Land Reborn:
A History of Administration and Visitor Use in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve
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Cover photo: In July 1996, an NPS employee was photographed with an elderly Hoonah fisherman in front of the recently-opened Glacier Bay Lodge. (Robert Howe Collection, photo GB 263)

List of Maps

List of Tables

List of Photographs


List of Acronyms


PART ONE: Science and Monumentalism, 1879-1938

I Indigenous People

Foundations of a Dialogue
Aboriginal Use and Occupation of Glacier Bay
Acculturation and Subsistence
Native Rights and the Creation of the Monument

II Sightseers and Scientists

John Muir in Glacier Bay
Marketing the Muir Glacier
Beginnings of a Scientific Tradition
Consequences of the Earthquake of 1899
A Second Phase of Scientific Studies

III Preserving a Laboratory and a Landscape

The Campaign for a National Monument
A Refinement of Conservation
PART TWO: Habitat Protection, 1939-1965

IV Alaska Brown Bears and the Extension of the Monument

Public Concern for the Alaska Brown Bear
The Park Service Gets Involved
Tourism, Timber, and Alaska Brown Bears Too

V World War II Developments

Planning and Improvisation in Wartime
A White Elephant in Excursion Inlet
Airfield and Airport

VI Dispossessing the Natives

The Mixed Economy of the Tlingits
Tlingit Possessory Rights
The Ecology of Seal Hunting

VII Private Interests and a Second Boundary Adjustment

Administrative Development
The Gustavus Community
A Boundary Correction in Excursion Inlet
Development of a Physical Plant
PART THREE: Wilderness Preservation, 1966-1992

VIII Founding the Modern Park

A Growing Staff
The Glacier Bay Concession
Proposed Roads to Sandy Cove and Adams Inlet
Visitor Circulation and Interpretation

IX Mining, Wilderness, and National Park Status

A New Phase of Mining
Calls for a Park Bill
The Wilderness Proposal of 1971
The Mining in the Parks Act of 1976

X An End to Native Seal Hunting

Biological and Aesthetic Objections To Seal Hunting
Seal Hunting and Cultural Change
From Aboriginal Rights to Subsistence

XI The Limits of Ecosystem Management

Preservation and Ecological Change
The Alsek and Endicott Additions
Managing Glacier Bay's Marine Ecology

XII Protecting the Humpback Whales

Cruise Ships Reconsidered
A Loss of Credibility
Managing an Endangered Species

XIII Creating A Wilderness Park

Alsek River Float Trips
Backcountry Use and Bear Management
Glacier Bay Science a Century After Muir
Biosphere Reserve
World Heritage Site

XIV Commercial Fishing

Historical Development of the Commercial Fishery
Evolution of an NPS Fisheries Policy
Toward a Prohibition of Commercial Fishing
The Dry Bay Fishery

XV Subsistence Fishing

Subsistence, ANILCA, and Glacier Bay
A Renewed Interest in Glacier Bay

Conclusion: Converging Issues, Diverging Solutions


Appendix A: Legislation
Appendix B: Area Managers
Appendix C: Visitation Statistics
Appendix D: List of Management Plans
Appendix E: 50 Key Research Studies and Policy Decisions



Index (omitted from online edition)

Map 1. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in Regional Perspective
Map 2. Hoonah Territory as shown by Haas and Goldschmidt, 1946
Map 3. National Monument Boundary Changes, 1924-1925
Map 4. National Monument Boundary Changes, 1939-1955
Map 5. Newmont Plan for Mining Development
Map 6. Glacier Bay Boundary Changes, 1977-1980
Map 7. Alsek River and Dry Bay

Table 1. Total Income of Hoonah Tlingits, 1943 and 1945
Table 2. Food Harvested by Hoonah Tlingits, 1943 and 1945
Table 3. Stored Food in Hoonah, 1941
Table 4. Seal Kills and Bounty Payments, 1931-1945


Indigenous Peoples

Photo 1. Hunya [Hoonah] Sealer's Camp, Glacier Bay, 1899.
Photo 2. The Native fishing village of Hoonah as it appeared c. 1898-1907.
Photo 3. Hunya [Hoonah] Seal Hunters, Glacier Bay, 1899.

Sightseers and Scientists

Photo 4. Russell Island (at that time glacier-bound) and the Fairweather Range, drawn by J. A. Fraser in 1879 from a sketch by John Muir.
Photo 5. John Muir's Glacier Bay cabin, 1890, showing Muir and field school from Case School of Applied Sciences in Cleveland.
Photo 6. Steamer Queen at Muir Glacier, c. 1890.
Photo 7. Author Dave Bohn and ecologist William S. Cooper at Glacier Bay, June 1966.
Photo 8. Glaciologist William O. Field, Jr. at Glacier Bay in 1966.

Preserving Glacier Bay

Photo 9. Joe and Muz Ibach in front of their Lemesurier Island cabin, 1954.
Photo 10. The Ibach mining camp on Reid Inlet, 1964.
Photo 11. Abraham L. Parker's shack at the LeRoy Mine, September 1966.
Photo 12. Stanley (Buck) Harbison's homestead cabin, Dundas Bay, July 1967.
Photo 13. The Yakobi at Reid Inlet, 1940.
Photo 14. Kenwood Youmans and Joe Ibach at Ibach's homestead on Lemesurier Island, c. 1956.

Enlargement of the Monument

Photo 15. Carl Swanson's cabin on Strawberry Island, 1965.
Photo 16. Senator Ernest Gruening, Huntington S. Gruening, and W. Howard Johnson (USFS), June 1966.

Early Park Development

Photo 17. The Nunatak as seen from the cabin on the island west of NPS headquarters.
Photo 18. The Nunatak II, shown in Auke Bay (near Juneau), November 1966.
Photo 19. Glacier Bay Superintendent Leone Mitchell (left) and Interior Secretary Stewart Udall, July 1965.
Photo 20. The Nunatak III as seen in March 1974.
Photo 21. Aerial photo of NPS headquarters complex, looking south, during the mid-1970s.
Photo 22. Aerial photo taken over Bartlett Cove, September 1984.

Founding the Modern Park

Photo 23. Glacier Bay Lodge under construction, August 1965.
Photo 24. Glacier Bay Lodge, May 1966, just prior to its opening.
Photo 25. Glacier Bay Lodge and Outer Dock, looking east, June 1971.
Photo 26. Naturalists exiting from the Princess Patricia, June 1971.
Photo 27. An NPS patrol boat is seen alongside the cruise ship Prinsendam, July 1976.
Photo 28. The Seacrest tourboat at Plateau Glacier, Wachusett Inlet, July 1966.
Photo 29. Monument visitors given an orientation at Gustavus Airport, 1976.
Photo 30. NPS naturalist Bruce Paige, shown at an August 1979 public meeting.
Photo 31. NPS Superintendent Robert Howe at Ripple Cove, January 27, 1967.

Mining, Wilderness, and National Park Status

Photo 32. Transfer between NPS boat and amphibious plane, Glacier Bay National Monument, during Advisory Board trip to Alaska, July 31, 1965.
Photo 33. George Hartzog and Melvin Grosvenor at Glacier Bay, 1965.
Photo 34. Drill site on east side of Muir Inlet, August 1966.
Photo 35. NPS planning officials aboard the Nunatak II, August 1967.

Creating a Wilderness Park

Photo 36. Goose Cove Ranger Station, June 1971.
Photo 37. Tatshenshini-Alsek river information sign, 1985.
Photo 38. Superintendent Mike Tollefson, June 1986.
Photo 39. Superintendent Marvin Jensen, September 1994.

Commercial and Subsistence Fishing

Photo 40. An NPS employee speaks with a Hoonah fisherman, Bartlett Cove, July 1966.
Photo 41. A beach-anchored set net at Dry Bay.
Photo 42. Fish processing operation at Dry Bay, July 1979.

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Last Updated: 24-Sep-2000