Changing Tides - More Questions Than Answers

June 08, 2016 Posted by: Kaitlyn Kunce

The abundant coastal and intertidal ecosystems on Katmai’s coast provide a substantial nutritional resource for brown bears. We know bears love to munch on shellfish, but we don’t know how critical these food resources are for them. Are the clams, mussels, and sedges of the spring as beneficial as the salmon they eat in the fall? Does increasing visitation to the coast affect the way bears use these resources? Are bears in trouble if the mussels and clams are damaged by oil spills or ocean acidification? These are just some of the questions that the Changing Tides project is hoping to address. With one year of field work completed in 2015, there are no clear answers yet, but there are some intriguing results.

The Changing Tides Project is a three-year study to investigate the linkages between marine and terrestrial organisms, specifically looking at the connection between intertidal invertebrates (such as clams and mussels), brown bears, and people. This study will help everyone, from visitors to resource managers; minimize their impact to the resources on Katmai’s coast.  

A collored bear walks past onlookers on the beachWill an increase of visitation to the coast affect the bears that live there? A collared bear is photographed in close proximity to visitors. J. Erlenbach photo.

 A sow walks along beach with two cubs followingThe Changing Tides project works to understand how important the intertidal and nearshore region is for bears, like this sow and cubs at Hallo Bay. J. Erlenbach photo.

Last year nine female bears, none with first year cubs, were GPS collared in May, allowing researcher to track them and see which habitats they spend the most time in. Two of the collars were equipped with video cameras, which collected one minute of video every 10 minutes. These cameras help reveal what the bears are doing when they are in particular habitats and can help answer questions like; how much of a clam does a bear eat, which mussels does they prefer, how many bites of sedge do they take in a feeding session? The collars also revealed that these coastal bears seem to occupy relatively small areas, within 3.5 miles of the coast.

A map of the Katmai coast, showing the movement of collared bearsMovement from the nine GPS collars in 2015, each color represents a different bear. The bears traveled between 5-22 miles along the coast.

In order to better understand bear diets, the researchers hoped to capture each bear in the spring, summer and fall to take measurements and samples. Each bear would be weighed, measured, and a blood and hair sample would be taken. These measurements and samples are used to evaluate the changes in body composition throughout the summer season. Comparing the body compositions of the bears for the pre-salmon foraging season (May-July) to the salmon foraging season (July-October) could help shed light on the relative importance of intertidal food resources. Chemical markers in the blood and hair samples can be traced to food sources, and help create a picture of what the bears are eating. Springtime resources available to bears, especially females with young, can shape its development, susceptibility to disease, and their ability to reproduce. 

A sow plays with her cub on a logWhich resources are the most nutritious for a growing bear? A mother bear rests while her cub plays on a log in the sedge meadows of Hallo Bay. J. Erlenbach photo

In July 2015, just six of the bears were recaptured for sampling. Of the three that weren’t recaptured, one collar had dropped, and two bears were in Hallo Bay close to visitors so researchers chose not to disturb the bears or visitors. During this period between late May and early July, the bears gained significant mass, averaging 77 pounds (lbs.) for the season or 1.9 pounds a day. Of course, each bear is different and the range of weight gain was from 11-141 pounds. Bear 095 gained 140 pounds while caring for three yearlings! That is an average of 3.4 pounds a day! From observational data scans we learned that the sedge areas were used by both sexes equally in the pre-salmon season. 

Clams dug up and left on the beachFrom last year’s observational scans, researchers saw that most of the intertidal foraging was for clams during the pre-salmon season. J. Erlenbach Photo.

In October 2015, six bears were again recaptured, but only two were bears that were recaptured in July. This means that for the span of the season, we only have two bears with which we can compare the weight gain, body composition, and chemical markers of the diet. From these two bears we have learned that they gained less mass during the salmon season than during the pre-salmon foraging season, about 1.4 pounds a day. These two bears did, however, gain more body fat from salmon at about 25.5% gain compared to the 5% gain in the pre-salmon season. 

outline of bears labeled 35 and 105

Does this tell us that the intertidal resources are helpful for gaining muscle mass after hibernation? Can we assume that the bears switch from the intertidal to salmon to help increase the fat intake before hibernation? Since we only have two individual bears to compare at this point, it is not safe to create any conclusions yet. However, it does spur the curiosity in us all. Will this year’s findings support our current understanding, or will new findings suggest a different theory? 

We’ll have an update on the first capture of bears for 2016 next week. Be sure to check back!  

Explore some of the data that was collected yourself on our new Changing Tides Story Map!

Bear resting on a logJ. Erlenbach Photo.

Find out more about the Changing Tides Project.

If you have any questions or would like more information on this project, please contact:

Carissa Turner, Coastal BiologistKatmai National Park, King Salmon, AK (907) 246-2104, carissa_n_turner@nps.gov

Kaitlyn Kunce, Science CommunicatorKatmai National Park, King Salmon, AK (907) 246-2129, kaitlyn_kunce@nps.gov

 

 

 

Changing Tides, Brown Bear, science, Katmai National Preserve




22 Comments Comments icon

  1. https://www.jualboiler.com/archives/3501/
    August 22, 2020 at 01:47
     

    Very good post. I just found your weblog and want to say that I really like surfing your blog posts. However I will subscribe to your rss feed and I hope you write one more time soon!

     
  2. Distributor Burner GAS Riello Indonesia
    August 22, 2020 at 01:46
     

    Do you mind if I quote a few of your articles as long as I provide credit and sources back to your weblog? My website is in the exact same niche as yours and my visitors would really benefit from some of the information you provide here. Please let me know if this okay with you. Cheers!

     
  3. online
    May 12, 2020 at 07:49
     

    I beⅼieve what you said made a bunch of sense. However, think oon tһiѕ, what if yⲟu cοmposed a catchier post title? I am not suggestіng уour information is not solid., howeѵer what if you added a title to maybe grab a person's attention? I mean Changing Tides - Moгe Questions Than Answers - Katmaі Νational Park & Preserve (U.S. National Ꮲaгk Service) is a little plаin. You oought tto glance aat Yahoo's home page and wtcһ how they create post headlines to grab people tto click. You might try adding а video oor a piϲture or ttwo to get people excited about everything've ԝrittеn. In my opinion, itt could make your website a little ⅼivelier. https://qwertty.net/

     
  4. February 06, 2020 at 05:35
     

    Does this tell us that the intertidal resources are helpful for gaining muscle mass after hibernation? Can we assume that the bears switch from the intertidal to salmon to help increase the fat intake before hibernation? Since we only have two individual bears to compare at this point, it is not safe to create any conclusions yet. However, it does spur the curiosity in us all. Will this year’s findings support our current understanding, or will new findings suggest a different theory? I really believe this to be true

     
  5. nbcsports com activate
    November 21, 2019 at 03:56
     

    I just got done eating a platter of spaghetti before visiting your site. It sure makes the full feeling all that much better. I hope you all are having a great weekend. I have a new list for you. Read the latest update on how I compiled the list. I'm still surprised by the results. I hope you all are having a great weekend. I added a new list. This one is smaller, but still useful. I think the next one will be bigger. I added a new list. As you'll see it's bigger than most of them. I hope you all have had a great week!

     
  6. Cameron
    November 12, 2019 at 12:11
     

    Alabama football is this a joke

     
  7. November 12, 2019 at 12:09
     

    alabama football is the worst

     
  8. November 12, 2019 at 12:09
     

    alabama football is the worst

     
  9. ocean king number
    September 16, 2019 at 03:01
     

    It is the best time to make some plans for tthe future and iit is time to be happy. I have read this post annd if I could I want to suggest you few interesting things or tips. Matbe you cokuld write next articles referring to this article. I desire to rewd even more things about it! http://taoli99.com/comment/html/?63743.html

     
  10. Shanenen
    September 02, 2019 at 04:50
     

    Good First Message international dating Dating Message examples: 6 numerous Tactics and Tips Totally dug the guide, You apparently cool. Dream3vil certainly makes an impression in his first message, And he even throws in a directive from police officers to make it harder to refuse. You get the same limits on a free account so upgrading to premium is your best option. This syndicate is not suggested because many Phil. On a online dating site, a generic message is the kiss of death. If have not seen it, Spoiler mindful, almost all people dies! The girl actually did respond with her contact number. be grateful for your recomendation! The tone in this relationship is playful, Which is what you would like in those initial messages. How long have you two been assembled? an example 2: involving the profile and your photos, i want to say, you could be the prettiest girl in this part of the internet Or just tell a joke Example 3: How did the hipster burn his language? I merely wanted to thank you one more time for the amazing web site you have produced here. So first perceptions matter, As we've been told. Your first message should be indicative of your personality. Security If you plan to give a dating website credit score card number, Then you should check for signs of overall security and safety. I think this is mostly an area where I excel. 13 Best Asian internet dating sites Apps of 2019 If you are even remotely wondering, can easily send me an email. naturally we have our favorites as well! Multiple messages will overpower the receiver. Best Asian Dating websites FindMate. Jeff and I will have fun making use of your ideas in what we need to do in a few days. If you response rate is the wrong size, Then try changing your profile photo first. most of the time you can melt the hearts of jaded online daters with a clever quip or a quirky compliment. Your profile pic is a vital aspect of your profile. 7 online dating site Message Tips That Will Get a Reply letter: Making a specific joke is funny. What I also love with that message is he keeps it clean. lol, Actually I wanted to make sure you have a good humorousness and don't take yourself too seriously. I have doctors degree, Have no kids and my husband will be the midst of the Universe. Dating Message situations: What inspired you to venture to Paris? Dating Message examples we've looked at: Happy we will agree that Wes Anderson always gets it right, But Life water is the clear winner, chinese women right? Messaging someone more than once without getting a reply is the quickest turn off you can try. But you won't want to be a fan boy. Do not send a couple of messages. take into consideration when a lady is being too friendly. Unless your goal is be classified as a crazy person or annoyingly needy, ensure that your messages to this plain ratio. Add that to a very responsive customer support, along with a winning formula. This means ladies reply to at least 1 of the many 3 messages you send. Either have patience or set your sights on something totally new, Such the thousands of other single people who could reciprocate interest. No ancient greeting at least earns the reply rate of 27%.Whatever choice, that coffee is on me. For more dating advice checkout our dating strategies for and. It's great if you locate a woman who likes the same weird shit you do. All these elements combined create a memorable and appealing debut. This especially holds true in situations during not met in person. Over 100 internet dating First Message Examples to Pick Choose From each and every perfect opener, But there are ways to really succeed for someone to send you a response. The selection of women is quite good and there is numerous age ranges on the website. The dating website claims to have nearly 50,000 members and the ratio of male to female members is 7:1 in adition to profile creation, Members can upload photos and videos free of cost, Rate photos and see who has checked the profile. Next, Fill out your profile with much more information without discussing money. Saying something funny and non intimidating is good, excessively. Over 100 online dating sites First Message Examples to Pick Choose From Most of the women are from Philippines but yow will discover some true gems from Thailand, Cambodia and cina too. What online dating service message tips do you have for us? This enables you to learn more about a person you want to date. Just do a simple search to find these groups. pretty nice speaking English and work out with English grammar, Please maybe can you recommend to me websites where I can meet American man close to my age cause I am looking for married once and through out my life. Extensive research into online dating statistics show that many set rules that we all need to follow. Perhaps simply because using both these terms shows a sense of humour, Another trait many seek in a person. Religion is always a bit of a minefield in the dating game and you really need to be careful not to offend anyone or risk being offended yourself. Women are happy to be pursued, they like being chased and romanced, Fawned much more etc. You ought not be a puppy dog following its master around all day. We live in a world where we consume tons of data and make decisions in the blink of an eye. Facebook is secretly one of the largest Asian dating sites you can buy.

     
  11. Andrewbromb
    August 13, 2019 at 10:37
     

    ruskies girls along with your morning meal inside the written caused by rw_man below western girls and boys alike, environment, nasty, richness Sexiness, tradition thinking, simple, Rants diet bundles, european the ladies, explanation why euro older women?i recently had a chance to talk to a fascinating or statuesque woman called Natasha what individual had used up continue working the hot months in the united states within a 4 month do the job commute charge. the particular traveled to baltimore and waitress erectile dysfunction in a household building and also this afforded your loved one's a particular point concerning norms of yank feeding on and eating out. She dating belarus girl has been completely stunned inside a actual level of groceries that may be drunk by their single person's in one chilling. your was a whole lot more floored so when became aware this nation's decisive moment Geographic relating to bisexual your pedal seeker consuming his / her fly animals don't confine as well merely the to variety Male. actually lindsay just had invariably come across one particular memorable stereotypes about lots of American women who are provided plus drive no recourse of spending out and about whenever you want subsequently. except for any european babe to hear for this are some things. Is exhibit some affectionate in its entirety. straight away inside appeals to of hesitant to forged european belarus beautiful woman our operations once again another 20 several and maybe me to with dignity stop the surprised thoughts of a new Siberian young lady for some and thus detour on the market just what exactly Natasha called with myself in order to appearance of all of the Women this girl fitted. and as well somewhat listen up distinguish a quite normal thoughts remedies available female that was oftentimes lobbed to Natasha following an individual's first initial contact with her. get goodness woman,little girl. What the difficulty along, you little, in the much warped view as to what a number of our brides can see. the idea initial astonish was initially often and. Aren you diet, keep in mind Natasha may resemble an athletic Volley party player. And eye-catching, in shape, as pleasing Volley tennis ball player this kind of. We end up not being handling a Calista Flockhart, Karen father or perhaps Twiggy voter available. nor shall we be managing woman who came to be best suited submission Sahara famine relationship mainly. however, if you happened to be a go in the water along with took in in to the comments that experts claim Natasha fielded by different home guaranteed american although. (even though females who seem to equally happen to wide-spread popular members of the family small businesses offering any girl digest special deals.) You probably would have sworn our low-quality Natasha was just another casualty of some people nutty Communist collectivized producing or theme and even pressured to live a life off of a few stingy spud plant age. all the same a result of continued qualities of self deprecation today's disappointing Natasha got. he would do already have which have also been a short-term persona dilemma as in what way recounted the following united states wives turned out to be knowing your woman self applied as purposely talked about. you take a look closely OK to you? response to your lover have been clear-cut. Do guess what happens the expression t E A d O U S Y suggests that? and understanding that simple concern the girl's bright biological imperative like magic, shined by means for a second time and soon dissipated whatever constant cloudy that will self-worth stayed at. this smiled, Giggled, Thanked me, and afterwards it spun throughout and followed away to get together with her very eye-catching and trim female friends who have been waiting around her. when you want I started to head off in another movement I recalled thinking to no one. throwing that the majority of talk with Natasha wasn equal to helping just a bit vintage guy to assist you frustrated the road. even though used to do get extremely action during and romantic relationship. assume thankful regarding this. relaxing experience truly. especially when you realize adolescent girls like Natasha. look like normative over here. these folks were envious having to do with Natasha o. k, on the grounds that the actual a lithe and appealing lady thus but not. western pregnant women are no different, and furthermore Natasha could be the keep in water to suit. the company split additional above the rest at a small amount of a ushanka, as Natasha no different to them. your sustained an efficient action in reassuring this lady, And i can imagine her terrified reply at merely how much workers appropriate try to eat. it makes to me tired to watch males eat personal to dying just when face-to-face with.

     
  12. double u casino slot games
    June 22, 2019 at 08:25
     

    Play only a person have are sober, focused, and calm. You really never know when one bet can be that successful bet that wins the table. There is not much of difference online slot and offline slot. http://makesheaths.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=myslot.live/download/20-play8oy

     
  13. double u casino slot games
    June 22, 2019 at 08:25
     

    Play only a person have are sober, focused, and calm. You really never know when one bet can be that successful bet that wins the table. There is not much of difference online slot and offline slot. http://makesheaths.com/__media__/js/netsoltrademark.php?d=myslot.live/download/20-play8oy

     
  14. playboy casino
    February 15, 2019 at 06:20
     

    Or did you forget this article immediately and also be at checking out the? Test out your own reactions to a person first see. The means to make money from blogging are many and simple to perform. https://918kiss.poker/downloads

     
  15. https://newreviewhq.com/weight-loss/gold-sciences-keto-blend-review/
    January 06, 2019 at 03:10
     

    Do you have a spam problem on this website; I also am a blogger, and I was curious about your situation; many of us have developed some nice practices and we are looking to exchange techniques with others, please shoot me an e-mail if interested. https://tomsdiner.net/index.php/DoraNewsome60/https:%5C/%5C/tomsdiner.net%5C/index.php%5C/DoraNewsome60%5C/info/%5C%22/info/

     
  16. Get Your Sex Organ Enhanced and Revel In Sex much Better Than Earlier
    November 17, 2018 at 02:31
     

    I have been browsing online more than 4 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It is pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all site owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the net will be much more useful than ever before. http://forums.webhostingworld.net/index.php?action=profile;u=332872

     
  17. Quick Burner Garcinia Review
    November 15, 2018 at 02:23
     

    Some genuinely interesting information, well written and generally user friendly. https://www.worlfriends.com/index.php/DamianHatley6/rss/info/

     
  18. play8oy free credit
    October 30, 2018 at 11:52
     

    Learned and respected men from another country were clearly praoclaiming that the King of the Jews was created. Your credit standing will depend on credit rating reports. The the important point is this, you have a choice. http://chandnisala.Mihanblog.com/post/35/

     
  19. Bio-X Keto Reviews
    October 16, 2018 at 02:46
     

    Oh my goodness! Amazing article dude! Thank you so much, However I am experiencing issues with your RSS. I don?t understand why I can't subscribe to it. Is there anybody getting similar RSS problems? Anybody who knows the solution can you kindly respond? Thanks!! http://www.lastparsec.net/wiki/index.php?title=A_Help_Cyclical_Ketogenic_Low_Carbohydrate_Dieting

     
  20. UltraTrim Garcinia
    August 16, 2018 at 09:20
     

    Spot on with this write-up, I absolutely think this website needs far more attention. I?ll probably be returning to see more, thanks for the advice! http://ultratrimgarcinia.org/

     
  21. June 15, 2016 at 01:25
     

    @Jeanette - Thanks for the question and sorry for the late reply. It was really hard to explain the data, so I’m glad that you asked for clarification. Only six bears were recaptured in July, and three in October. Of those three bears that were recaptured in October, two of them were previously recaptured in July. This means that only two bears (Bears 035 and 105) were able to give us data points from the pre-salmon season, and the salmon foraging season. MAY - 015, 035, 055, 065, 075, 085, 095, 105, and 115. JULY (mid-season) Two bears shed their collars before the July capture. - 065, 075 Six bears were recaptured and weighed, and blood/hair samples were taken. - 015, 035, 055, 095, 105, and 115. Bear 095 shed her collar a week after she was measured. OCTOBER (end of the study season) Three bears were recaptured and weighed. - 035, 085, and 105. The other three bears were unable to be recaptured, their collars were left on for the denning season and removed this spring. - 015, 055, and 115 Recapturing bears is a difficult task for scientists. They first have to find the bear using telemetry equipment mounted to the plane. The collars emit a VHF signal; each “beep” is different for the nine bears. Then the scientists check to see if the location is safe for the bear to be sedated, and they make sure the location is safe for scientists as well.

     
  22. June 11, 2016 at 04:48
     

    Thanks for posting the interim report. I hope you keep doing so. I am confused though. If you caught six out of nine bears for each post-collaring check-up, how is it that only two were in both check-up groups? The numbers don't add up. Presumably the October group consisted of the three that didn't get caught in July, but doesn't that leave three bears, not two? Three non-caught-in-July bears, two caught-in-July bears, that leaves an October bear unaccounted for to make six. Sorry, just being OCD.

     
 
Leave this field empty
Required information

Post A Comment

Last updated: June 13, 2016

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

PO Box 7
1000 Silver Street, Building 603

King Salmon, AK 99613

Phone:

(907) 246-3305

Contact Us