What's Going On With the Volcano?

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Duration:
3 minutes, 50 seconds

Ranger Shyla explains how visitors can stay "Lava Safe" on the world's most active volcano, Kīlauea,
by following these two simple rules:
1) Be Prepared.
2) Stay out of Closed Areas.
It's Simple!
Additional footage and photos courtesy of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

 

 
Current Conditions Courtesy USGS - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
 
Halema‘uma‘u viewed from Jaggar Museum on September 15, 2017
Halema‘uma‘u viewed from Jaggar Museum on September 15, 2017

NPS Photo/J. Wei

October 16, 2017 - 7:45 AM HST

Activity Summary: Kīlauea Volcano continues to erupt at its summit and from the Puʻu ʻŌʻō vent on its East Rift Zone. The episode 61g lava flow is still entering the ocean at Kamokuna and producing scattered surface flow activity. These lava flows pose no threat to nearby communities at this time. The height of the lava lake at Kīlauea's summit has risen only slightly since it was last measured at about 44 m (144 ft) below the Overlook crater rim. Low rates of ground surface deformation and seismic activity persist across the volcano.

Summit Observations: Summit tiltmeters recorded minor inflationary tilt over the past day. Accordingly, the summit lava lake height has risen slightly since it was last measured at 44m (144 ft) below the rim of the Overlook crater on Saturday afternoon. Measured sulfur dioxide gas emission rates continue to be high and ranged between roughly 2500 and 5400 metric tons/day over the past week. Seismicity rates were at normal, background levels, with tremor fluctuations related to lava lake spattering.

Webcam views of the Halemaʻumaʻu lava lake can be found at this webpage: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/cams/region_kism.php.

Puʻu ʻŌʻō Observations: Low rates of ground deformation and low levels of seismic activity continue. Small apparent changes in tilt over the past several days on a nearby tiltmeter, are likely due to rainfall saturating the near surface. Webcams show persistent glow from long-term sources within the crater and from a small lava pond on the west side of the crater. The sulfur dioxide emission rates from the East Rift Zone vents have been steady over the past several months, and remain significantly lower than the summit emissions.

Lava Flow Observations: Lava from the episode 61g flow continues to enter the ocean at Kamokuna. Rainy weather made for difficult viewing, nonetheless, webcams show that surface flow activity persists on the upper portion of the flow field and on the coastal plain. Intermittent lava flows over the cliff and onto the lava delta ("lavafalls") have been reported. Surface cracks on the lava delta that had been covered over, are propagating to the surface and beginning to be visible again. The episode 61g flows do not pose a threat to nearby communities at this time.

Ocean Entry Hazards: As a strong caution to visitors viewing the ocean entry (where lava meets the sea), there are additional significant hazards besides walking on uneven surfaces and around unstable, extremely steep sea cliffs. Venturing too close to an ocean entry on land or the ocean exposes you to flying debris created by sudden explosive interaction between lava and water. Also, the new land created is unstable because it is built on unconsolidated lava fragments and sand. This loose material can easily be eroded away by surf, causing the new land to become unsupported and slide into the sea. This occurred most recently on May 3. In several instances, such collapses, once started, have also incorporated parts of the older sea cliff. Additionally, the interaction of lava with the ocean creates a corrosive seawater plume laden with hydrochloric acid and fine volcanic particles that can irritate the skin, eyes, and lungs.

Please see these fact sheets for additional information: https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2000/fs152-00/

For comprehensive information on volcanic air pollution please see the vog dashboard at: www.ivhhn.org/vog/

 
Zoomed photo of lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u
Zoomed photo of Halema‘uma‘u from Jaggar Museum on October 15, 2016

NPS/J. Wei

 
Photo Comparison - Drag the Arrows Left & Right
USGS overflight view of the episode 61G lava flow entering the ocean at Kamokuna on March 30, 2017 Thermal view
USGS overflight view of the episode 61G lava flow entering the ocean at Kamokuna on March 30, 2017
Thermal view - Photos courtesy USGS - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
USGS - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory - Following the December 31, 2016, lava delta collapse at Kīlauea Volcano's Kamokuna ocean entry, lava continued to flow into the sea without building a new lava delta, most likely because the lava was cascading down a steep offshore slope to deeper parts of the ocean. But in late March 2017, a new delta finally began to form, although it was obscured by steam during HVO's March 30 overflight (left photo). The thermal image at right shows lava streaming into the ocean from the leading edge of the delta (bright yellow area in center of image) and the adjacent heated seawater (discolored water in the photo). It also shows the trace of the active lava tube that carries lava from the vent to the sea (right side of image), as well as small breakouts of lava along the tube and surface flows near the Puʻu ʻŌʻō vent (top of image).



 
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Duration:
1 minute, 5 seconds

These flows are about a 45 minute hike inland from the Kamokuna ocean entry and are inside the park boundary.

 
Surface flow breakouts
August 31, 2017 - Upstream Surface flows

NPS/Janice Wei

August 31, 2017 - Planning to hike out to Kamokuna ocean entry, or the surface lava flows, or both? We’ve had excellent viewing of Kamokuna from the NPS viewing area, as well as vigorous surface flows about a 45-minute hike over rough lava terrain mauka (inland) towards to pali (cliffs) all week. The flows pictured are within park boundaries. As always, be Lava Safe: be prepared and stay out of closed areas. Wear sturdy closed-toe shoes, long pants and carry plenty of water – at least 3 liters a person. From Kalapana, it’s a 4.2- mile hike one-way to Kamokuna and the NPS viewing area, plus another 45-minute hike to the surface flows. From the end of Chain of Craters Road in the park, it’s a 5-mile one-way hike to Kamokuna viewing area, and part of that is up and over rough hardened lava flows. Link to full resolution photo (opens in new window).
 
Kamokuna Viewing Area From the Kalapana Side of the Flow
Kamokuna Viewing Area From the Kalapana Side of the Flow on June 5, 2017

NPS Photo/J. Wei


 
Kamokuna Ocean Entry Lava Flow on June 5, 2017
Kamokuna ocean entry lava flow on June 5, 2017

NPS/J. Wei


 
 
 
Evening glow from Halema‘uma‘u on January 8, 2017
January 8, 2017 - Evening glow from Halema‘uma‘u viewed from the Jaggar Museum observation deck

NPS/J. Wei

 
Halema‘uma‘u lava lake on March 6, 2017
Halema‘uma‘u lava lake on March 6, 2017

NPS Photo/P. Bieschke Jr.

 
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Duration:
52 seconds

Zoomed video of lava entering the ocean at Kamokuna viewed from the Kalapana side of the flow.

 

 
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Duration:
49 seconds

With narration by Ranger Dean

 
 
 
 
Kamokuna ocean entry on January 3, 2017
January 3, 2017 - Lava continues to flow into the ocean at Kamokuna.

NPS Photo/J. Wei

 
Kamokuna lava viewing area
Kamokuna lava viewing area on the evening of December 21, 2016

NPS/J. Wei

 
Lava flow ocean entry plume viewed from Chain of Craters Road
September 19, 2016 - Lava flow ocean entry plume viewed from Chain of Craters Road at 1483 feet elevation

NPS Photo/J. Ferracane

 
Access to the lava flow ocean entry from Kalapana
October 24, 2016 - Access to the lava flow ocean entry viewing area from Kalapana

NPS/J. Wei

 
September 20, 2016 - Ocean entry viewing from the Kalapana side
September 20, 2016 - Ocean entry viewing from the Kalapana side

NPS Photo/J. Wei

 
Zooming in on the ocean entry at Kamokuna viewed from Kalapana side of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park
Zooming in on the ocean entry at Kamokuna viewed from Kalapana side of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park

NPS Photo/J. Ferracane

Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Lava Flow Updates

  1. The 61G lava flow, southeast of Puʻu ʻŌʻō, continues to stream down the Pulama Pali onto the coastal plain of Kīlauea volcano's East Rift Zone into the ocean. The actual flow is moving slowly and many breakouts were active upslope and widening the flow field. Bright incandescence remains visible on the active lava flow field, marking areas of active breakouts.
  2. Park rangers have set up a Coastal Ranger Station (CRS) at the end of Chain of Creaters Road with eruption update, hiking and safety tip exhibits. Visitors are strongly urged to stop and talk with rangers and review all signage and watch the video at the CRS. The CRS is staffed daily and in the evening during peak visitation hours. The park is open 24 hours a day.
 
Photo taken from the Kalapana side of the Kamokuna ocean entry, upwind of the toxic plume
Photo taken from the Kalapana side of the Kamokuna ocean entry, upwind of the toxic plume

NPS Photo/J. Ferracane

  1. Hiking out to the lava flow from the park is allowed, but it's not for everyone. From the Coastal Ranger Station, it's a grueling, 11 mile roundtrip hike. Hikers may walk along the gravel emergency access route for the majority of the hike.
  2. All who attempt to hike out the lava flows are urged to prepare ahead and bring a 2-4 liters or quarts of water for every person in your party, sun protection, a hat and wear strong hiking boots or shoes. If you hike out later in the day, ensure you have a good flashlight and extra batteries in case you are out after dark. Cell phone flashlights are not sufficient. See the safe hiking tips page for additional information on proper footwear, clothing, and other important safety information.
  3. Stay safe, and be very mindful of poor air quality. When plumes of hazardous volcanic gases (sulfur dioxide and hydrochloric acid) are blown along shore, they are a threat to your health. It is currently best to hike in from the County of Hawai'i lava viewing area on the Kalapana side to access the ocean entry. The Kalapana access is open daily from 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. It's about a 4.2-mile hike from the Kalapana boundary to the ocean entry viewing point, one way, along the gravel emergency access road.
 
The presence of volcanic gas increases the closer you get to the ocean entry. This is where the lava crossed the Chain of Craters emergency access road, hiking in from the park side (USGS vehicle). Notice how the plume is blown right over the coastal area
The presence of volcanic gas increases the closer you get to the ocean entry. This is where the lava crossed the Chain of Craters emergency access road, hiking in from the park side (USGS vehicle). Notice how the plume is blown right over the coastal area and road

NPS Photo/J. Ferracane

  1. If you do hike in from the park side, be aware that the gases get stronger the closer you get to the ocean entry. Rangers have roped off the park side of the ocean entry and placed signs warning of the toxic fumes. Be aware that even in the open areas, volcanic gases are likely to be at unhealthy levels. Volcanic gases are a danger to everyone, particularly to people with heart or respiratory problems and infants, young children and pregnant women. Check with rangers at the end of Chain of Craters Road about current conditions before you head out, review the exhibits, and obey all closures and signs. You can head inland to avoid the fumes, and hike until you get upwind of the ocean entry fumes.
  2. Volcanoes are dynamic and ever-changing natural phenomena. The flow information, distances, and other lava information provided here can change at any time.
 
Respect Hawaiian Culture at Lava Flows
  1. Experienced bicyclists may use the gravel emergency access route during the day. It is not recommend to ride bikes on the loose gravel after dark. Motorized bicycles are prohibited.
  2. Respect the Hawaiian culture. Do not poke lava with sticks or other items. Do not roast marshmallows or cook foods. To many Hawaiians, molten lava is the kinolau, or body form, of volcano goddess Pele. In addition, it is a federal offense to remove, destroy, alter, deface, dig or disturb anything from its natural state in a national park. (36 CFR § 2.1)
  3. Pets, motorized vehicles, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and overnight camping on the flow field within the park are prohibited.
  4. Visitors are advised to "slow down and go with the flow." Hiking to the current lava flows is a 6-8 hour adventure for most fit hikers. Adding a roundtrip drive from the west side of Hawai'i Island makes for a very long day, and is not recommended. Remember: Kīlauea is also erupting from its summit crater, Halema'uma'u. You can safely and easily observe the summit eruption from the observation deck at Jaggar Museum, which is open 24 hours a day.
 
 
December 12, 2016 - Closure of a portion of Eruption Area
Until further notice a portion of the area near the coastal lava flow known as 61g and described below will be closed by direction of the park Superintendant. The closure is based on the potential for airborne debris being projected up to 300 meters from a collapsing lava bench. Flying debris is a safety concern for the public and employees. This closure will be in effect until there is no longer a danger.
Area to be closed: A 300 meter section within the boundary of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park that is marked with posted signs notifying the public of the closure, where possible will be augmented by a rope barrier. Due to the constant shifting of lava benches and ocean entries, this area is subject to change and is therefore only referred to by the current location of posted signs.
 
July 5, 2016 - Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Press Release - Rangers Urge Park Visitors to View Latest Flows from Safe Distance
 

Please view this four minute video - "Lava Safe Tips"

 
October 12, 2017 lava flow map
Lava flow map

Courtesy USGS - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

This map shows recent changes to Kīlauea's East Rift Zone lava flow field. The area of the active flow field as of September 21 is shown in pink, while widening and advancement of the active flow as of October 12 is shown in red. Older Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō lava flows (1983–2016) are shown in gray. The yellow line is the trace of the active lava tube.

The blue lines over the Puʻu ʻŌʻō flow field are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 2013 digital elevation model (DEM), while the blue lines on the rest of the map are steepest-descent paths calculated from a 1983 DEM (for calculation details, see https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1264/). Steepest-descent path analysis is based on the assumption that the DEM perfectly represents the earth's surface. DEMs, however, are not perfect, so the blue lines on this map can be used to infer only approximate flow paths. The base map is a partly transparent 1:24,000-scale USGS digital topographic map draped over the 1983 10-m digital elevation model (DEM).

Full resolution image (opens in new window)

 
September 20, 2016 - Ocean entry viewing from the Kalapana side
September 20, 2016 - Ocean entry viewing from the Kalapana side

NPS/J. Wei

The County of Hawai‘i has opened the emergency road on the Kalapana side for lava viewing since Thursday, June 30, 2016, between the hours of 3:00 pm to 9:00 pm daily. This is outside Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park and managed by the County.

Kalapana viewing area status (recorded message): 808-430-1966

Directions to Kalapana from Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park: Take Hwy 11 towards Hilo to Hwy 130. Follow Hwy 130 until you reach the road's end and the visitor parking area. (45 miles).

 

HOT LINES for Eruption Information

Resources for more information about the lava flows:

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
by phone at: (808) 967-8862
by web at: https://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/activity/kilaueastatus.php

County of Hawai'i Civil Defense
by phone at: (808) 935-0031 (7:45 am - 4:30 pm)
by web at: http://www.hawaiicounty.gov/active-alerts/

 

The lava lakes in the Puʻu ʻŌʻō crater and Halemaʻumaʻu crater, as well as other views may be viewed on webcameras made available by the scientists at USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. Daily updates by staff that monitor Hawaiʻi's volcanoes provide visitors with the most recent observations on volcanic conditions.

 
Halema`uma`u vent - June 2, 2011 - web cam view
Webcam view of the lava lake within the summit vent in Halemaʻumaʻu on June  2, 2011.

USGS Webcamera

Links to More Information:

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
Scientist's Daily Updates
Webcams
NPS Air Quality & Weather Page
Air Quality Monitors at hawaiiso2network.com
Earthquakes - Hawaiʻi
Earthquakes - Worldwide
Multimedia/Photos/Videos

Last updated: October 16, 2017

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Hawaii National Park, HI 96718

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