Learn more about the people who built the animal shaped (effigy) mounds.
Emma Big Bear
Emma Big Bear Holt, often referred to as the last Ho-Chunk to live in northeast Iowa, is remembered by the local residents by her basketry and traditional lifestyle.
Ellison Orr was one of the first people to catalog, map, and draw attention to the importance of preserving the burial mounds in this region.
Mississippi Valley National Park
The establishment of Effigy Mounds National Monument actually began as a push to create a national park that would have covered a larger area of the Mississippi River Valley.
History of Effigy Mounds National Monument
Learn more about the monument from the time it was created.
Find additional information on archeological work from Effigy Mounds National Monument.
Cultural Affiliation Report
The Cultural Affiliation Report for Effigy Mounds National Monument investigated connections between American Indian peoples and the cultural and natural resources within the park.
Administrative History (2.13MB PDF)
Read even more about the creation and evolution of Effigy Mounds National Monument in "The Perpetual March - An administrative history of Effigy Mounds National Monument."