In addition to the abundance of cultural resources, Kalaupapa National Historical Park is also home to an abundance of geological, terrestrial, aquatic, and marine resources. Typically expanded over an entire island, the natural resources at the park are additionally unique since they are concentrated within one location.
The plants and animals identified in the park comprise nearly 30 federally listed threatened and endangered species. Significant marine resources include monk seal, humpback whale, green sea turtle, and well-preserved coral reef communities and fish resources.
Geological resources within the park include Molokai north short cliffs that are some of the highest sea cliffs in the work. The intervening valleys, volcanic crater and crater lake, lava tubes, caves, and offshore islets provide numerous habitats from ohi'a rain forest to coastal spray areas to freshwater streams.