with 2 rows of solid bridging." "Sheeting of 1 in. x 6 in. shiplap was laid," and "split-sheet roofing was mopped on."

A concrete porch was built across the (west) front of the building "for an entrance to the three sets of double doors." Above the porch was a "moving picture projection booth, 8 ft. 6 in. x 30 ft. 11 in." The booth was divided into two rooms — "one for the machines and other for the rewinding of the films." Both rooms were "lined with fireproof asbestos board." Two inside stairways led from the main floor to the booth, providing "access and a means of escape in case of fire."

The one-story shed section, housing the toilets, dressing rooms, locker rooms, and health unit, was constructed "with 2 in. x 4 in. studding, with 2 in. x 12 in. rafters spaced 24 inches on centers, and bridged with solid blocking, sheeted and roofed, the same as for the other portions of the building."

The exterior wail finish was "1 in. x 6 in. V shiplap painted to protect it from the weather." The interior wall finish was "of the same material." The auditorium ceiling was finished with "1/2-inch fibre board applied to the ceiling joists flush with the underside of the bottom cords of the trusses." All ceilings in other portions of the building were "of the same material."

Heating for the building was provided by "H.C. Little forced draft automatic oil heaters." The heaters were placed "in the most strategic points." Two were under the stage and "forced the heat directly into the main auditorium through screened grills." Two others "were placed at the front, in the room adjacent to the main floor, and supplied heat in [the] main room." Two others were connected "to overhead ducts and forced the hot air through the grills into the toilets, shower rooms, and offices." The dressing rooms and the health unit were provided with "independent space heaters."

The hot-water system consisted of a "250-gallon Hanson boiler located under the stage and connected with necessary piping running from this point to the health unit, showers, wash rooms, and toilets."

Electric wiring was installed "for the proper illumination and operation of all equipment including four Trane 15 P. projector fans installed in the ceiling of the auditorium." Special "footlights and overhead lighting were provided for the stage." [53]

The still-unfinished auditorium was first used for a performance of the operata "Loud and Clear," written and directed by Louis Frizzell, the Manzanar high school music instructor, on June "16,1944. Two days later the graduation ceremony for 177 high school students was held in the auditorium. Visitors from Bishop, Big Pine, Independence, and Lone Pine attended the operata, and more than 1,000 persons attended each event. During the following three months, construction of the auditorium was completed. Considerable "finish carpenter work" and installation of heating units and hot air ducts, as well as painting and landscaping, was completed by September 30. [54]

Poultry Farm. The poultry farm, consisting of 16 buildings having an aggregate floor space of 29,528 square feet, was constructed between July 8, 1943, and December 31, 1943, at a cost of $21,784. The complex was located "south and west of the Center, adjacent to the fence surrounding the Center." The building complex consisted of two warehouses connected at one end, eight brooder houses, and six laying houses.

The warehouse and office building "was of U-type construction with an overall area" of nearly 3,800 square feet. The warehouse or feed storage space was located "in the two wings, each wing being 20 ft. x 60 ft. with a total floor area of 2,400 sq. ft." The office and egg-storage rooms were "each 16 ft. x 20 ft.," and the dressing and packing room "which connected the two wings was 20 x 30 ft." A butane-fired scalding kettle, used for dressing poultry, was installed in the latter room.

The building was built with "a continuous concrete footing which projected 6 inches above the finished floor line." All floors were "of concrete, troweled to a smooth finish." The walls were constructed "of 2 in. x 4 in. studding plates." The studding was "cut 7 feet long and spaced 2 feet on centers." The walls were completed "by 1 in. x 6 in. sheeting covered with 15-lb. building paper held in place with 3/8 in. x 2 in. batts."

The rafters were "of 2 in. x 6 in. material with 2 in. x 4 in. cross ties and bracing spaced 3 feet on centers, covered with 1 in. x 6 in. redwood sheeting and split-sheet roll roofing." The windows were "4 ft. x 2 ft. 4 in. frameless, awning type."

The eight brooder houses were "14 ft. x 24 ft., divided into two equal-sized rooms, each being large enough for the brooding of 500 baby chicks.": The floors and foundations were "concrete with the foundation walls projecting 6 inches above the finished floor as a protection against flooding from the storm waters." The studding was "of 2 in. x 4 in. material, spaced 2 feet on centers, cut 6 ft. 6 in. for the back wall and 7 ft. 6 in. for the front wall, making a shed-type roof." The rafters were "2 in. x 4 in. material, spaced on 4 feet centers with 2 in. x 4 in. supports running at right angles to the rafters." Roof sheeting was "1 in. x 6 in. redwood covered with split-sheet roll roofing."

The walls were sheeted with "1 in. x 6 in. shiplap, painted to protect it from the weather." The windows were the "frameless awning type." "Kerosene-burning brooders" were used, vented "through the roof with 6-inch galvanized piping." Outside runs constructed "of chicken netting and wood posts" were constructed the full length of each brooder building. The runs were "16 feet wide and were divided in the center with fencing of the same type."

The six laying houses were each "20 ft. x 192 ft., divided into eight units per building." Each unit had an area of "20 ft. x 24 ft., large enough for the housing of 175 hens." The floors and foundations were "of concrete, the foundation projecting 6 inches above the finished floor" for ease in cleaning.

The walls were framed from "2 in. x 4 in. material, cut 7 feet long and spaced 2 feet on centers with 2 in. x 4 in. plates, top and bottom." The siding was "1 in. x 6 in. shiplap while the roof was framed with 2 in. x 4 in. rafters and 2 in. x 4 in. cords, each set braced to form a truss." They were spaced "4 feet on centers and sheeted with 1 in. x 6 in. redwood." "Split-sheet roll roofing" was used. The dividing partitions "between each unit was 1 in. x 6 in. shiplap with 2 in. x 4 in. studding." Each section was provided with "a 2 ft. x 2 ft. roof vent equipped with a trap door for the regulation of heat and air." "Sufficient roosts and laying boxes" were installed "to adequately care for the maximum number of hens housed in each section." The exteriors "of all buildings were painted to protect them from the weather."

"Outside runs, 20 ft. x 24 ft., of 2-inch mesh chicken wire and wood posts" were constructed for each section or compartment. "Wood feeding troughs" were built "for the feeding of mash and other feed."

Each building in the group was provided with running water "piped in from the center mains" and lighted by electricity "from the connections to the lines within the Center." [55]

Root Cellar. A 2,600-square foot (26 feet x 100 feet) root cellar was constructed between July 5 and October 28, 1943, at a cost of $1,438. The cellar, located in the area west of the former camouflage factory buildings, was designed to provide storage for approximately four tons of root vegetables grown on the Manzanar farm.

Three-fourths of the structure was below ground surface. An excavation was made "6 feet in depth and sufficient in size to receive the building." A continuous footing of concrete was poured across the ends down both sides." Two footings "running lengthwise and spaced 10 feet in from the outside line of the building" were constructed. A "2 in. x 6 in. mud sill was bolted to the outside footings and 2 in. x 6 in. studding 8 feet long, spaced 18 inches on centers with a double 2 in. x 6 in. plate" was installed.

A "2 in. x 6 in. plate" extended through the interior of the building and rested on the interior footings. From this plate and extending to "6 in. x 6 in. girders that supported the rafters, 4 in. x 6 in. posts were placed spaced 10 feet on centers and securely braced with knee braces to the 6 in. x 6 in. plates." Two rows of these posts, "3 feet from the center line of the building, acted as supports for the rafters."

The rafters of the building consisted of "2 in. x 6 in. Douglas fir with 2 in. x 6 in. Douglas fir cords." The roof sheeting was of "1-in. Douglas fir securely nailed." The roof was "90-lb. mineral-surfaced felt roofing."

A center runway, "6 feet wide," extended the "full length of the building" and was "flanked on both sides with storage bins." The bins were equipped "with 1 in. x 6 in. wood floors with 1-in. spacing between the boards which rested on 2 in. x 6 in. floor joists spaced on 24-inch centers raised sufficiently from the ground to allow free circulation of air." Ten bins were installed on each side of the runway, "partitioned off with 1 in. x 6 in. boards with a 1-inch space between each."

Air vents were installed over each bin. They were "2 feet square and extended 2 feet above the finished roof." They were equipped with "manually operated dampers."

The inside of the exterior wall was covered with "1 in. x 6 in. boards from floor to plate line, spaced 1 in. apart."

The outside of the exterior walls was covered with "1-inch random sheeting from the top plate line half way to the mud sill." From this point, an "air vent extended from the front of the building down both sides and connected with a 3 ft. x 3 ft. tunnel vent located in the center of the rear end." The air vent around the building was built by "placing 2 in. x 4 in. supports cut on a 45-degree angle and attached to the studding at a point corresponding to the exterior wall sheathing." The "air-vent rafters or supports were covered with heavy building paper to prevent moisture from entering the building."

A "double refrigerator-type door, 6 ft. x 8 ft.," was installed in one end of the root cellar.

A dirt ramp was graded from "regular grade to the building entrance," providing "easy loading and unloading facilities for produce delivered to and from the building." The building was connected with an electric line to provide light.

The root cellar construction was completed "by back filling around the walls" and "covering the roof with a layer of straw topped off with 8 inches of clay." [56]

Hog Farm. The hog farm, constructed between September 1, 1943, and April 30, 1944, at a cost of $7,615, was located "2,600 feet from the southwest corner of the Center."

The hog farm's feed storage building was "20 ft. x 80 ft. with the floor and footings of concrete," The footings projected "6 inches above the finished floor" to prevent water from entering the structure and damaging the stored feed. The walls were "8 feet in height, framed with 2 in. x 6 in. studs and plates." The studdings were placed "4 feet on centers with one 2 in. x 6 in. horizontal nailing girt spaced half the distance between the top and bottom plates." Double doors, "6 ft. x 8 ft. were placed in each end." The siding was "1 in. x 8 in. D. F. sheeting covered with "15-lb. building felt held in place by 3/8 in. x 2 in. batts."

The rafters were "2 in. x 4 in. Douglas fir spaced 4 feet on centers." Each set was trussed with "2 in. x 4 in. cords and braced with knee braces on each third set." The roof was sheathed "with 1 in. x 12. Douglas fir and covered with 90-lb. mineral-surfaced roofing."

The farrowing pens and houses were constructed as a unit. They were "sheds 4 feet high on the back and 6 feet high on the front." Studs, "2 in. x 4 in., were used with 1 in. x 6 in. sheeting." The roof was "covered with 45-lb. roll roofing." Each house was divided into "six pens or sections 8 ft. by 5 ft. each with doors both front and rear connecting to outside pens." The pens on one side were provided "with cement floors for feeding." A "concrete gutter or trough, 12 inches wide and 4 inches deep" extended "the full length of the feeding platforms." This gutter was used as a catch trough for non-edible material.

Three hog houses, each "20 feet square, with a partition" equally "dividing the floor space" were constructed. The structures were built from "rough 1-inch material with 2 in. x 4 in. posts." They had "shed-type roofs, 4 feet high on the low side and 6 feet high on the high side." Each house was surrounded "by board panel fencing." The fencing consisted of "2,070 lineal feet," using "250 posts, 4 in. x 4 in. x 6 ft." and "8,280 lineal feet of rough 1 in. x 6 in. material was used in the paneling." Additional pens were built in which "864 lineal feet of 30-inch hog-fencing and 108 4 in. x 4 in. x 8 ft. posts were used." A "4,310 sq. ft." concrete platform or deck was constructed for feeding.

Water was piped from George Creek to concrete watering troughs in each pen. An electric line was extended from the center to the hog farm to provide electricity for lighting. [57]

Industrial Latrines. Two industrial latrines, having a combined floor area of 768 square feet, were designed and constructed by Ryozo F. Kado, an evacuee stonemason, in the warehouse section of the industrial area at Manzanar between September 8 and November 1, 1943, at a cost of $2,433. The latrines were each "16 ft. x 24 ft. with a center partition separating the men's section from the women's." The foundations and floors were concrete. Studdings, "2 in. x 4 in. x 8 ft. and spaced 2 feet on centers," were covered with "1-inch sheathing and building paper held in place by 3/8 in. x 2 in. batts."

The roof was framed from "2 in. x 4 in. material." The rafters were placed on "3-foot centers, sheathed with 1-inch material, and roofed with split-sheet roll roofing." Windows were of "the frameless awning type, size 4 ft. x 2 ft. 4 in.," while the doors were made "from the material on hand." The women's section was equipped with "five toilets, a wash basin, and a floor drain." The men's section was equipped with "three toilets, two urinals, a wash basin, and a floor drain."

Cold water was supplied by tapping "the main water line," but no "hot water facilities" were provided. A small "oil-burning space heater" was installed in each room as a protection against freezing during periods of extreme cold. [58]

Garage. A garage was constructed "in the motor pool area 60 feet west of the old garage" between November 20, 1944, and April 23, 1945, at a cost of $2,301. The construction was "justified by an acute shortage of space for the repair and maintenance of automotive equipment."

The garage had "a frontage of 48 feet and a depth of 30 feet," with "concrete floors, footings, and a 6-inch concrete curb to keep storm waters from flooding the floors." The garage was divided "into three stalls of equal size — one stall for lubrication, one for washing, and the other for painting."

The walls of the garage "were 12 feet high, framed from 2 in. x 6 in. lumber, spaced 2 feet on centers and covered with 1 in. x 6 in. V shiplap." The roof was constructed by placing "double 2 in. x 6 in. rafters or plates over the outside walls and 2 center partitions." Studding, "2 in. x 6 in., placed 2 feet on centers, supported these rafters or plates." The framing "was completed by purlins of 2 in. x 8 in. material, spaced 2 feet on centers and blocked solid over the rafters and down the center of each span." Sheeting "of 1 in. x 6 in. material laid at right angles to the joists and covered with split-sheet roll roofing, mopped on," completed the roof construction. The partitions were "of 2 in. x 6 in. studding spaced 2 feet on centers and sheathed on one side with 1 in. x 6 in. V shiplap from the floor line to the ridge."

Each stall was provided "with a 12 ft. x 12 ft. door opening equipped with accordion folding doors, made in four sections and supported by an overhead track." Windows were "the double-hung type, 3 ft. 4 in. x 5 ft. 6 in."

The garage was heated by an "H.C. Little D.U. 46 oil-burning heater installed in a 6 ft.. x 6 ft. addition," located in the rear or west side of the building. An automatic fan in the heater circulated hot air to each stall via ducts.

An air-driven "Weaver heavy duty twin-post hoist" was installed in the lubrication room. Water was piped into the building for use in washing equipment and cleaning floors, the latter having sumps and floor drains which were connected to the sewer mains. The garage was connected with lines adjacent to the building for electricity and operation of tools and equipment. Each room was equipped with a work bench.

The exterior walls, window trim, and doors was painted to protect the lumber from the weather. [59]

Addition to Appointed Personnel Mess Hall. An addition to the appointed personnel mess hall that had been built under the supervision of the Corps of Engineers was constructed between May 1 and July 1, 1943, at a cost of $1,680. The addition was justified "to provide adequate accommodations" for the expanding staff at Manzanar. The addition was "of the same type construction as the old section, with dimensions of 20 ft. x 100 ft." The foundation was "of concrete blocks with 4 in. x 6 in. girders and 2 in. x 6 in. joists."

The east side of the original mess hall was removed, and the "top plate was reinforced by the addition of 4 in. x 6 in. girders, supported by 4 in. x 6 in. posts spaced 8 feet on centers." The roof was "gabled the same as the old section with one end of the rafters resting on the center girder." This "formed a gutter through the center of the building which was raised in the center in order to drain the water in the rear and front."

The north end, or kitchen section, was "re-arranged for the convenience of the cooks and kitchen help." A storage room, office, scullery, and utility room and bath were added. Additional hot water facilities were provided by construction "of a 9 ft. x 22 ft. room with a concrete floor, where a Hanson boiler that was not being used in one of the blocks was moved in and connected to the existing piping," thus assuring "an adequate supply of hot water for cooking, dish washing, and cleaning." [60]

Rock Sentry Houses and Police Posts. Three rock sentry buildings, having a combined floor area of 284 square feet, were designed and constructed by Ryozo F. Kado, an evacuee stonemason, during a several month period probably beginning in late August 1942, although the Final Report, Manzanar states that they were constructed between October 1,1943, and May 10, 1944, at a cost of $700. Two of the structures (both of which are extant) were located in the center and one was built at the entrance of the military police post south of the center. The larger of the two stone structures in the center, generally referred to as the rock sentry house, was located at the two-way entrance to Manzanar just of U.S. 395 and was used by the military police to control access to and from the camp. The smaller of the two structures, generally referred to as the rock house, was located west of the rock sentry house in the center of the two-way entrance road to the camp opposite the police station and was used by the center's internal police force.

The stone structures in the center were located at an extension of 1st Street, which ran east-west inside the camp past the "administrative group" of buildings. This street extended outside the camp to U.S. 395 to serve as the main entrance to the facility. An earlier entrance to the camp was located 650 feet north of 1st Street in the vicinity of Block 7. Manzanar Director Nash wrote to the District Engineer of the California Division of Highways on August 14, 1942, requesting permission to move the entrance, and construction probably began the following month. [61]

Stone for these structures, as well as other landscaping projects at Manzanar, was obtained by Japanese crews who were permitted to leave the center with white escort and travel the area within five or six miles of the center to collect rock. [62] The three structures were "all constructed of native stone, hand cut, and set in cement mortar." The first of the three structures to be built was the military police sentry house "at the main gate of the Center." The structure was "13 ft. x 13 ft. x 9 ft. on the outside," while the "inside measured 11 ft. x 11 ft. x 8 ft." The internal police "post in the Center" measured "8 ft. x 10 ft. x 8 ft.," and the sentry house at the military police camp measured "5 ft. x 7 ft. x 7 ft." [63]

The outside walls of the three rock structures were built "on a batter of approximately I 1/2 inch per foot of rise," but the inside walls were built "plumb." In three walls windows were installed and a "glass-paneled door [was placed] in the fourth." Floors and floor joists were "of wood." The roofs were "of hip type with 2 in. x 4 in. rafters and 1 in. x 6 in. sheathing covered with cedar shingles."

Each building was equipped with inside electric lights and "canopied exterior lights." The exterior lights were necessary for "the identification of persons entering or leaving the Center or Military Post at night." [64]

Children's Village Heater Room. A "H.C. Little automatic oil-burning hot-water heater" had been installed originally in a room adjacent to the living and sleeping quarters in the Children's Village. As a safety measure, the heater was moved to "a 6 ft. x 6 ft. outside room adjacent to the main building." This new room was constructed "with a cement floor, with 2 in. x 4 in. studding spaced 2 feet on centers covered with 3-inch sheathing and 15-lb. building paper." The roof was "shed type with 2 in. x 4 in. rafters and 1-inch sheathing covered with roll roofing." [65]

Boiler Room at Military Post. To provide an adequate supply of hot water for the kitchen and mess hall at the military post, a "shed-type room, 7 ft. x 10 ft.," was constructed on the east side of the kitchen between June 1 and July 5, 1944, for $100. The Army supplied a boiler (Pan American type 40B, size 185) that was installed by the WRA.

The small boiler room had a concrete floor. The studdings were "of 2 in. x 4 in. material spaced 2 feet on centers and sheathed with 1 in. x 6 in. V shiplap." The roof was "of 2 in. x 4 in. rafters and 1 in. x 6 in. sheathing covered with 90-lb. mineral-surfaced roofing." [66]

Gas Service Station. A small gas service station was constructed at Manzanar between November 1 and December 6, 1942 for $125. The station was necessary to "expedite the servicing of the automotive equipment" and to provide "storage for the oil and grease." The one-room building was constructed approximately 50 feet west of the motor pool office.

The 10-foot x 16-foot structure was built with "a concrete floor projecting 4 feet beyond the front side of the building." It had "2 in. x 4 in. rafters spaced 2 feet on centers with 1-inch sheathing covered with building paper." The roof was "shed type with 2 in. x 6 in. rafters spaced 4 feet on centers extending 4 feet beyond the front wall forming a canopy or shade for changing tires."

The walls were "7 feet in the on the low side and 8 feet on the high side or front." "Casement type sash windows" were installed "in the back wall and a sash of the same type was used on each side of the door," which was placed in the center of the front wall. The station featured a work bench, oil-drum-rack, and tire racks. Electric lines were extended from the motor pool office to provide light for servicing automobiles after dark or for emergency calls during the night. [67]

Oil Distribution Sheds. Thirty-six oil distribution sheds were constructed between April 8 and December 1, 1943, at a cost of $1,014. The sheds were constructed in each block on the south side of the oil distribution tanks, "to house the oil containers and distributing cans," "protect them from dust, dirt, and inclement weather," and "provide a regular storage place as protection against fire." The sheds were "4 ft. x 6 ft. x 5 ft. enclosed on two sides and one end, with a door on the other end."

The sheds were framed with "2 in. x 3 in. studding in the corners and 2 in. x 2 in. plates, top and bottom." The siding and roof were "of 1 in. x 4 in. tongue-and-groove flooring, applied vertically to the wall." The roof was sloped "6 inches for drainage, then covered with 90-lb. roll roofing." The exteriors were painted as a protection against the weather. [68]

Dehydration Plant. A 233-square-foot dehydration plant was constructed between July 29 and September 30, 1943, at a cost of $428. The plant, located in the area west of the former camouflage factory buildings and near the aforementioned root cellar, provided facilities for processing surplus vegetables raised on the Manzanar farm. The structure consisted of a drying room built "with 2 in. x 4 in. material for framing and covered with 1 in. x 4 in. tongue-and-groove flooring." The room was "fitted with racks for holding the ventilated trays." The equipment for drying or dehydrating consisted of "an oil-fired furnace or blower that forced the hot air into the room through ducts." [69]

Rice Malt Room. A rice malt room was constructed between October 16 and December 17, 1943, at a cost of $233. The room was used for preparation of rice malt used in making "miso, a Japanese food, to supplement the mess hall diet." This room was built in the north end of "camouflage building 4" and was "12 feet square with 7-foot ceilings." It was framed with "2 in. x 4 in. material and ceiled inside and out with 1 in. x 4 in. tongue-and-groove flooring." Hot-air ducts and electric lights were installed. Electric power was connected from a line in the former camouflage building, while the hot-air ducts were connected to a heater and blower used in the camouflage building for vegetable dehydration. [70]

Men's Latrine in Block 15. The original men's latrine in Block 15 was severely damaged during a wind storm, requiring reconstruction during June 14-26, 1943, at a cost of $121. Small portions of the west and south walls were left standing and "had to be replumbed and braced." The "wrecked section was torn apart and cleaned of nails that were re-used in the reconstruction." Little new material was necessary "since the plumbing to the boiler installations was not damaged." [71]

Duck Boards for Food Warehouses. To comply with WRA regulations governing food storage, duck board were constructed in the food warehouses between August 1 and October 6, 1944 at a cost of $236. The boards were constructed "with three 2 in. x 6 in. stringers, 8 feet long and spaced one inch apart to allow for ventilation." By placing the panels (each eight feet long and four feet wide) side by side "various sized platforms could be arranged to suit the requirements of the crated or sacked foods that were placed upon them." [72]

Garbage Can Wash Rack. A garbage can wash rack was constructed adjacent to the hospital boiler house, providing steam daily cleaning and sterilizing "250 garbage cans" on a daily basis. A concrete platform, "18 ft. x 35 ft.," was built, and two steam and hot-water cleaners were installed. The cleaners consisted of "a circular steel pipe perforated to allow for the flow of steam and hot water." The cans were placed, "with the bottom side up, over these rings and a flow of hot water and steam was applied, cleaning and sterilizing the can in one operation." Grease and garbage removed was washed "into a grease trap and sump that was connected to the main sewer line." [73]

Hospital Incinerator. A hospital incinerator was constructed to provide a sanitary method for disposal of contaminated refuse from the hospital, morgue, and operating room. This structure was constructed with "native stone with outside dimensions of 8 ft. x 8 ft. x 6 ft. and a stack 12 feet high of the same material." The incinerator contained a "fire box, 4 feet in width and 5 feet in depth, with an overall height of 3 ft. 6 in." A grate "of 1 1/2-inch pipe raised 16 inches from the bottom" was installed. The space beneath the grate acted as an ash depository and regulated the draft through two sheet-metal doors that were installed on the ash depository. Two similar doors were placed on the fire box. As a safety measure to prevent the spread of fire, a cement slab was laid "extending 4 feet on each side of the incinerator and 10 feet out in front." [74]

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Last Updated: 01-Jan-2002