Chapter 1


--Before NPS

--The Park Service Assumes Responsibility

--Interpretation Institutionalized

Chapter 2

--Branching Into History

--The Importance of Historical Interpretation

--Inagurating the Program

--Historical Challenges

Chapter 3

--New Directions

--Audiovisual Innovations

--Museums, Visitor Centers, and the New Look

--Living History

--Environmental Interpretation

--Women in Interpretation

--Other Agendas

Chapter 4

--Interpreting Interpretation

Chapter 5

--Interpretation In Crisis






--Branching Into History

--New Directions

--Interpreting Interpretation

--Interpretation in Crisis



by Barry Mackintosh


1. Paper before American Planning and Civic Association, January 1936, quoted in Harlan D. Unrau and C. Frank Williss Administrative History: Expansion of the National Park Service in the 1930s (Washington: National Park Service, 1983), p. 168.

2. Memorandum to Director, Dec. 6, 1941, History Division, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

3. "Scope and function of the interpretative program of the Southwestern National Monuments," in Report of Meeting of Custodians, Southwestern National Monuments, Feb. 14-16, 1940, History Division.

4. Reports with Recommendations from the Committee on Study of Educational Problems in the National Parks, January 9, 1929, and November 27, 1929 (n.p., n.d.), p. 24.

5. Historical conference record, Nov. 27, 1931, History Division.

6. Letter, Chatelain to Demaray, Apr. 21, 1933, cited in Unrau and Willis, Expansion of the National Park Service, p. 166; John D. McDermott, "Breath of life: an Outline of the Development of a National Policy for Historic Preservation" (typescript), History Division, 1966, p. 32.

7. American Planning and Civic Association file, History Division.

8. 49 Stat. 666; Roosevelt to Rep. Rene L. DeRouen, 10, 1935, in U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Public Lands, Preservation of Historic American Sites Buildings, Objects, and Antiquities of National Significance, House Report 848, 74th Congress, 1935, p. 2.

9. Memorandum, Historical, NO. 1, "Organization and Functions, Branch of Historic Sites and Buildings," July 30, 1936, cited in Unrau and Williss Expansion of the National Park Service, p. 199.

10. American Planning and Civic Association file.

11. Memorandum to Field Historians and Superintendents of Historical Areas, Nov. 24, 1937, cited in Unrau and Williss, Expansion of the National Park Service, pp. 202-03.

12. Minutes, Historical Technicians Conference, Region One, Apr. 25-27, 1940, History Division.

13. Paul Hudson, George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia (Washington: National Park Service, 1956); p. 21; George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Virginia (NPS brochure, 1975).

14. Gloria Peterson, An Administrative History of Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site (Washington: National Park Service, 1968), p. 98.

15. Charles B. Hosmer, Jr., Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926-1949 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981), pp. 624-25.

16. Ibid.; memorandum, White to Director, Dec. 6, 1941, History Division.

17. Ralph Lewis, "Museum Curatorship in the National Park Service," draft manuscript, 1983, p. 32.

18. William R. Carroll and Merle a. Muhrer, "The Scientific Contributions of George Washington Carver," unpublished report, 1962; memorandum, Regional Director Howard W. Baker to Director, Feb. 21, 1962, History Division.

19. Memorandum of Aug. 27, 1964, Midwest Region file K1815, Washington National Records Center (WNRC), Suitland, Md.

20. Memorandum of Aug. 11, 1953, Gettysburg file K1815, WNRC.]

21. Memorandum, Regional Director Daniel J. Tobin to Director, Jan. 26, 1956, Gettysburg file K1815, WNRC.

22. C. Harrington, "Study of Visitor Needs and Interpretive Service, Fort Sumter National Monument, South Carolina," June 6, 1955, Fort Sumter file K1815, WNRC.

23. America's National Parks and Their Keepers (Washington: Resources For the Future, 1984), p. 274.



Last Modified: July 9, 2000 09:35:00 pm PST

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