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Check Dam Erosion Control at Palisades

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Palisades Erosion Control Project Grand Canyon National Park
Novemeber 2, 1995 - Video Clip Duration 04m:40s

Palisades is one of the largest river terraces along the Colorado River formed by debris flows from Palisades Creek and abundant sand left by Colorado River floods.

This broad, relatively flat delta is rich in cultural resources, containing the remains of numerous pueblos, fire features, wall alignments, and artifacts.

Their condition has been deteriorating due to severe erosion caused by arroyo and gullying cutting and the loss of sediment due to the existence of the Glen Canyon Dam.

The greatest amount of impact occurs from run-off channels that cut through these cultural deposits on their way to the Colorado River.

These drainages that empty directly into the river are referred to as river-based streams.

These streams constantly expose new features and destroy others.

Because of this continued erosional downcutting, remedial actions were warranted to decrease the erosional process and the loss of cultural material.

A team approach was adopted by the signatories to the Programmatic Agreement. Three years of discussions and visits to the area by Programmatic Agreement representatives and National Park Service archaeologists” resulted in a plan of action.

In May, 1995, a four day stabilization workshop at Lee’s Ferry was organized, centering on a remedial action plan for Palisades.

The general thought was that Palisades needed erosion control measures that would enable sediment from the drainage systems to be captured, thus stabilizing the cuts.

A sediment catchment system would, theoretically, not only lessen the erosion of exposed features, but also preserve features and materials below the surface.

On-site evaluations and implementation of these erosion control measures were scheduled for September, 1995.

 

The video clip shown on this page begins here:

The methods used for sediment and erosion control were initiated by a Zuni Soil Conservation team and National Park Service resource specialists. They were assisted by members of the Hopi Tribe, the Hualapai Tribe, and the Navajo Nation. Other participants included personnel from Northern Arizona University, the Arizona State Historic Preservation Office, the United States Geological Survey, and the National Forest Service.

In total, 26 people were involved with this “hands-on” erosion control project.

The group walked through each arroyo and discussed where and what type of action should be taken.

After a consensus was reached, the location for each checkdam was numbered and described on flagging tape. Detailed descriptions were recorded and photographs were also taken.

National Park Service archaeologists made certain that all dams were built with culturally sterile materials found in the vicinity, and that no subsurface cultural features were disturbed.

Materials gathered for checkdam construction included: camel thorn, low brush, and arrowweed. Also collected were driftwood logs and branches.

River cobbles and boulders, limestone and sandstone boulders, and lava cobbles were carried in buckets, or on rock litters.

Over 100 tons of rocks were used to complete the project.

The sediment catchment structures were made in five varieties:

rock alignment, log checks, rock checks, “horseshoe” checks, and “basket weave” checks.

The “basket weave” check was the most elaborate type to be built. First, driftwood posts were cut and shaped.

Then, the posts were pounded into the ground to form the outline of a rectangle.

An abundance of brush was then placed on the floor of the arroyo between the posts.

Then, the arrowweed was forced into the side walls of the arroyo and woven through the driftwood posts.

The weave was repeated until it almost reached the top of the posts.
 

Large and small rocks were selectively placed inside the basket to give additional support.

To finish the check, rock grades were placed on both sides of the basket.

In three days, a total of 70 checkdams were built. The amount of labor necessary was considerable.

The Palisades erosion control project represents the first, and the most intense, of several erosion control assignments to be completed along the river corridor.

The effects of these measures will be monitored in the future, and if they prove to be successful, similar methods will be employed on highly impacted sites.

This archaeological preservation effort is unique because it utilized the expertise of both Native conservators and federal agency preservationists.
 


Related Information


Grand Canyon National Park Archeological Resources

The River Monitoring Program
generates data regarding the effects of Dam operations on historic properties, identifies ongoing impacts to historic properties within the APE [Area of Potential Effect], and develops and implements remedial measures for treating historic properties subject to damage.
Archeological Excavations at 9 Sites along the Colorado River Corridor
Between 2007 and 2009, the National Park Service, in cooperation with the Museum of Northern Arizona, undertook the first major archeological excavations along the river in Grand Canyon National Park in 40 years.

Archeologists Make Exciting Discoveries Along the Colorado River
In October, 2007, archeologists excavated a habitation site along the Colorado River. The fascinating artifacts they found provide insight into the lives of people who once made the Grand Canyon their home.

Canyon Sketches Vol 03 - May 2008
Archeologists Excavate Kiva by the Colorado River
Archeologists excavated nine archeological sites along the Colorado River because they are being impacted by severe erosion. In April and May 2008, crews discovered a complete kiva during the excavation of one of these sites.

Canyon Sketches Vol 09 - March 2009
Archeologists Excavate Two Sites Along the Colorado River.
In fall 2008, archeologists excavated two archeological sites during a three-year project along the Colorado River corridor in Grand Canyon. One of the excavated sites has evidence of as many as six different human occupations over a time span of 3,500 years.


The Vanishing Treasures Program
Grand Canyon National Park is one of 45 National Park Service areas that participate in the Vanishing Treasures Program. The goal of the Vanishing Treasures program is the conservation of architectural remains through research, documentation, and preservation treatment.

Canyon Sketches Vol 04 – June 2008
Vanishing Treasures Archeologists Stabilize Transept Ruin (North Rim)
In late June 2008, archeologists from Grand Canyon National Park’s Division of Science and Resource Management cleaned and stabilized Transept Ruin, a two-room ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) ruin on the North Rim.

Did You Know?

JOHN HANCE, GRAND CANYON PIONEER

John Hance, early Grand Canyon guide and storyteller, said of the Canyon, "It was hard work, took a long time, but I dug it myself, with a pick and a shovel. If you want to know what I done with the dirt, just look south through a clearin' in the trees at what they call the San Francisco Peaks." More...