The Big Lockup: Citations

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Icon with outline of lower 48 and tick mark by fives in the background. The Big Lockup: Mass Incarceration in the United States.
Icon of The Big Lockup: Mass Incarceration in the United States. Maya Rodriguez NPS

The Big Lock Up: Mass Incarceration In The United States

  1. Bernadette Rabuy and Peter Wagner, Prison Policy Initiative, Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2020. March 24, 2020.

How Did We Get Here?


  1. Jeremy Travis and Sarah Lawrence, Urban Institute Justice Center, “Beyond the Prison Gates: The State of Parole in America” (p.22), National Prisoner Statistics - Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2002 Statistics,

  2. Federal Bureau of Investigation: Uniform Crime Reporting, Crime In The U.S., U.S. Department of Justice, 2019

  3. Bureau of Justice Statistics via Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, The New Press, 2012


  1. D’Vera Cohn and Jeffrey Passel, Pew Hispanic Center, “U.S. Population Projections: 2005-2050", Pew Research Center, 2008

  1. Sentencing Project, “Report to the United Nations on Racial Disparities in the U.S. Criminal Justice System”, April 19, 2018


  1. Elizabeth Davis, Anthony Whyde, and Lynn Langton, Ph.D., Bureau of Justice Statistics “Contacts Between Police and the Public, 2015”, U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs , 2018

  2. Berdejó, Carlos, Criminalizing Race: Racial Disparities in Plea Bargaining. Boston College Law Review, Vol. 59; Loyola Law School, Los Angeles Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2017-39, 2018

  3. Christopher Uggen, Ryan Larson, Ph.D and Sarah Shannon, 6 Million Lost Voters: State-Level Estimates of Felony Disenfranchisement, The Sentencing Project, 2016

  4. Human Rights Watch, “Not in it for Justice: How California’s Pretrial Detention and Bail System Unfairly Punishes Poor People”, Human Rights Watch Analysis of 2014 - 2015 County Jail Data, 2017

  5. Glenn R. Schmitt, J.D., M.P.P, Louis Reedt, Sc.D., and Kevin Blackwell, Office of Research and Data, “Demographic Differences in Sentencing”, United States Sentencing Commission, 2017


  1. Michele Alexander, “The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness”. New York : [Jackson, Tenn.]: New Press ; Distributed by Perseus Distribution, 2010


  1. B. Rabuy; D. Kopf, Prison Policy Initiative, “Prisons of Poverty: Uncovering The Pre-Incarceration Incomes of the Imprisoned”, 2015

  2. E. Moss, J. Shambaugh, K. McIntosh, and R. Nunn, The Brookings Institute, Survey of Consumer Finances 1989 - 2016 “Examining The Black-White Wealth Gap”, The Hamilton Group, February 27, 2020

  3. Office of the Administration for Children and Families: Children’s Bureau, Foster Care Statistics 2018, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2020

  4. National Assessment of Educational Progress, “School Composition and the Black–White Achievement Gap”, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, 2015

  5. M. Lynch, National Center for Education Statistics, “High School Dropout Rate: Causes and Costs”, HuffPost, 2014

  6. S. N. Jarvis; J. A. Okonofua, Hass School of Business, “School Deferred: When Bias Affects School Leaders” University of California, Berkeley, (492 - 498), 2020

  7. Treatment Advocacy Center, “The Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey”, National Sheriffs’ Association, April 8, 2014.

  8. National Alliance on Mental Illness, “Identity and Cultural Dimensions - Black African American”, NAMI, 2020

  9. J. Karberg; D. James, Substance Dependence, Abuse, and Treatment of Jail Inmates, Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Justice, 2005

  10. National Institute on Drug Abuse, “Criminal Justice Drug Facts” National Institutes of Health, Jun. 2020,

  11. The Sentencing Project, Trends in U.S. Corrections, “Prisoners In 2018 - Bureau of Justice Statistics”, 2020

Worlds Largest System

  1. Pew Center on the States [Adam Gelb, principal author], “State Reforms Reverse Decades of Incarceration Growth”, [Washington, D.C.]: Pew Center on the States, 2017

  1. Roy Walmsley, World Prison Brief, “World Prison Population List”, Institute for Criminal Policy Research, 2016

  1. Christopher Hartney, US Rates of Incarceration: A Global Perspective, National Council on Crime and Delinquency, 2006


  1. Peter Wagner, Tracking State Prison Growth in 50 States, Prison Policy Initiative, 2014

  1. Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Criminal Justice Facts”, U.S. State and Federal Prison Population, 1925-2018, The Sentencing Project, 2017

  2. Rebecca Vallas and Sharon Dietrich, Center for American Progress, “One Strike and You’re Out: How We Can Eliminate Barriers to Economic Security and Mobility for People with Criminal Records”, 2014

  3. E. Ann Carson, Ph. D. and Jennifer Bronson, Ph.D., Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Prisoners in 2017”, U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs, 2019


  1. Human Rights Watch, “US: California Bail System Penalizes the Poor”, Human Rights Watch Analysis 2014 - 2015 County Jail Data and Public Policy Institute of California,

  1. Peter Wagner and Wendy Sawyer, “Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2020”, Prison Policy Initiative, 2020

Who Is Harmed?


  1. Eric Martin, Hidden Consequences: The Impact of Incarceration on Dependent Children, National Institute of Justice, 2017

  2. Alicia Walters, Azadeh Zohrabi, Chris Schweidler, and Saneta DeVuono-Powell, Who Pays? The True Cost of Incarceration on Families, Ella Baker Center, 2015

  3. Michael McLaughlin et al., Institute for Advancing Justice Research and Innovation at Washington University in St. Louis, The Economic Burden of Incarceration in the U.S., Washington University in St. Louis, 2016

  4. Wendy Sawyer, Prison Policy Initiative, Who’s Helping the 1.9 million Women Released From Prisons and Jails Each Year?, July 19, 2019


  1. National Inventory of Collateral Consequences of Conviction, The Council of State Governments, 2020

  1. Jean Chung, The Sentencing Project, Felony Disenfranchisement: A Primer, June 27, 2019


  1. Tara O'Neill Hayes, American Action Forum, The Economic Costs of the U.S. Criminal Justice System, July 16, 2020

  2. U.S. Department of Education, Report: Increases in Spending on Corrections Far Outpace Education, JULY 17, 2016

  3. U.S. Census Data and Vera Institute of Justice, “Education Vs Prison Costs”, Tal Yellin / CNNMoney, 2018

  4. Wendy Sawyer, Prison Policy Initiative, How Much Do Incarcerated People Earn In Each State?, April 10, 2017

Can We Do Better?

  1. The Associated Press and NORC Poll, Widespread Desire for Policing and Criminal Justice Reform. 2020.


  1. Committee On The Judiciary. Senate Passes Landmark Criminal Justice Reform. 2018.

  1. Tim Arago, In California, Criminal Justice Reform Offers a Lesson for the Nation. 2019. The New York Times

  1. Laina G. Stebbins. It’s been a big year for criminal justice reform in Michigan. What’s next? 2019. Michigan Advance.

  2. Joe Sonka. Kentucky House advances criminal justice reform bills to reduce prison population. 2020. Courier Journal.

  3. Joanne Jenning. In Louisiana, prisons shift toward rehabilitation. March 2020. PBS

  1. Jolie McCullough, As the Texas prison population shrinks, the state is closing two more lockups, Feb. 2020, The Texs Tribune

  1. Bill Rankin, The Atlanta Journal, 2019. Nathan Deal’s criminal justice reforms leave lasting legacy.


  1. Carolyn W. Deady, Pell Center For International Relations And Public Policy.Incarceration and Recidivism: Lessons from Abroad. March 2014.

  2. Ram Subramanian, Alison Shames, Sentencing and Prison Practices in Germany and the Netherlands: Implications for the United States. Vera Institute, October, 2013.

  3. Ismael Paniagua, New Prisons Across The Country to Focus on Training for Skills. August 10, 2016. Dominican Today

  4. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Un Drugs Chief Praises Swedish Drug Control Model. 2006.

  5. Susana Ferreira, Decriminalization: A Love Story. November 1, 2017. The Common.

  6. Joseph Erbentraut, What The U.S. Can Learn From Prison Reform Efforts ThroughoutThe World. Huffington Post What’s Working. April 10, 2015.

Last updated: October 28, 2021

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