Aurora Resources

Print Resources

  • Baetjer, Katharine. “Benjamin Franklin’s Daughter” New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003.
    For portrait of Hartman Bache, available online as a pdf.
  • Little, Nigel K. Transoceanic Radical: The Many Identities of William Duane. Murdoch University, Australia, Doctoral Thesis, 2003. 304 pages.
  • Pasley, Jeffrey L. The Tyranny of Printers; Newspaper Politics in the Early American Republic. Charlottesville and London: University Press of Virginia, 2001.
    Chapters 4 and 8 focus specifically on Bache and Duane, respectively, but the entire work is extremely useful for understanding the role of journalism and publishing in the early Republic.
  • Phillips, Kim Tousley. William Duane, Revolutionary Editor. Berkeley, University of California Doctoral Thesis, 1968. 679 pages.
  • Rosenfeld, Richard. American Aurora: A Democratic Republican Returns: the supressed history of our nation's beginnings and the heroic newspaper that tried to report it. Forward by Edmund S. Morgan. St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
    A great reference for William Duane, Benny Bache, and the importance of the Aurora in national politics.
  • Tagg, James. Benjamin Franklin Bache and the Philadelphia Aurora. Boston: DIANE Company, 2001.
    Based largely on primary sources, this work not only reveals the real Benny Bache and his world, but offers great insights into the politics and conflicting ideologies of the early American republic. Good information on Margaret Bache as well.

Web Resources

  • American Philosophical Society: Bache and Duane Papers, the Castle Collection, microfilm.
    Most of these were donated by a descendant of both Franklin and William Duane in 1990.
  • Yale University: The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, found on
    References to young Benny learning the printing arts and type founding.

Last updated: February 21, 2017

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