Historic Resource Study/Special History Study
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Utility Extension Construction

In addition to the new construction projects, the WRA expanded the existing utility systems at Manzanar to accommodate the needs of the relocation center during 1942-45.

Staff Housing. The new staff housing constructed by the WRA was built in an area removed from existing power lines and utilities. Thus, it was necessary to "install five new poles complete with cross arms, insulators, brackets, and guy wires." The installation included "920 lineal feet of primary wiring, 2,850 lineal feet of secondary wiring, six 50-K.V.A., two 15-K.V.A., one 37 1/2-K.V.A., and one 7 1/2-K.V.A. transformers."

To provide water and fire protection for the staff housing area it was necessary to install "1,323 feet of 3-inch and 270 feet of 2-inch black iron pipe, and 830 feet of 1 1/4-inch galvanized iron pipe, including bibbs and gate valves." Three "3-inch" and two "6-inch" fire hydrants were installed.

The new sewer lines consisted of "1,025 feet of 8-inch, 510 feet of 6-inch, and 1,294 feet of 4-inch vitrified clay pipe, as well as six brick-lined manholes complete with cast-iron rings and covers." [75]

Poultry and Hog Farms. Five poles and 1,924 lineal feet of electric wire were installed to provide light for the poultry farm. Eight poles and 5,200 lineal feet of wiring were used to light the hog farm.

To supply water and fire protection to the poultry farm, "1,777 feet of 4-inch and 65 feet of 2-inch black iron pipe, 95 feet of 1-inch galvanized iron pipe, and four 3-inch fire hydrants" were installed.

Water for the hog farm was supplied from George Creek through "800 feet of 8-inch concrete irrigation pipe into a concrete box or tank 10 feet square and 6 feet deep." The water was carried from the tank to the feeding pens "through 250 feet of iron pipe." From the feeding pens the water was distributed through "415 feet of 1-inch pipe and 195 feet of 1/2-inch pipe." [76]

Garage. Electric lighting and power for the new garage was provided by extension of "approximately 750 feet of wire from a "15-K.V.A. transformer located on a pole at the south end of the reefer house." A "1-inch water line of 100 lineal feet" was extended from the original garage and connected with water piping installed in the new structure. Disposal of sewage was provided by installation of "400 lineal feet of 4-inch vitrified clay sewer pipe and one brick-lined manhole." [77]

Well 169. Well 169 was dug to provide "a stand-by source for domestic water supply in the event that Shepherd Creek should freeze over during the winter months, and to increase pressure in the mains in case of fire." A "9 ft. x 9 ft. frame building with concrete floor and base" housed a "20-H.P. Pomona pump and motor, complete with 6-inch suction pipe and one 20-H.P. 220-volt I.C. switch and one 20-H.P. 220-volt magnetic starter."

To connect the well with the mains, "400 lineal feet of 6-inch steel pipe, complete with fittings," was laid. For electrical connections to this pump, "3,200 lineal feet of overhead wire and one 15-K.V.A. transformer" were installed. [78]

Reservoir Enlargement. The "storm reservoir" on Shepherd Creek was enlarged from 540,000 gallons to approximately 900/000 gallons (several maps indicate 800,000) to provide an adequate supply of domestic water for Manzanar. The reservoir enlargement was accomplished by raising the concrete-lined embankments "to a sufficient height." [79]

Recreational Facility Construction

Provision for recreational facilities at Manzanar under WRA administration was the responsibility of the Community Development Committee, composed of appointed staff and evacuees and charged with the "overall planning of the physical facilities of the camp." The Community Services Section, also composed of staff and evacuees, organized recreation programs and events which took place at these facilities. [80]

Although the Community Development Committee did not exist before the WRA took over the camp, some minimal recreational facilities had been provided by the WCCA prior to June 1, 1942. For instance, the WCCA designated Building 15 in each block for recreation. On June 13, 1942, the WRA reported that every four blocks were grouped together in a zone in which each Building 15 served a particular recreational purpose. One building served as an adult activity center, a second as a children's center, a third for arts and crafts, and a fourth as a library. The exceptions were Block 1, where Building 15 was used by the Boy Scouts, and Block 2, where Building 2 served ay a men's sports center since the entire block was occupied by men. [81]

Soon after assuming administration of Manzanar on June 1, 1942, the WRA began construction of recreational facilities in an effort to make the camp more hospitable for the evacuees. Using evacuee labor, a stage was constructed adjacent to Mess Hall 8 in June 1942. The following month an elevated sand-filled wrestling arena was built west of Block 10, and the foundation for a judo arena in the firebreak between Blocks 10 and 16 was laid. The completed judo arena included a wood floor covered with sawdust that had a canvas stretched over it to hold the sawdust in place. In July 1942 an area southwest of Block 12 was graded for an outdoor theater. Improvised facilities built informally in July by evacuee volunteers included a basketball court in which baskets were nailed to trees in the firebreak between Blocks 10 and 11 and a dancing area in Block 23 created by stringing up lights. Six basketball courts were built that month, but it is not known if these were improvised courts or more substantial courts built by WRA work crews. [82]

Other athletic facilities, for which construction dates are not available, were built in a sports field in the firebreak between Blocks 8 and 14. These facilities included formal basketball, volleyball, and tennis courts. Clay-like soil was trucked into the camp from the Owens River for use on the surface of the basketball and tennis courts. Other firebreaks were utilized for numerous baseball diamonds and two football fields, complete with goal posts. [83]

Construction of recreation facilities continued in August 1942 when a 40-foot x 60-foot concrete stage and benches for 2,000 people were built for an outdoor theater, and a 100-yard-wide area on the southwest side of the camp was cleared for a 9-hole golf course. In addition, evacuees built a "furo," or Japanese-style bath, in the men's shower room in Block 6. Constructed with cement rather than traditional wood, the "furo" could fit eight people in its 105-degree water. The following month, "furos" were built in Blocks 10, 12, 17, 22, 23, and 29, By October 30 half of the blocks in the center had baths. Evacuees also built a sand box for children in Block 17. [84]

The completed outdoor theater was used twice, once in the fall of 1942 when Dillon S. Myer, Director of the War Relocation Authority, addressed the high school assembly on the opening of the school, and a week later for dedication ceremonies for the theater. After these two events, the theater was deemed too far from the center of the camp. Thus, a 20-foot x 30-foot stage, for which construction dates are not available, was built against the recreation building in Block 16. [85]

By 1943 Manzanar was experiencing a shortage of building space for recreational activities because of the need to remodel so many structures for school classroom space. As a result, Blocks 3, 4, 9, and 10 had no recreation halls, and it became necessary to have the recreation halls in Blocks 6, 14, 18, 27, 29, and 35 serve four blocks each. In addition, temporary recreation halls were established in the ironing rooms in Blocks 9 and 22 to serve four blocks each as well. [86]

A kendo arena (35 feet x 60 feet), complete with a small dressing room, was constructed in the spring of 1943. However, interest in this traditional Japanese sport waned after many evacuees born in Japan were sent to the Tule Lake Relocation Center in 1943-44. In April plans were developed to build a baseball diamond in the firebreak between Blocks 19 and 25, and a quarter-mile track west of Block 36. By the spring of 1943 the Community Activities Section had organized an extensive recreation program, including; (1) a woodcraft shop in Block 4, Building 15; (2) an art center in Block 12, Building 15; (3) a flower making class in Block 26, Building 15; (4) three sewing classes in Blocks 16, 26, and 28, Buildings 15; (5) a music hall in Block 24, Building l5; and (6) a library in Block 22, Building 15. [87]

The aforementioned "Appraisal Report," prepared in April 1946 listed a variety of recreational facilities at Manzanar. Among those described were 27 basketball courts, 2 double tennis courts, 2 wood slides, 5 wood swing set units, and 6 softball fields, each with a wood backstop behind home plate. Evidently four other baseball or softball fields had backstops constructed of rough poles and scrub lumber. A wooden observation tower (8 feet x 12 feet and 12 feet in height) was constructed between Blocks 19 and 25 to provide space for scorekeepers and guards on duty at the ball games. [88]

Remodeling Construction

Warehouse Reflooring. The original flooring installed in the 40 warehouses at Manzanar was "of single thickness, 1 in. x 6 in. shiplap." Because of the "constant wear and tear," it was necessary for the WRA to refloor 30 of these buildings, each having an area of "1,881 square feet." Reflooring required "approximately 2,351 square feet of 1 in. x 4 in. Douglas fir flooring per building." Material for the new flooring was supplied by the Corps of Engineers. [89]

Interior Lining of Partitions in Evacuee Buildings. The evacuee barracks were originally constructed with three cross partitions of plywood running from the ceiling to the ridge, supported by 2 inch x 4 inch studding plates and cross ties. No interior linings or ceilings were provided for the walls, floors, or ceilings. After inspecting the barracks the WRA determined that "four apartments to a building were insufficient in number to accommodate the family groups included in a population of 10,000 persons." In addition, it was found that "the walls, flooring, and ceilings afforded too little protection against the cold winds and dust prevalent during the winter months and early spring."

To provide more hospitable living quarters for the evacuees, the Corps of Engineers supplied building materials to the WRA, with the exception of plasterboard, for partitions and floor covering. Beginning in June 1942, the walls and ceilings in 460 barracks buildings were lined with celotex plasterboard, and an "average of two partitions per building" were added to make additional apartments. The floors in all apartments were covered with "Mastipave floor covering." Mastipave, a substitute for linoleum (sometimes referred to as Pabco), was installed in black, but occasionally in red, on barracks floors. Thirty-six mess halls were "ceiled with plaster board," and twenty mess halls had their floors covered with Mastipave. Approximately "3,780 square feet of plaster board and 222 square yards of Mastipave floor covering" was used in each of the 460 barrack buildings. The 36 mess halls required "5,564 square feet of plaster board and 445 square yards of Mastipave floor covering per building."

Each of the 30 recreation halls required "3,564 square feet of plaster board." In 20 of the halls 222 square yards of Mastipave was used to cover the floors. [90]

The new partitions in the barracks were not completed until July 1942, but by using evacuee labor, all 36 blocks were far enough along to be occupied by June 30, 1942. After the partitions were completed, it was reported that Manzanar had a total of 2,250 "apartments" for 10,500 evacuees — 1,100 for three to five people, 870 for five to six people, and 280 for seven people. All floors in the barracks were covered with linoleum by October 30,1942, and the walls and ceilings were lined with plasterboard by November 1942. Remodeling work in the mess halls advanced incrementally, with 31 in operation by July 1942, 32 in August, 35 in September, and 36 in October." [91]

Relocation and Records Offices. Because the Relocation and Records offices in Block I, Buildings 4 and 5, respectively, "depended on each other for data concerning evacuee records," more space and safer storage were needed. As a result, an addition or annex, "20 ft. x 40 ft., typical T.O.-type construction," was built connecting the two buildings. The annex was partitioned into three rooms for use of the Relocation Officer and his assistant. Partitions in the two buildings were rearranged to provide more convenient work space for both the Relocation and Records offices.

Eventually all of the barracks buildings in Block 1 were converted into administrative office space. [92]

Electrical and Plumbing Use of Warehouse 5. Warehouse 5 was remodeled to "handle the maintenance program more efficiently and release space for other use." A board partition was constructed dividing the electrical and plumbing warehouse into two sections. The north section of the building was used by the electrical unit and for storage of plumbing supplies. One corner, "12 ft. x 16 ft., was partitioned off for an office." The remainder of the space was utilized for storage of electrical and plumbing supplies on wood shelves. The south section of the building was left vacant. [93]

Hospital. The original hospital ward floors and most of the enclosed walks were constructed without floor covering. Because of "excessive mopping and cleaning," the floors "soon became badly worn and in need of either replacing or extensive repairing." Thus, "Mastipave floor covering was laid in seven wards, each having a floor space of 25 ft x 150 ft., and in 500 lineal feet of enclosed walks." The work required "3,100 square yards of Mastipave and 200 gallons of linoleum paste."

The original hospital interior walls and ceilings had no "covering." To keep the building clean, it was found necessary to cover the walls and ceilings with plasterboard. This job was difficult, because the overhead sprinkler system and other overhead piping necessitated use of additional furring and blocking to leave the sprinkler system exposed below the ceiling line. Approximately "3,500 square feet of plaster board and 2 in. x 3 in. material for furring and backing" was used.

As Caucasian doctors replaced evacuee doctors who relocated, it became necessary to remodel the doctors' quarters. The Caucasian doctors requested housekeeping facilities which had not been supplied to the evacuee doctors occupying the building. The remodeling work, which took place during the summer of 1942, included conversion of the building into four apartments and the installation of sinks, kitchen cabinets, and storage closets. [94]

Schools. Under the terms of the aforementioned construction standards for relocation centers agreed upon by the Corps of Engineers and the War Relocation Authority, the Corps was not responsible for the construction of schools. To carry out its responsibility for the construction of schools, the WRA turned to the Farm Security Administration for assistance. The FSA had constructed housing and community facilities for poor rural communities and migrant workers since its establishment during the Depression and housing for defense plants and military training centers since the military buildup for World War II had begun.

In June 1942 the FSA provided Manzanar with plans for two elementary schools, a junior high school, a senior high school, and a combination gymnasium and auditorium to be used by both the junior and senior high schools. A shortage of contract labor made it necessary for the WRA to plan on using evacuee labor under the supervision of a FSA contract engineer to construct the schools. A site was cleared west of Block 36 in June 1942, and construction was expected to begin in July. Delays in the start of construction resulting from unavailability of materials resulted in postponement of anticipated school construction until 1943. In the meantime, temporary school facilities were established in vacated barracks in Blocks 1 and 7. [95]

Plans for the schools at Manzanar included ten classroom buildings, one gymnasium, one shop building, one library for the junior and senior high schools, and nine classroom buildings and one assembly building for the two elementary schools. However, as it appeared that building materials for the schools might not become available in 1943, the Manzanar administrators made a special request to WRA director Dillon Myer for permission to "go ahead" with construction of certain school facilities which were necessary to meet California standards for accreditation. Among these were a high school auditorium, as well as shop and science facilities. Myer approved construction of the needed facilities, and the Manzanar administration made plans for the construction of the new buildings as well as the remodeling of existing facilities. [96]

After the War Production Board revoked authorization for construction of new buildings for schools in the relocation centers, the Manzanar camp administrators determined to convert existing temporary barracks into school rooms. To meet "minimum standards with regard to space requirements, lighting, heating, and sanitation" for the fall semester of 1942, Block 7 was remodeled for the high school and Block 16 was remodeled for the elementary school. In these buildings "54 partitions, 20 ft. x 8 ft.," were removed and "41 new partitions [were] constructed." To provide sufficient lighting, 312 additional windows were installed. To provide separate entrances to the individual classrooms and to comply with fire regulations, "155 new doors" were installed. Approximately "90 additional lighting fixtures" were added to provide adequate light for night classes. Mastipave floor covering was laid in five buildings. The woodwork in all classrooms was painted, and the walls and ceilings were kalsomined. Shelving was installed in the supply rooms, and 30 drinking fountains were installed. Oil-fired space heaters, connected to outside oil supply tanks, were installed in 42 classrooms in the converted school buildings.

A 4-burner electric range, refrigerator, and sink were installed in the south half of Block 16, Building 8 for the use of adult English classes. These "installations were considered necessary by the Education Section to augment and develop an adult English program where English was taught functionally to Issei men and women through classes in family cooking, food, nutritive values, and child development, as stipulated by the WRA Washington Office."

A high school homemaking program was developed in Block 7, Building 10. This building was converted "into a model 2-room apartment," including a "4-burner electric range and a refrigerator." The ironing rooms in Blocks 2 and 7 were remodeled for use as clothing rooms for high school students. Chemistry and physics classes were conducted in the remodeled laundry room in Block 7.

In addition to the remodeling efforts for the elementary and high schools, facilities were provided for preschool classes in several locations at Manzanar. These included: Block I, Building 14; half of Building 15 in Blocks 9, 20, 23, and 32; one-third of Building 15 in Blocks 17, 30, and 31; and Block II, Building 15. [97]

Mattress Factory in Warehouse 25. To facilitate evacuee relocation a cotton mattress factory was developed in Warehouse 25 as an occupational training program for Manzanar residents who had no trade. In addition to the occupational training provided, the manufacture of cotton mattresses made it possible "to replace the old straw ticks and thus eliminate a fire hazard."

Warehouse 25 was remodeled to accommodate the cotton mattress factory. Remodeling of the warehouse consisted of "reinforcing the underpinning and girders and laying a 1 in. x 4 in. floor over the original flooring." Work benches were constructed, and a motor-driven blower and shredding machine were installed. To operate the electrical equipment, an additional 25-K.V.A. transformer was installed. [98]

Community Hostel. In November 1942 construction of a community hostel was commenced in Block 34, Building 15 to provide treatment and care for patients whose illnesses, including mental impairment and physical disabilities, did not require hospitalization, thus relieving the crowded conditions at the hospital. The building that was remodeled for the hostel was located east of the hospital and sufficiently close for the convenience of the hospital staff. The remodeling work was completed on March 11, 1944. "A barrack-type building, 20 ft. x 100 ft.," the hostel was partitioned into three sections. One section was for men, one for women, and one in between housed baths, toilets, and a diet kitchen. A "H.C. Little hot-water heater" was installed to provide hot water for the bathrooms and kitchen, and wooden ramps with hand rails were installed at all doors."

Warehouse 36. After a fire destroyed the maintenance office and store room on July 28, 1944, the north half of Warehouse 36 was remodeled for use as a maintenance office. Plaster board was installed on its ceiling and walls, and additional windows were added. Mastipave floor covering was laid on the floor, and the ceiling and walls were kalsomined. The south half of the building was fitted with shelving and bins for storage of equipment supplies, and materials. [100]

Appointed Personnel Recreation Building. Because many of the WRA appointed personnel at Manzanar did not have automobiles or other means of transportation to nearby towns, an "existing barrack-type building [in Block 1] was remodeled" to provide recreational facilities for these people. Partitions were relocated, and the building was divided into three rooms. The south room was used for floor games and other activities, the center room for light refreshments, and the north room for cards, reading, and table games. In the refreshment room a serving counter, sink, and four booths with tables and benches were installed. A butane hot water heater was installed to supply hot water for dishwashing and the wash rooms. The floors were covered with Mastipave, and the walls and ceiling were kalsomined. [101]

Canteen and General Store. While Manzanar was under the administration of the WCCA, a canteen and general store was established in Block 8, Building 14. The WRA obtained plans for additional stores for Manzanar from the FSA in 1942, but the new buildings were later considered unnecessary and their construction was canceled. After the WRA took over administration of the camp, several new services, such as shoe repair, barber, and beauty shops, which had been temporarily housed in a warehouse, were moved into Block 27, Building 14 in July 1942. [102]

Under the WRA, the consumer needs of the evacuees were served by Manzanar Cooperative Enterprises, Inc., established on September 2, 1942. This organization was operated by evacuees in space rented from the WRA.

Block 8, Building 14 continued in use as a canteen and general store by Manzanar Cooperative Enterprises under the Business Enterprises Section. The badly worn floor was replaced by a new one. The walls and ceiling were "covered with plaster board so as to make the building more easily heated, to keep perishables from freezing in winter, and to eliminate dust that sifted in through cracks and around windows of unlined walls." [103]

By August 1944 Manzanar Cooperative Enterprises, in addition to operating the canteen and general store, supervised a variety of shops that it had established throughout the camp. These shops included: a shoe repair shop in the Block 3 ironing room; a watch repair shop in the Block 10 ironing room; a laundry and dry cleaning shop in the Block 10 ironing room; a dry goods store in Block 21, Building 14; a beauty shop in the Block 15 ironing room; a barber shop in the Block 21 ironing room; a sporting goods store and flower shop in Block 16, Building 1; a photo studio in the Block 30 ironing room; a fish store in the Block 18 ironing room; a dress shop in the Block 32 ironing room; an American Express office in Block I, Building 6; a gift shop in Block 16, Building 15; and an outdoor movie theater in the firebreak between Blocks 20 and 21. [104]

Motor Pool Office. The original motor pool office built under the supervision of the Corps of Engineers was located in a portion "of a barrack-type building in block 2 which was not conveniently located to the garage and storage lot." To provide adequate space for this office a building used by the Corps of Engineers was moved adjacent "to both the fenced parking lot and the garage." Two existing partitions in the building were rearranged, and one partition was added. Floors were patched and the walls and ceilings were kalsomined. A counter was built in the dispatcher's office and electric wiring extended from the power line adjacent to the building. [105]

Administration Building. The administration building was originally constructed without any wall or floor covering and was divided into four large offices. To eliminate dust and dirt and to make the building more easily heated, the interior walls were lined with plasterboard and the floors were covered with Mastipave. Because of the increasing number of appointed personnel and the continual addition of administrative duties at Manzanar, it became necessary to divide the interior of the administrative building into smaller offices using plasterboard partitions, thus affording more privacy. [106]

Butcher Shop. The "reefer house" between the two refrigerator structures was remodeled during the summer of 1942 to provide more storage space and facilitate the handling of meat storage. The original meat-hanging racks were removed and replaced with racks of heavier material, thus doubling the capacity of the original installation.

During the summer, the temperature in the room housing the refrigeration machinery for meat and vegetable storage often rose to a point where it interfered with normal operation of the equipment. Accordingly, the interior of the room housing the refrigeration machinery was "lined with plaster board and a 16-inch suction fan was installed in each room to draw in outside air." [107]

Shoyu Factory. A "shoyu factory" was established in the ironing room and laundry building in Block 1 to make shoyu, "a Japanese food manufactured from soybeans and used in the mess halls to supplement the regular food." To provide sufficient space for the factory, an addition was constructed connecting the two buildings.

The addition was "of regular army T.O.-type construction with 2 in. x 4 in. rafters spaced 4 feet on centers." The roof and walls were sheathed "with 1-inch material." The roof was covered with "15-pound building paper." A cement floor was laid and a floor drain was installed that connected with the sewer line. [108]

Equipment Shed 4. Equipment Shed 4 was used by the Agriculture Section at Manzanar for storage of seed and fertilizer. It was originally built with the front side open to store farm equipment. However, for the storage of seed and fertilizer, the front side was closed in to keep out rain, snow, and dust.

Studding of "2 in. x 6 in. material was placed 4 feet on centers with horizontal cross ties also spaced 4 feet on centers." Sheathing "of 1 in. x 12 in. was used, the whole exterior was recovered with 15-lb. building paper, and a new roof of 90-lb. felt was applied." Large louvers were installed in each end of the building to provide ventilation. [109]

Evacuee Post Office. A plasterboard partition was changed in the evacuee post office to provide more work and storage space. During the remodeling work, approximately 200 square feet of additional shelving was installed. [110]

Engineering Office. Additional office space was needed in the Engineering Office for drafting and relief of overcrowded conditions. Partitions were changed to make use of an additional 16 feet of the building for a drafting room. The room was equipped with files for plans and maps, and new equipment, such as drafting tables, a blueprinting machine, and a washing tray, were added. A new door opening was made, connecting the main office with the drafting room. A partition was moved to provide more space in the Senior Engineer's office, and the lighting fixtures were rearranged to provide better lighting. [111]

Police Station. The original reception building in the Administrative Group was remodeled by the WRA for use as a police station. As part of the remodeling effort, a concrete floor was constructed, and a jail cell and three partitions was installed. The new station was occupied by the Manzanar internal police department during late July 1942. [112]

Conversion of Camouflage Factory Buildings. After the Army terminated the camouflage net project in December 1942, the buildings that had been used for the factory were turned over to the WRA and adapted for various uses. One of the buildings, an open-sided wood-floored shed that was 24 feet x 150 feet with 8-foot high walls, was converted into a warehouse. Another building, a concrete floored shed 24 feet x 100 feet with 18-foot high walls, was converted to a garage for automotive and heavy equipment. Three partially open concrete floored sheds, each 24 feet x 300 feet, were converted into carpenter, plumbing, and electrical shops. [113]

Warehouse 31. In August 1942 the WRA began construction of a 300-foot x 50-foot building adjoining the camouflage net factory to serve as a garment factory for the manufacture of work clothes in the camp and for sale outside of Manzanar. At the same time cement floors were poured in Warehouse 31 for additional factory space, and power sewing machines were installed in the warehouse. Construction of the new building adjacent to the camouflage factory never progressed beyond the foundation because of a shortage of materials, and in March 1943 the WRA determined that the garment factory facilities in Warehouse 31 were sufficient. [114]

Guayule Lath House. A "guayule nursery experiment" was commenced at Manzanar during the spring of 1942, under the direction of the California Institute of Technology. The project, which was taken over by the U.S. Forest Service on June 1, was designed to "find a suitable method to produce rubber in the shortest possible period." The work was carried out in the guayule lath house constructed south of Block 6 during July 1942. As the project progressed, the building was expanded to twice its size later that month, finally measuring 104 feet x 136 feet. [115]


According to the Final Report, Manzanar, refrigeration for the Manzanar relocation center under the WRA was supplied "by electrically operated equipment of different sizes and types for storage buildings, mess halls, and appointed personnel quarters."

Vegetable and meat storage was provided in two refrigerated warehouses "with a storage capacity of approximately 11,000 cubic feet." Each warehouse was equipped with "four evaporator condensers of humid-air type." The compressors were "Brunner, model E, type E.C., driven by 7 1/2-H.P., 220-volt, 3-phase Fairbanks Morse electric motors." Drayer Hanson condensing units were used, equipped with "1/4-H.P Pacific Pumping Co., 1 1/4-inch water pump." Mess halls within the center and at the military post were equipped with 35 20-cubic-foot refrigerators: 32 Supercold, 2 Viering, and 1 Catalina.

The 40-cubic-foot refrigerators in the mess halls, at the hospital, and at other locations. These refrigerators included: 37 Ward, 1 Supercold, and 1 Barker Bros. In addition, there were three 50-cubic-foot Hussman-Ligionier boxes for replacements, and a 4-body Market Forge, model 5MA, forced-air type unit, with York compressor was installed at the hospital morgue.

Exclusive of the morgue unit and the refrigerated warehouse, there were 77 commercial refrigerators in the center. Domestic or household installations comprised 90 units:


13General Electric [116]

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Last Updated: 01-Jan-2002