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    Great Smoky Mountains

    National Park NC,TN

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History of Cades Cove

Cades Cove Valley
Kent Cave Photo
 

Today, Cades Cove is one of the most visited areas in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Visitors are able to explore historic cabins, churches and a grist mill; spot white-tailed deer, turkeys and black bears; enjoy gorgeous mountain scenery or take a leisurely bicycle ride around the loop road.

Cades Cove was not always a place to visit for a day; it used to be a place to live. For over 100 years before the park was created, many families worked and played in the Cades Cove valley. Before Europeans settled in the valley, Cherokees Indians traveled through the valley to hunt the abundant deer, elk, bison and bears.

The first European settlers arrived in the Cove in the early 1820s. They quickly built log homes, barns, corncribs, smokehouses and cleared land for farming. The land was rich and fertile and provided the settlers with abundant crops, such as corn.

 
Cades Cove Primitive Baptist Church

A Baptist and Methodist church were established in Cades Cove during the 1820s.

NPS Photo

By 1850, the population in the valley had reached 685 as new families moved to the Cove and numerous children were born into the families already settled there. It was not uncommon for a household to have ten to twelve children. As the population grew, more community buildings were needed. A Baptist and Methodist church were established in the 1820s. Schoolhouses were built a little later, so at first the schoolchildren met in farm houses where the school teachers were boarding.

It was common for neighbors to assist one another and they often made social events out of corn husking, molasses making and gathering chestnuts during the autumn months. Courtships that started at social events often led to marriage. Many family farms had a "weaner cabin" - a cabin the son would bring his bride to live in the early days of their marriage. The "weaner cabin" was far enough away from his family for privacy and independence but close enough to help and be helped.

 
Cades Cove women husking corn

Neighbors assisted one another with corn husking, molasses making and gathering chestnuts.

NPS Photo

A death in the community was another reason for neighbors to help one another. When a member of the church passed away, the church bell would ring to get the people's attention. After a pause, the bell would be rung for each year of the dead person's life. Community members usually knew who was sick and the approximate age of the people in the church, which made it easy to identify who had passed away. The men would then dig a grave or make a coffin if one was not already made. The women would prepare the body and the coffin for burial. The men and women of the community would also help take care of the needs for the family of the deceased, such as by cooking meals, gathering crops, and caring for the young children.

When the states of Tennessee and North Carolina begin to purchase land for the creation of the national park, the first large piece of land purchased in 1927 included most of the land in the mountains north of Cades Cove. A few families welcomed the state's effort to buy land for the park; they willingly sold their land and moved out of the Cove. However, some families did resist the effort. One resident, John W. Oliver went to court several times before he finally lost.

Some residents signed life-leases that allowed them to live on their land for the rest of their life. People who agreed to a life lease were given less money for their land and were required to live by the rules set by the National Park Service, such as restrictions on hunting, trapping and timber cutting. As residents left the cove and the community dispersed, there was no longer a need for facilities and services. The last school in Cades Cove closed in 1944 and the post office closed in 1947.

 
Today, the National Park Service manages and maintains Cades Cove as it looked in the early days of the settlers. In 1945, the National Park Service designated Cades Cove as a "historical area" and restored several of the older log cabins and barns. While visiting Cades Cove, take a look around and imagine what it might have been like to grow up in the Cades Cove valley!


- Written by Jen Smith

 

Recommended Reading

 
The Cades Cove Story

The Cades Cove Story

Learn about the homelife, religion, country stores, agriculture, and education of Cades Cove. Inclues many historic photographs of this mountain community.

Did You Know?

Great Horned Owls can be heard most often in January and February

More than 240 species of birds have been found in the park. Sixty species are year-round residents. Nearly 120 species breed in the park, including 52 species from the neo-tropics. Many other species use the park as an important stopover and foraging area during their semiannual migration. More...