• Approximately 1,500 black bears live in the national park.

    Great Smoky Mountains

    National Park NC,TN

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    Several trails in the park are temporarily closed. Please check the "Backcountry Facilities" section of the Temporary Road and Facilities Closures page for further details. More »

Birds Checklist

Printable file of Bird Checklist (.pdf)

* - considered to breed within park
*? - suspected to breed within park

R - Permanent Resident
S - Summer Resident
M - Migrant
W - Winter Resident
cc - Cades Cove
he - high elevation (about 3,500')
ri - reintroduced

A - Abundant: over 25 seen on a given day in proper habitat/season
C - Common: 5-25 seen per day in proper habitat/season
F - Fairly common: at least one individual per day in proper habitat/season
U - Uncommon: at least one seen per season of occurrence or several seen per year
O - Occasional: one seen per year or less
X - Rare: has occurred in park at least once, but is not to be expected


LOONS
___ Red-throated Loon XM
___ Common Loon OM

GREBES
___ Pied-billed Grebe UM
___ Horned Grebe OM

STORM-PETRELS
___ Band-rumped Storm-Petrel XM

PELICANS & CORMORANTS
___ American White Pelican XM
___ Double-crested Cormorant XM

BITTERNS & HERONS
___ American Bittern OM
___ Great Blue Heron UR cc
___ Great Egret OM
___ Little Blue Heron OM
___ Green Heron* US cc
___ Black-crowned Night-Heron XS
___ Yellow-crowned Night-Heron* XS

GEESE & DUCKS
___ Snow Goose XM
___ Brant XM
___ Canada Goose* UR
___ Wood Duck* OR cc
___ Green-winged Teal XM
___ American Black Duck UW cc
___ Mallard UW cc
___ Gadwall XW cc
___ Northern Pintail XM
___ Blue-winged Teal UM, OW
___ Northern Shoveler XM
___ American Wigeon XM
___ Redhead XW
___ Ring-necked Duck UW cc
___ Lesser Scaup XM
___ Harlequin Duck XW
___ White-winged Scoter XW cc
___ Common Goldeneye XW
___ Bufflehead UW cc
___ Hooded Merganser UW, XS cc
___ Common Merganser XW
___ Red-breasted Merganser XM
___ Ruddy Duck OM, cc

HAWKS & EAGLES
___ Osprey UM
___ Swallow-tailed Kite XS
___ Mississippi Kite XM
___ Bald Eagle UMR
___ Northern Harrier UMW
___ Sharp-shinned Hawk*? UR
___ Cooper's Hawk*? UR
___ Northern Goshawk XM
___ Red-shouldered Hawk* OMW, US
___ Broad-winged Hawk* FS, CM
___ Red-tailed Hawk*? UR
___ Golden Eagle XMW cc XS
___ American Kestrel* UR cc
___ Merlin XMS
___ Peregrine Falcon* OWM, US ri

GROUSE, TURKEYS & QUAILS
___ Ruffed Grouse* FR
___ Wild Turkey* FR cc
___ Northern Bobwhite* UR

RAILS, GALLINULES & COOTS
___ King Rail XMS
___ Virginia Rail XM
___ Sora OM
___ Common Moorhen XM
___ American Coot XMWS

CRANES & VULTURES
___ Sandhill Crane XM
___ Black Vulture* FR cc
___ Turkey Vulture* CR cc

SHOREBIRDS
___ American Golden Plover XM
___ Semipalmated Plover OM cc
___ Killdeer* UR cc
___ Greater Yellowlegs OM
___ Lesser Yellowlegs XM
___ Solitary Sandpiper UM
___ Willet XM
___ Spotted Sandpiper UM
___ Least Sandpiper OM cc
___ Ruff XM
___ Short-billed Dowitcher XM
___ Common Snipe UMW cc
___ American Woodcock* UR
___ Red-necked Phalarope XM
___ Red Phalarope XW

GULLS & TERNS
___ Laughing Gull XM
___ Bonaparte's Gull XM
___ Ring-billed Gull OMW
___ Herring Gull XW
___ Sooty Tern XS

DOVES
___ Rock Dove OM
___ Mourning Dove* CR cc

CUCKOOS
___ Black-billed Cuckoo* US
___ Yellow-billed Cuckoo* FS

OWLS
___ Barn Owl OR (formerly)
___ Long-eared Owl XW
___ Short-eared Owl XW
___ Eastern Screech-Owl* FR
___ Great Horned Owl* UR
___ Barred Owl* FR
___ Northern Saw-whet Owl* FR he

NIGHTHAWKS & NIGHTJARS
___ Common Nighthawk UM
___ Chuck-will's-widow* US
___ Whip-poor-will* FS

SWIFTS & HUMMINGBIRDS
___ Chimney Swift* CS
___ Ruby-throated Hummingbird* FS, CM-fall

KINGFISHERS
___ Belted Kingfisher* FR

WOODPECKERS
___ Red-headed Woodpecker* OR, cc
___ Red-bellied Woodpecker* FR
___ Yellow-bellied Sapsucker* US, FW
___ Downy Woodpecker* FR
___ Hairy Woodpecker* FR
___ Red-cockaded Woodpecker OR (* formerly) extirpated
___ Northern Flicker* FR
___ Pileated Woodpecker* FR

FLYCATCHERS
___ Olive-sided Flycatcher* OS, he
___ Eastern Wood-Pewee* CS
___ Acadian Flycatcher* CS
___ Alder Flycatcher OM, XS
___ Willow Flycatcher OS
___ Least Flycatcher* US
___ Eastern Phoebe* CR (UW)
___ Great Crested Flycatcher* FS
___ Western Kingbird XM
___ Eastern Kingbird* FS cc
___ Scissor-tailed Flycatcher XM cc

LARKS
___ Horned Lark OMW cc

SWALLOWS
___ Purple Martin US
___ Tree Swallow* OMS
___ Northern Rough-winged Swallow* FS
___ Bank Swallow OM
___ Cliff Swallow UM
___ Barn Swallow* CS

SHRIKES
___ Loggerhead Shrike OM cc

VIREOS
___ White-eyed Vireo* FS
___ Solitary Vireo* CS he
___ Yellow-throated Vireo* CS
___ Warbling Vireo OS
___ Philadelphia Vireo OM
___ Red-eyed Vireo* AS

JAYS, CROWS & RAVENS
___ Blue Jay* CR
___ American Crow* CR
___ Common Raven* FR he

CHICKADEES & TITMICE
___ Carolina Chickadee* CR
___ Black-capped Chickadee* FR he
___ Tufted Titmouse* CR

NUTHATCHES & CREEPERS
___ Red-breasted Nuthatch* CR he
___ White-breasted Nuthatch* FR
___ Brown Creeper* FR he

WRENS
___ Carolina Wren* CR
___ Bewick's Wren* XR (formerly OR)
___ House Wren* OR, FM
___ Winter Wren* CR he
___ Sedge Wren OM
___ Marsh Wren OM

KINGLETS &
___ Golden-crowned Kinglet* CR he
___ Ruby-crowned Kinglet FMW

GNATCATCHERS
___ Blue-gray Gnatcatcher* CS

THRUSHES
___ Eastern Bluebird* FR cc
___ Veery* CS he
___ Gray-cheeked Thrush FM
___ Swainson's Thrush CM, OS
___ Hermit Thrush* FW, US
___ Wood Thrush* CS
___ American Robin* FR, CM

THRASHERS
___ Gray Catbird* FS, OW
___ Northern Mockingbird* UR
___ Brown Thrasher* FS, UW

STARLINGS
___ European Starling* CR

PIPITS & WAXWINGS
___ Water Pipit OMW
___ Cedar Waxwing* FR (erratic)

WOOD WARBLERS
___ Blue-winged Warbler FM
___ Golden-winged Warbler* OS
___ Tennessee Warbler CM
___ Orange-crowned Warbler OMW
___ Nashville Warbler FM
___ Northern Parula* FS
___ Yellow Warbler* FS
___ Chestnut-sided Warbler* CS he
___ Magnolia Warbler CM (*?)
___ Cape May Warbler FM
___ Black-throated Blue Warbler* CS, he
___ Yellow-rumped Warbler A-CMW
___ Black-throated Green Warbler* AS
___ Blackburnian Warbler* FS
___ Yellow-throated Warbler* FS
___ Pine Warbler* FS, OW
___ Prairie Warbler* US
___ Palm Warbler FM, OW
___ Bay-breasted Warbler FM
___ Blackpoll Warbler FM (spring), OM (fall)
___ Cerulean Warbler FM, OS
___ Black-and-white Warbler* CS
___ American Redstart* FS
___ Prothonotary Warbler* OM, XS
___ Worm-eating Warbler* FS
___ Swainson's Warbler* US
___ Ovenbird* AS
___ Northern Waterthrush OM
___ Louisiana Waterthrush* CS
___ Kentucky Warbler* US
___ Connecticut Warbler OM
___ Mourning Warbler XM
___ Common Yellowthroat* FS
___ Hooded Warbler* CS
___ Wilson's Warbler OM
___ Canada Warbler* CS he
___ Yellow-breasted Chat* FS cc

TANAGERS
___ Summer Tanager* US
___ Scarlet Tanager* CS

SPARROWS
___ Eastern Towhee* CR
___ Bachman's Sparrow XS (formerly OS)
___ Chipping Sparrow* CS
___ Field Sparrow* CR
___ Vesper Sparrow* UM cc, OS
___ Lark Sparrow XS cc
___ Savannah Sparrow UMW cc
___ Grasshopper Sparrow OSM cc
___ Henslow's Sparrow* OM XS
___ Le Conte’s Sparrow XMW cc
___ Fox Sparrow O-FW
___ Song Sparrow* CR
___ Lincoln's Sparrow OM
___ Swamp Sparrow FW
___ White-throated Sparrow C-AW
___ White-crowned Sparrow OM, OW
___ Dark-eyed Junco* AR he (lower elv. W)
___ Snow Bunting XW he
___ Northern Cardinal* CR
___ Rose-breasted Grosbeak* FS he
___ Blue Grosbeak OM, OS cc (*?)
___ Indigo Bunting* C-AS
___ Dickcissel XW cc, OM he

MEADOWLARKS, BLACKBIRDS & ORIOLES
___ Bobolink* UM cc
___ Red-winged Blackbird* FM, CS, cc, UW
___ Eastern Meadowlark* CR cc
___ Yellow-headed Blackbird XM
___ Rusty Blackbird UM, OW
___ Brewer’s Blackbird XM
___ Common Grackle* FS, UW
___ Brown-headed Cowbird* FM, FR
___ Orchard Oriole* UM, US
___ Baltimore Oriole* UM, OS, cc

FINCHES
___ Purple Finch U-FW
___ House Finch UR
___ Red Crossbill UR he (erratic) (*?)
___ White-winged Crossbill XW
___ Common Redpoll XW
___ Pine Siskin US, U-CW (erratic) (*?)
___ American Goldfinch* FR
___ Evening Grosbeak U-CW (erratic)

OLD WORLD SPARROWS
___ House Sparrow* UR


Checklist compiled by Fred J. Alsop, III and Paul Super.

This resource is based on the following source:
Forty-first Supplement to A.O.U. Checklist of American Birds. 1997.

Revised May 2010


BIRD OBSERVATIONS

The staff of Great Smoky Mountains National Park is interested in your observations of unusual birds in the park. Information that is of assistance to the park staff includes:

  • date and time
  • exact location
  • elevation
  • weather and temperature
  • number of individuals
  • your familiarity with the species

Send observations of unusual birds to:
Research Coordinator
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Twin Creeks Science and Education Center
1316 Cherokee Orchard Road
Gatlinburg, TN 37738

Did You Know?

Marbled salamanders are one of 30 salamander species native to the park.

There are at least 30 different species of salamanders in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. This gives the Smokies the distinction of having the most diverse salamander population anywhere in the world and has earned the park the nickname “Salamander Capital of the World.” More...