Series: Park Air Profiles

Park Air Profiles - Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks

Hiker on a trail
Visitors come to Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs to view mountains and canyons and hike wilderness trails.

Air quality at Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks

Most visitors expect clean air and clear views in parks. Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks (NPs), in California, are home to huge mountains, rugged foothills, deep canyons, vast caverns, and the world's largest trees. The parks also experience some of the worst air pollution of any national parks in the U.S. The parks are downwind of many air pollution sources, including agriculture, industry, major highways, and urban pollutants from as far away as the San Francisco Bay Area. Air pollutants blown into the park can harm natural and scenic resources such as soils, surface waters, plants, wildlife, and visibility. The National Park Service works to address air pollution effects at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs, and in parks across the U.S., through science, policy and planning, and by doing our part.

Ground-level ozone

Ponderosa Pine tree Ponderosa pine trees are one of the ozone sensitive species found at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs.

At ground level, ozone is harmful to human health and the environment. Ground-level ozone does not come directly from smokestacks or vehicles, but instead is formed when other pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, react in the presence of sunlight.

During the summer months, ozone levels in the park frequently exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to protect public health. Ozone is a respiratory irritant, causing coughing, sinus inflammation, chest pains, scratchy throat, lung damage, and reduced immune system functions. Children, the elderly, people with existing health problems, and active adults are most vulnerable. When ozone levels exceed, or are predicted to exceed, health standards, Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs staff post health advisories cautioning staff and visitors of the potential health risks associated with exposures to elevated levels.

Over the course of a growing season, ozone can also damage plant tissues making it harder for plants to produce and store food. It also weakens plants making them less resistant to disease and insect infestations. Some plants are more sensitive to ozone than others. Search ozone-sensitive plant species found at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs.

Ozone effects:
  • Widespread and severe injury to Ponderosa and Jeffrey pines in the parks (Arbaugh et al. 1998).
  • Injury to ponderosa pine and Jeffrey pine needles (Warner et al. 1983), with ozone injury evident on nearly 90% of Jeffrey pines in or near the Giant Forest on the west side of the parks where ozone exposure is highest (Peterson et al. 1991; Peterson and Arbaugh 1992);
  • Reduced tree health and growth in some locations due to chronic, long-term ozone exposure (Peterson et al. 1987; Ewell et al. 1989; Peterson et al. 1991; Duriscoe and Stolte 1992; Peterson and Arbaugh 1992);
  • Injury to Giant Sequoia seedlings, possibly affecting their long-term success (Grulke and Miller 1994; Miller and Grulke 1994).

Visit the NPS air quality conditions and trends website for park-specific ozone information. Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs have been monitoring ozone since 1984. View live ozone and meteorology data, and explore air monitoring »

Nitrogen and sulfur

Nitrogen and sulfur compounds deposited from the air may have harmful effects, including acidification, on soils, lakes, ponds, and streams. Excess nitrogen can also lead to nutrient enrichment, a process that changes nutrient cycling and alters plant communities. Healthy ecosystems can naturally buffer a certain amount of pollution, but as nitrogen and sulfur accumulate, a threshold is passed where the ecosystem is harmed. “Critical load” is a term used to describe the amount of pollution above which harmful changes in sensitive ecosystems occur (Porter 2005). Nitrogen deposition exceeds the critical load for one or more park ecosystems (NPS ARD 2018).

Some high elevation ecosystems in the parks are sensitive to nitrogen deposition. These systems receive more nitrogen deposition than lower elevation areas and short growing seasons and shallow soils limit the capacity of soils and plants to absorb nitrogen. Some plants are sensitive to acidification, search for acid-sensitive plant species found at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs.

Ecosystems at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs are ranked as very highly sensitive to both acidification and nutrient-enrichment effects relative to other national parks (Sullivan et al. 2011a; Sullivan et al. 2011b; Sullivan et al. 2011c; Sullivan et al. 2011d). Nitrogen deposition levels suggest that reductions are needed to protect and restore certain park ecosystems (Sickman et al. 2001). Sources of nitrogen in the parks include the Central Valley and San Francisco Bay Area (LeNoir et al. 1999; Bytnerowicz et al. 2002; Hageman et al. 2006).

Nitrogen effects:
  • Increased plant growth in lakes from nutrient enrichment, potentially changing aquatic community dynamics (Sickman et al. 2003);
  • Replacement of certain lichen species important for wildlife food and habitat by weedy, nitrogen-loving species (Fenn et al. 2008);
  • Episodic acidification of some streams during snowmelt (Williams and Melack 1991; Stoddard 1995; Leydecker et al. 1999).

Visit the NPS air quality conditions and trends website for park-specific nitrogen and sulfur deposition information. Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs have been monitoring nitrogen and sulfur deposition since 1980, explore air monitoring »

Toxics and mercury

Mountain Yellow-legged Frog The decline of Mountain Yellow-Legged Frogs at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs is linked to pesticide deposition.

Airborne mercury, and other toxic air contaminants, when deposited are known to harm birds, salamanders, fish and other wildlife, and cause human health concerns. These substances enter the food chain and accumulate in the tissue of organisms causing reduced reproductive success, impaired growth and development, and decreased survival.

Air currents transport contaminants such as pesticides, industrial pollutants and heavy metals from their sources, and deposit these toxics in rain, snow, and through dry deposition at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs (McConnell et al. 1998; Hageman et al. 2006; Landers et al. 2008). Research conducted as part of the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) found airborne contaminants in fish, vegetation, snow and lake sediments in the parks (report, database).

Toxic and mercury effects:
  • Disappearance of the Foothill Yellow-legged Frog and the ongoing decline of other amphibians in these parks, including Mountain Yellow-legged Frogs is linked to deposition of pesticides from the Central Valley (McConnell et al. 1998; LeNoir et al. 1999; Sparling et al. 2001; Fellers et al. 2004; Hageman et al. 2006; Davidson and Knapp 2007);
  • Presence of contaminants including current-use pesticides, historic-use pesticides, and industrial by-products in snow (McConnell et al. 1998; Hageman et al. 2006; Landers et al. 2010; Landers et al. 2008);
  • Levels of dieldrin, historic-use pesticides (e.g., DDT) and/or mercury in fish exceed safe consumption thresholds, and concentrations of current-use pesticides (e.g., endosulfans and dacthal) in fish higher than in other western U.S. national parks (Ackerman et al. 2008; Landers et al. 2010; Landers et al. 2008; Schwindt et al. 2008);
  • Abnormalities (e.g., discoloration and thinning) in peregrine falcon eggs that contain high quantities of DDE (a breakdown product of DDT) (Jarman 1994).
  • Through the Dragonfly Mercury Project, dragonfly larvae have been collected by citizen scientists at the park and analyzed for mercury. See project results.

Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs have been monitoring mercury since 2003. Explore an interactive map of regional contaminant sampling and park air monitoring »

Visibility

View of Big Baldy from Redwood Canyon Clean, clear air is essential to appreciating the scenic vistas at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs.

Many visitors come to enjoy the spectacular vistas found at Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs. Distant vistas are often obscured by haze, reducing how well and how far people can see. Visibility reducing haze is caused by tiny particles in the air (see particulate matter below). Many of the same pollutants that ultimately fall out as nitrogen and sulfur deposition contribute to this haze. Organic compounds, soot, dust, and wood smoke reduce visibility as well. Significant improvements in park visibility on clearest days as well as haziest days have been documented since the 1990’s. Still, visibility in the park is a long way from the Clean Air Act goal of no human caused impairment.

Visibility effects:
  • Reduction of the average natural visual range from about 150 miles (without the effects of pollution) to about 65 miles because of pollution at the parks
  • Reduction of the visual range from about 115 miles to below 30 miles on high pollution days

Visit the NPS air quality conditions and trends website for park-specific visibility information. Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs have been monitoring visibility since 1992. View a live air quality webcam and explore air monitoring »

Particulate Matter

Concentrations of fine particles in the air at Sequoia and Kings Canyon NPs sometimes exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to protect human health. Fine particles (smaller than 2.5 micrometers) originate from either direct emissions by a source, such as construction sites, power plants, and fires, or reactions with gases and aerosols in the atmosphere emitted from pollution sources upwind.

Because of their small size, fine particles can get deep into the lungs and cause serious health problems. Numerous scientific studies have linked particle pollution exposure to irritation of the airways, coughing, difficulty breathing, aggravated asthma, chronic bronchitis, heart attacks, and premature death in people with heart or lung disease.

Sequoia & Kings Canyon NPs have been monitoring particulate matter since 1992. Check out the most recent particulate matter levels on our live data site and explore air monitoring »

Ackerman, L. K., Schwindt, A. R., Massey Simonich S. L., Koch, D. C., Blett, T. F., Schreck, C. B., Kent, M. L., Landers, D. H. 2008. Atmospherically Deposited PBDEs, Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western U.S. National Park Fish: Concentrations and Consumption Guidelines. Environmental Science & Technology 42: 2334–2341.

Arbaugh, M. J., Miller, P. R., Carroll, J. J., Takemoto, B. and Procter, T. 1998. Relationships of ozone exposure to pine injury in the Sierra Nevada and San Bernardino Mountains of California, USA. Environ. Pollut. 101: 291–301.

Bytnerowicz, A., Dawson, P. J., Morrison, C. L. and Poe, M. P. 1992. Atmospheric Dry Deposition of Pines in the Eastern Brook Lake Watershed, Sierra Nevada, California. Atmospheric Environment Part A—General Topics 26: 3195–3201.

Bytnerowicz, A., Dawson, P. J., Morrison, C. L. and Poe, M. P. 1991. Deposition of Atmospheric Ions to Pine Branches and Surrogate Surfaces in the Vicinity of Emerald Lake Watershed, Sequoia National Park. Atmospheric Environment Part A—General Topics 25: 2203–2210.

Bytnerowicz, A., Tausz, M., Alonso, R., Jones, D., Johnson, R. and Grulke, N. 2002. Summer-time distribution of air pollutants in Sequoia National Park, California. Environmental Pollution 118: 187–203.

Clow, D. W., Striegl, R. G., Campbell, D. H., and Mast, M. A. 2000. Survey of high-altitude lake chemistry in national parks in the western United States, In Proceedings of the International Symposium on High Mountain Lakes and Streams. Innsbruck, Austria.

Davidson, C. and Knapp, R. A. 2007. Multiple stressors and amphibian declines: Dual impacts of pesticides and fish on yellow-legged frogs. Ecol Appl 17: 587–597.

Duriscoe, D. M. and Stolte, K. W. 1992. Decreased foliage production and longevity observed in ozone-injured Jeffrey and ponderosa pines in Sequoia National Park, California. In Tropospheric Ozone and the Environment: Effects Modeling and Control. Air Waste Manage. Assoc.: Pittsburgh, PA. pp. 663–680.

Ewell, D. M., Mazzu, L. C., and Duriscoe, D. M. 1989. Specific leaf weight and other characteristics of ponderosa pine as related to visible ozone injury. Air Pollution Control Assoc. 16: 411–418.

Fellers, G. M., McConnell, L. L., Pratt, D., Datta, S. 2004. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 23 (9): 2170–2177.

Fenn, M. E., Jovan, S., Yuan, F., Geiser, L., Meixner, T., Gimeno, B. S. 2008. Empirical and simulated critical loads for nitrogen deposition in California mixed conifer forests. Environmental Pollution 155: 492–511.

Grulke, N. E. and Miller, P. R. 1994. Changes in Gas-Exchange Characteristics during the Life-Span of Giant Sequoia—Implications for Response to Current and Future Concentrations of Atmospheric Ozone. Tree Physiology 14: 659–668.

Hageman, K. J., Simonich, S. L., Campbell, D. H., Wilson, G. R., Landers, D. H. 2006. Atmospheric deposition of current-use and historic-use pesticides in snow at national parks in the Western United States. Environmental Science & Technology 40: 3174–3180.

Kohut R.J. 2007. Ozone Risk Assessment for Vital Signs Monitoring Networks, Appalachian National Scenic Trail, and Natchez Trace National Scenic Trail. NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRTR—2007/001. National Park Service. Fort Collins, Colorado. Available at https://www.nps.gov/articles/ozone-risk-assessment.htm

Jarman W. M. 1994. Levels and trends of DDE in California peregrines. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Report. 16 pp.

Landers, D. H., Simonich, S. M., Jaffe, D., Geiser, L., Campbell, D. H., Schwindt, A., Schreck, C., Kent, M., Hafner, W., Taylor, H. E., Hageman, K., Usenko, S., Ackerman, L., Schrlau, J., Rose, N., Blett, T., Erway, M. M. 2010. The Western Airborne Contaminant Assessment Project (WACAP): An Interdisciplinary Evaluation of the Impacts of Airborne Contaminants in Western U.S. National Parks. Environmental Science and Technology 44: 855–859.

Landers, D. H., Simonich, S. L., Jaffe, D. A., Geiser, L. H., Campbell, D. H., Schwindt, A. R., Schreck, C. B., Kent, M. L., Hafner, W. D., Taylor, H. E., Hageman, K. J., Usenko, S., Ackerman, L. K., Schrlau, J. E., Rose, N. L., Blett, T. F., Erway, M. M. 2008. The Fate, Transport, and Ecological Impacts of Airborne Contaminants in Western National Parks (USA). EPA/600/R—07/138. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, NHEERL, Western Ecology Division, Corvallis, OR. Available at https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/660829.

LeNoir, J. S., McConnell, L. L., Fellers, G. M., Cahill, T. M., Seiber, J. N. 1999. Summertime transport of current-use pesticides from California’s Central Valley to the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18: 2715–2722.

Leydecker, A., Sickman, J. O. and Melack, J. M. 1999. Episodic lake acidification in the Sierra Nevada, California. Water Resources Research 35: 2793–2804.

McConnell, L. L., LeNoir, J. S., Datta, S. and Seiber, J. N. 1998. Wet deposition of current-use pesticides in the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 17: 1908–1916.

Miller, P. R. and Grulke, N. E. 1994. Air pollution effects on giant sequoia ecosystems. In P. S. Aune (tech. coord.). Proceedings of the symposium on giant sequoias: their place in the ecosystem and society. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-151. pp. 90–98. Available at https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/53857.

Peterson, D. L. and Arbaugh, M. J. 1992. Mixed conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada. In R. K. Olson, D. Binkley, and M. Böhm (eds.), Response of Western Forests to Air Pollution. Springer-Verlag, New York. pp. 433–459.

Peterson, D. L., Arbaugh, M. J., Robinson, L. J. 1991. Regional growth changes in ozone-stressed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. The Holocene 1: 50–61.

Peterson, D. L., Arbaugh, M. J., Wakefield, V. A. and Miller, P. R. 1987. Evidence of growth reduction in ozone-injured Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 37: 906–912.

Porter, E., Blett, T., Potter, D.U., Huber, C. 2005. Protecting resources on federal lands: Implications of critical loads for atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur. BioScience 55(7): 603–612. https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0603:PROFLI]2.0.CO;2

Saros, J. 2009. Inferring Critical Nitrogen Deposition Loads to Alpine Lakes of Western National Parks and Diatom Fossil Records. National Park Service: Final Report. 13 pp. Available at https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/664108.

Schwindt, A. R., Fournie, J. W., Landers, D. H., Schreck, C. B., Kent, M. 2008. Mercury Concentrations in Salmonids from Western U.S. National Parks and Relationships with Age and Macrophage Aggregates. Environmental Science & Technology 42 (4): 1365–1370.

Sickman, J. O., Leydecker, A., and Melack, J. M. 2001. Nitrogen mass balances and abiotic controls on N retention and yield in high-elevation catchments of the Sierra Nevada, California, United States. Water Resources Research 37: 1445–1461.

Sickman, J. O., Melack, J. M. and Clow, D. W. 2003. Evidence for nutrient enrichment of high-elevation lakes in the Sierra Nevada, California. Limnology and Oceanography 48: 1885–1892.

Sparling, D. W., Fellers G. M., McConnell L. L. 2001. Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 1591–1595.

Stoddard, J. L. 1995. Episodic Acidification During Snowmelt of High Elevation Lakes in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 85:353–358.

Sullivan, T. J., Peterson, D. L., Blanchard, C. L. 2001. Assessment of Air Quality and Air Pollutant Impacts in Class I National Parks of California. National Park Service. 421 pp. Available at https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/561620.

Sullivan, T. J., McDonnell, T. C., McPherson, G. T., Mackey, S. D., Moore, D. 2011a. Evaluation of the sensitivity of inventory and monitoring national parks to nutrient enrichment effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition: main report. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRR—2011/313. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at https://www.nps.gov/articles/nitrogen-risk-assessment.htm

Sullivan, T. J., McDonnell, T. C., McPherson, G. T., Mackey, S. D., Moore, D. 2011b. Evaluation of the sensitivity of inventory and monitoring national parks to nutrient enrichment effects from atmospheric nitrogen deposition: Sierra Nevada Network (SIEN). Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRR—2011/330. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2168734.

Sullivan, T. J., McPherson, G. T., McDonnell, T. C., Mackey, S. D., Moore, D. 2011c. Evaluation of the sensitivity of inventory and monitoring national parks to acidification effects from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition: main report. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRR—2011/349. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at https://www.nps.gov/articles/acidification-risk-assessment.htm

Sullivan, T. J., McPherson, G. T., McDonnell, T. C., Mackey, S. D., Moore, D. 2011d. Evaluation of the sensitivity of inventory and monitoring national parks to acidification effects from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen deposition: Sierra Nevada Network (SIEN). Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/ARD/NRR—2011/349. National Park Service, Denver, Colorado. Available at https://irma.nps.gov/DataStore/Reference/Profile/2170608.

Sullivan T.J. 2016. Air quality related values (AQRVs) in national parks: Effects from ozone; visibility reducing particles; and atmospheric deposition of acids, nutrients and toxics. Natural Resource Report. NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2016/1196. National Park Service. Fort Collins, Colorado. Available at https://www.nps.gov/articles/aqrv-assessment.htm.

Warner, T. E., Wallner, D. W. and Vogler, D. R. 1983. Ozone injury to ponderosa and Jeffrey pines in Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks. In Proceedings First Biennial Conference of Research in California’s National Parks. pp. 1–7.