In 1907 the legislature of the State of Illinois authorized a monument in memory of the state's 889 known dead at Andersonville.
The final design was the result of a collaboration between sculptor Charles Mulligan and state architect Carbys Zimmerman. The monument features a base and pedestal of Montello granite. The monument commission described the monument as consisting of:
The large figure of Columbia, and beside her Youth and Maiden, representing nations to come, is cast in bronze and stands upon a pedestal of massive Montello granite. Columbia with outstretched hand is pointing to the heroes resting in their graves. Youth and Maiden, listening, gaze in the direction Columbia is pointing. On either wing of the pedestal is carved in bold letters the last clause of President Lincoln's first inaugural address and the last clause of his memorable speech on the battlefield of Gettysburg. The two figures on either side of the pedestal represent veterans of the Civil War standing in sad reflection of memories of the tragedies of the late war. These figures are of Montello granite, the same as the pedestal. The pedestal is 20 feet by 24 feet while the monument stands 18 feet overall.
On December 20, 1912 the Illinois monument was dedicated in the southwest portion of Andersonville National Cemetery.