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Lighting Standards

Review Design Standards General Statements before utilizing this web page.


Requirements
Laws
Building Codes & Industry Standards
National Park Service (NPS) Requirements
Professional Guidance
Resources


Requirements

Laws


Building Codes & Industry Standards

  • ASHRAE / IESNA 90.1 / 2010 (Energy Efficiency)
  • IEEE - Standards
  • IESNA 10th Edition - Illuminating Engineers Society of North America
  • NESC National Electrical Safety Code 2012
  • NFPA 70 (NEC) 2014
  • NFPA Codes and Standards (see Safety/Fire Protection Standards)
  • UL - Underwriter's Laboratory (Product Safety)

National Park Service (NPS) Requirements

Management Policies

Management Policies 2006 - The Guide to Managing the National Park System

Denver Service Center (DSC) Requirements

Illumination Levels

  • Illumination levels per IESNA recommendations (normal) and NFPA / IBC Standards (egress).

Connected Lighting Loads

  • General: 0.7 W/ s.f. maximum
  • Exhibit Areas - The maximum lighting power density should be 0.7 (where life cycle cost effective) watts per square foot. An increase of 0.7 watts per square foot is allowed for "highlighting art or exhibits", bringing the maximum allowable lighting power density for the exhibit space to 1.4 watts per square foot.

Fixtures and Components

  • Listed as defined in NEC Article 100 for application.
  • Utilize fixtures (luminaires) that efficiently deliver light and are well suited to the expected tasks.
  • Use high-efficiency electronic ballasts in all new fixtures.
  • Incorporate appropriate lighting controls. A well-designed lighting control system has the potential to reduce lighting energy use by 30-50%.

Lamps

  • Low wattage with relatively high output lamps.
  • Minimize the use of incandescent lighting.
  • Comply with NEMA and UL.

Exterior Lighting

  • Uplighting landscape and exterior architectural features is not acceptable. Dark night skies are a vital park resource and it is very important to protect the dark night skies and reduce light pollution. Light pollution is often caused by excessive or misdirected outdoor lighting.
  • Use lighting only when necessary (addressing safety and security issues). Timers, photocells and motion detectors are an effective way of maximizing light during the hours that it is needed most. Direct light only where it is needed and avoid over lighting.
  • Specify full-cutoff luminaires to direct nearly all their light downward, thus reducing light pollution.

Museum Lighting


Professional Guidance

Resources

Directives, Standards, and NPS Guidelines

  • Advanced Lighting Guidelines, Report Number DOE/EE-0008, NTIS Order Number DE94005264, U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC, 1993.
  • International Dark-Sky Association Guidelines

General

  • Lighting systems should be designed to provide visual comfort at low energy cost.

Connected Lighting Loads

  • Reduce connected lighting loads with carefully planned task and ambient lighting. (Ambient lighting should be utilized as a strategic method for meeting code restrictions on energy use in all types of facilities). The most energy efficient lighting installations are based on a balance of three lighting layers - ambient, task and accent lighting. The expected goal is energy-effective lighting design.

Fixtures and Components

  • Complement architectural style proposed and integrate with structure.

Lamps

  • Color rendering of fluorescent lighting is very important. CRI levels above 80 are recommended.

Value

  • Lighting as a medium to an end - to visual comfort, user pleasure and satisfaction, and productivity over the long term.
  • Lighting design as a process. Specifically, it should be viewed as the process of integrating light into the fabric of architecture (both the architectural concept and the physical structure).

Exterior Lighting

  • The use of white light sources increase nighttime visibility, renders landscaping more natural, and maximizes peripheral vision. Consider using Metal Halide vs. High-Pressure Sodium.
  • Integrate security lighting with the architecture (soffits, overhangs).

Daylighting Design

  • A baseline profile will help establish the potential opportunities for daylighting. Achieving good daylighting is often more of an art than a technical, engineered solution. The eye's perception of light is a key part of visibility. The quality of daylight and the human need for connection to daylight cannot be emphasized enough.
  • Integrate daylighting design with electric lighting, HVAC, and architectural systems. Incorporate automated daylight dimming where there is a significant amount of natural light but where turning electric lights off altogether would be inappropriate.
 

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