American Toad

American Toad, (Anaxyrus americanus). sitting on some dried leaves and green moss.
American Toad (Anaxyrus americanus)

NPS Photo

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Amphibia
  • Order: Anura
  • Family: Bufonidae
  • Genus: Anaxyrus
  • Species: americanus

Generally brown to olive green in color, can also have reddish coloration. Spots and warts are brown to orange red in color with only one or two warts in each spot. Warts vary in color from yellow to orange, red, or dark brown. A light stripe may be present down the middle of the back. Chest and upper abdomen are commonly spotted. Elongate parotoid glands are separate from prominent cranial crests or connect by a spur. Enlarged warts found on tibia.


5.1 to 11.1 cm long (2" to 4 ½")

Similar Species

Potentially hybridizes with Fowler's Toad, Anaxyrus fowleri, so differentiation between the two species may be difficult at times. Also the subspecies Eastern American Toad, Anaxyrus americanus americanus, description is much the same as the American Toad, Anaxyrus americanus.


Breeds March to July.

Found in a variety of habitats, typically where moisture and insects are more abundant.


Primarily nocturnal.


Calls are long pleasant musical trills that may last from 6 to 30 seconds. Voice trills at a rate of about 30 to 40 per second.

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Last updated: March 12, 2019

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