Foundation Document

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Foundation documents provides basic guidance for planning and management decisions. The core components of this foundation document include a brief description of WARO its purpose, significance, fundamental resources and values, other important resources and values, and interpretive themes. The document also includes special mandates and administrative commitments, an assessment of planning and data needs that identifies planning issues, planning products to be developed, and the associated studies and data required for park planning. Along with the core components, the assessment provides us a focus for park planning activities and establishes a baseline from which we develop planning documents. For a PDF copy of this foundation document, e-mail us.

 
Painting of General Rochambeau
Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau
 
Map of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail
Rough map of the route that Generals Washington’s and Rochambeau’s Armies followed in 1780-1781
Map showing a series of routes that were taken by Generals Washington and Rochambeau's armies in 1780-1781 from Massachusetts to Virginia.

North Arrow pointing toward the top of the map

Scale of map showing increments of 20 kilometers and 20 miles

Legend: National Historic Trail Route
Solid blue line for the French Army route
Dotted purple line for the French Army-water route
Solid red line for the Continental Army route
Dotted yellow line for the Continental Army-water route
Green squares for Related NPS units
Solid pink line for Interstate 95

French Army route indicated by a solid blue line: Route starts in Newport, Rhode Island, then heads north to Providence, Rhode Island, then west towards Lebanon, Connecticut, branches into three westward routes that overlap paths through southeastern New York converging north of New York City and continuing south along Interstate 95 past Baltimore Maryland, detours from Route 95 temporary to Annapolis, Maryland, continues to follow Interstate 95 to Fredericksburg, Virginia, then southeast ending at Yorktown, Virginia. This route passes Roger Williams National Memorial in Providence, Rhode Island; near Quinebaug & Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor in northeastern Rhode Island; near Governors Island National Monument in New York City, New York; Morristown National Historical Park in northern New Jersey; Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; near Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site and Valley Forge National Historical Park in eastern Pennsylvania; Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine in Baltimore, Maryland; Prince William Forest Park in eastern Virginia; and Colonial Naitonal Historical Park in Williamsburg, Virginia.

French Army-water route indicated by a dotted purple line: Route starts in Philadelphia and heads along the river through Wilmington, Delaware, and Elkton, Maryland, to the Chesapeake Bay, continuing to Baltimore, Maryland, then Annapolis, Maryland, and south ending at Yorktown, Virginia. This route passes Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine in Baltimore, Maryland; the Chesapeake Bay Geteways Network, and Colonial National Historical Park in Yorktown, Virginia.

Continental Army route indicated by a solid red line: This route starts in New York City, New York, then has branches that head north to Newburgh, New York, and southwest into New Jersey converging in Trenton, New Jersey, then continues south along Interstate 95 to Fredericksburg, Virginia, then heads southeast ending at Yorktown, Virginia. This route passes Governors Island National Monument in New York City, New York; near Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area north of Newburgh, New York; Morristown National Historical Park in eastern New Jersey; Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; near Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site and Valley Forge National Historical Park in eastern Pennsylvania; Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine in Baltimore, Maryland; Prince William Forest Park in eastern Virginia; and Colonial National Historical Park in Yorktown, Virginia.

Continental Army-water route indicated by a dotted yellow line: Route starts in Trenton, New Jersey, then heads south to Elkton, Maryland, through the Chesapeake Bay, continuing to Baltimore, Maryland, then Annapolis, Maryland, and south ending at Yorktown, Virginia. This route passes Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine in Baltimore, Maryland; the Chesapeake Bay Gateways Network; and Colonial National Historical Park in Yorktown, Virginia.

Interstate 95 indicated by a solid pink line: Route starts in Boston, Massachusetts, then heads south to Virginia passing through Providence, Rhode Island, New York City, New York, Princeton and Trenton, New Jersey, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Wilmington and Stanton, Delaware, Elkton and Baltimore, Maryland, Washington, DC. Fredericksburg, Virginia, and continues south. This route passes Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, Boston National Historical Park, Minute Man National Historical Park, Longfellow National Historic Site, in Boston, Massachusetts; Roger Williams National Memorial in Providence, Rhode Island; near Quinebaug & Shetaucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor in northeastern Connecticut, Governors Island National Monument in New York City, New York; Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; near Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site and Valley Forge National Historical Park in eastern Pennsylvania; Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine in Baltimore, Maryland; and Prince William Forest Park in eastern Virginia.
 
 
A multi-story red brick clock tower
Independence Hall, Philadelphia., Pennsylvania

NPS Photo

Mission of the National Park Service and National Trails System

The National Park Service (NPS) preserves unimpaired the natural and cultural resources and values of the national park system for the enjoyment, education, and inspiration of this and future generations. The National Park Service cooperates with partners to extend the benefits of natural and cultural resource conservation and outdoor recreation throughout this country and the world.

The NPS core values are a framework in which the National Park Service accomplishes its mission. They express the manner in which, both individually and collectively, the National Park Service pursues its mission. The NPS core values are: · Shared stewardship: We share a commitment to resource stewardship with the global preservation community.

  • Excellence: We strive continually to learn and improve so that we may achieve the highest ideals of public service.
  • Integrity: We deal honestly and fairly with the public and one another.
  • Tradition: We are proud of it; we learn from it; we are not bound by it.
  • Respect: We embrace each other’s differences so that we may enrich the well-being of everyone.


The National Park Service is a bureau within the Department of the Interior. While numerous national park system units were created prior to 1916, it was not until August 25, 1916, that President Woodrow Wilson signed the National Park Service Organic Act formally establishing the National Park Service.

The national park system continues to grow and comprises more than 400 park units covering more than 84 million acres in every state, the District of Columbia, American Samoa, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. These units include, but are not limited to, national parks, monuments, battlefields, military parks, historical parks, historic sites, lakeshores, seashores, recreation areas, scenic rivers and trails, and the White House. The variety and diversity of park units throughout the nation require a strong commitment to resource stewardship and management to ensure both the protection and enjoyment of these resources for future generations.

The national trails system is the network of scenic, historic, and recreation trails created by the National Trails System Act of 1968. These trails provide for outdoor recreation needs, promote the enjoyment, appreciation, and preservation of open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources, and encourage public access and citizen involvement.

The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail is a unit of the national trails system and a component of the national park system.

 
National Park Service arrowhead logo

The arrowhead was authorized as the official National Park Service emblem by the Secretary of the Interior on July 20, 1951. The sequoia tree and bison represent vegetation and wildlife, the mountains and water represent scenic and recreational values, and the arrowhead represents historical and archaeological values.

 
A tangle of bare branches partially obscures a river in the background below
Portions of the trail were trail-less brambles

NPS Photos

Introduction

Every unit of the national park system will have a foundational document to provide basic guidance for planning and management decisions—a foundation for planning and management. The core components of a foundation document include a brief description of the park as well as the park’s purpose, significance, fundamental resources and values, other important resources and values, and interpretive themes. The foundation document also includes special mandates and administrative commitments, an assessment of planning and data needs that identifies planning issues, planning products to be developed, and the associated studies and data required for park planning. Along with the core components, the assessment provides a focus for park planning activities and establishes a baseline from which planning documents are developed.

A primary benefit of developing a foundation document is the opportunity to integrate and coordinate all kinds and levels of planning from a single, shared understanding of what is most important about the park. The process of developing a foundation document begins with gathering and integrating information about the park. Next, this information is refined and focused to determine what the most important attributes of the park are. The process of preparing a foundation document aids park managers, staff, and the public in identifying and clearly stating in one document the essential information that is necessary for park management to consider when determining future planning efforts, outlining key planning issues, and protecting resources and values that are integral to park purpose and identity.

While not included in this document, a park atlas is also part of a foundation project. The atlas is a series of maps compiled from available geographic information system (GIS) data on natural and cultural resources, visitor use patterns, facilities, and other topics. It serves as a GIS-based support tool for planning and park operations. The atlas is published as a (hard copy) paper product and as geospatial data for use in a web mapping environment. The park atlas for the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail can be accessed online at http://insideparkatlas.nps.gov/.

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Part 1: Core Components

The core components of this foundation document include a brief description of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail, the purpose of the Trail, significance statements, fundamental resources and values, other important resources and values, and interpretive themes. These components are core because they typically do not change over time. Core components are expected to be used in future planning and management efforts.

 
Four primitive log cabins stand in a row next to a dirt trail in front of a dense canopy of tall green-leafed trees. Each cabin has one open windown without a covering and an open doorway without a door.
Reproduction of solider huts

NPS Photo

Brief Description of the Trail

The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail (referred to herein as the Trail) includes more than 700 miles of land and water corridors that follow the routes taken by American and French armies under the commands of General Washington and General Rochambeau to and from the siege of Yorktown, Virginia—a pivotal event in America’s War for Independence or the Revolutionary War. The national historic trail traverses nine states—Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia—plus the District of Columbia. The main trail and its multiple side routes pass through the major metropolitan areas in the Boston-New York Washington megalopolis. The national historic trail corridors connect parks, historic sites, natural preserves, and other public open spaces crossing a number of historic trails, scenic trails, and tour routes.

The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail recognizes those places that still mark the passage of French and American troops. The route offers a variety of experiences as it follows the steps taken by American and French soldiers. In a number of cities along the route—such as Boston, Massachusetts; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Alexandria, Virginia—historic buildings, roads, and open spaces remain despite tremendous growth since 1781. In addition, more rural areas along the route, such as New York’s Hudson River Valley and Virginia’s rural farmland, the route of the historic road, broad landscape patterns, and portions of the older communities still remain from the Colonial period. The national historic trail moves through a transportation corridor used from Colonial times to the present. Some of the roads maintain their 18th-century character and continue to connect large and small towns along the way. In other segments, the original Revolutionary-era road has since been replaced by modern two-lane roads and interstates, and the campsites and associated military resources have been covered over by modern development.

The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail has an intangible quality as well as a physical location. The national historic trail provides the framework to support preservation activities, interpretation efforts, and celebrations of this remarkable achievement. It is a living collaboration between the French and American governments, participants and supporters, and hundreds of communities, 50 counties, and nine states along the route.

 

Trail Purpose

The purpose statement identifies the specific reason(s) for establishment of a national historic trail. The purpose statement for the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail was drafted through a careful analysis of its enabling legislation and the legislative history that influenced its development. The Trail was established when the enabling legislation adopted by Congress (Public Law 111-11) was signed into law on March 30, 2009 (see appendix A for enabling legislation and administrative directives). The purpose statement lays the foundation for understanding what is most important about the Trail.

The purpose of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail is to preserve and interpret the routes taken by American and French troops from 1780-1783 and to commemorate the role of the critical French-American alliance in the victory over British forces at the siege of Yorktown, Virginia.

The National Park Service will assist in the protection of historic resources and the commemoration and interpretation of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail in collaboration with a broad range of private organizations and local, state, and federal agencies.

 
A leaf-covered gravel trail winds past trees at the edge of a green grass field. A white 2.5-story house surrounded by trees sits at the edge of the far side of the field.
Along the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail

NPS Photo

Park Use Significance

Significance statements express why a trail’s resources and values are important enough to merit designation as part of the national park system. These statements are linked to the purpose of Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail and are supported by data, research, and consensus. Statements of significance describe the distinctive nature of the Trail and why an area is important within a global, national, regional, and system wide context. They focus on the most important resources and values that will assist in trail planning and management.

The following significance statements have been identified for Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail. (Please note that the sequence of the statements does not reflect the level of significance.)

  1. The joint action taken by Washington’s and Rochambeau’s Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides an outstanding opportunity to place the Revolutionary War within the context of the broader global struggle and to highlight the essential role of the French-American alliance in the success of the American Revolution.
  2. Traversing some of the most densely populated areas in the country, the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides trail users with recreational and educational opportunities and connects communities through a network of organizations and public agencies to other parks, sites, and trails related to the American Revolution.
 
A two-story white mansion with a two-story proch supported by rectangular columns. The roof is bright red with three front-facing dormers. Two red brick chimneys flank a weathervane mounted on a lantern.
Front porch of George Washington's home, Mount Vernon, in Virginia

NPS Photo

 
A crowd watching a cannon demonstration by historic reenactors on a grass field near historic brick buildings
Living History Black Powder Demonstration

NPS Photo

Fundamental Resources and Values

Fundamental resources and values (FRVs) are those features, systems, processes, experiences, stories, scenes, sounds, smells, or other attributes determined to warrant primary consideration during planning and management processes because they are essential to achieving the purpose of the Trail and maintaining its significance. Fundamental resources and values are closely related to a trail’s legislative purpose and are more specific than significance statements.

Fundamental resources and values help focus planning and management efforts on what is truly significant about the Trail. One of the most important responsibilities of NPS managers is to ensure the conservation and public enjoyment of those qualities that are essential (fundamental) to achieving the purpose of the park and maintaining its significance. If fundamental resources and values are allowed to deteriorate, the Trail’s purpose and/or significance could be jeopardized.

The following fundamental resources and values have been identified for the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail.

  • Historic Routes, Encampments, and Related Sites. The Trail is authorized by its enabling legislation to acquire land within the designated corridor; however, there is currently no intent to acquire and manage any property. The following property types are fundamental to fulfilling the purpose of the Trail. The following property types are fundamental to fulfilling the purpose of the Trail:

    • Encampment sites including the taverns, houses, campsites, and open areas used to house soldiers or their commanders overnight, distribute rations, prepare food, repair equipment, and marshal them in preparation for the next day’s activities during the march south and return north.

    • Depots used by the quartermaster to store, prepare, and distribute food, fodder, pasturage, ovens, arms, and materiel caches used to provision solders during the march south and return north.

    • Fields of action where forces were engaged that relate to this march such as the Grand Reconnaissance around New York City, the engagements in Virginia at Gloucester Point and the Capes, and the Siege of Yorktown.es, and trails related to the American Revolution.

    • Routes of travel by land used by soldiers to reach Yorktown, Virginia, and return north; the important military and political pilgrimage sites noted by soldiers or visited by their commanders such as the site of the Battle of Trenton, the encampment at Valley Forge, and Mount Vernon; the feints and diversions used to conceal the main forces moving south; the routes used by French and American quartermaster staff to establish depots, caches, and encampments prior to the march and used to provision the encampments so food, fodder, armaments, and other materiel was available when needed; and the wagon routes used to transport people and goods during the march and used by camp followers and families. They also include the water routes used by French and American forces to move down the Chesapeake Bay and those traveled by the French West Indian fleet and the squadron based in Rhode Island as part of the coordinated action between the joint armies and the French navy.

    • Features of the landscape that determined the route of the march including the easiest corridor of travel between the coast and the first line of hills that rise above the fall line; the flat terrain and fertile soils of the coastal plain; the river crossings that were most easily forded by the combined forces and could not be observed by the enemy; and the natural ports and landings along the Narragansett, New York, Delaware, and Chesapeake Bays that provide access for oceangoing vessels and smaller boats and rafts.

    • Plaques, tablets, and markers that commemorated this event placed by individual states, by organizations such as the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Sons of the American Revolution, the Society of the Cincinnati, as well as individual communities and historical societies to commemorate campsites, buildings, and events.

    • Tombstones, grave markers, and other emblems that mark the sites where soldiers who died were buried or memorialized along the march route.

 
Late 18th-century map of the coast along Virginia to New York
18th-century map of a portion of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail

Library of Congress

  • Historic Documents, Artifacts, and Collections. Although the Trail will not establish or maintain its own collections, access to and use of the following types of collections held by existing and future partners (such as the Museum of the American Revolution, The American Revolution Institute of the Society of the Cincinnati, etc.) are fundamental to fulfilling the purpose of the Trail. The National Park Service may provide financial and technical assistance to support the conservation, interpretation, and use of:

    • Correspondence from officers, politicians, soldiers, camp followers, and people who lived in communities along the march route.

    • Military orders that include orders of the day, broad strategic objectives, tactical decisions, and logistical operations.

    • Governmental directives including formal communiqués between the Continental Congress and the Court of Louis XVI, statements of policy, formal agreements, and general correspondence of courtiers, public officials, and ambassadors.

    • Maps, drawings, and illustrations that describe the route or encampments.

    • Paintings, sculptures, monuments, and plaques recognizing individuals and historic events.

    • Artifacts including weapons, clothing, and other items of daily life of the soldiers, camp followers, and community members.

  • Partnerships. Partnerships are crucial to fulfilling the purpose of the Trail. The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route Association (W3R-US) was instrumental in the designation of the national historic trail and continues as a principal trail partner. Other federal areas that share the common goal of conserving and publicly interpreting the American Revolution, such as units of the national park system and national heritage areas, are key partners as well. Other partnerships that are fundamental to the Trail include those that engage in the following activities:

    • Resource protection and management of private and public land by individual landowners; private and nongovernmental organizations; and local, county, state, and federal agencies.

    • Interpretation and education outreach efforts to schools, communities, and the general public at historic sites and public parks.

    • Commemoration activities and events at sites along the historic route.

    • Promotions and celebrations at an individual park or community or as part of larger multicounty or interstate effort along the historic route.

 
A fishing and several smaller boats are docked against a wooden pier in an inlet.
Generals Washington’s and Rochambeau’s Armies traveled a portion of their route by water

NPS Photo

Other Important Resources and Values

The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail contains other resources and values that are not fundamental to the purpose of the Trail and may be unrelated to its significance but are important to consider in planning processes. These are referred to as “other important resources and values” (OIRV). These resources and values have been selected because they are important in the operation and management of the Trail and warrant special consideration in planning.

The following other important resources and values have been identified for Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail:

  • Scenic Vistas and Interpretive Views and Opportunities for Recreation. Within the Trail corridor, these are sites with exceptional scenic or interpretive value where the beauty and drama of the landscape is evident or where the landscape provides an opportunity to understand some aspect or element of this event (see appendix C for additional property types and specific properties). These include publicly accessible open space with recreational facilities. They include but are not limited to:

    • National historic sites, national historic parks, national military parks, national recreation areas, national battlefields, and national memorials. These include: Boston National Historical Park, Independence National Historical Park, Colonial National Historical Park, Minute Man National Historical Park, Morristown National Historical Park, Saratoga National Historical Park, First State National Historical Park, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, Richmond National Battlefield Park, Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Longfellow House Washington’s Headquarters National Historic Site, Thomas Stone National Historic Site, Springfield Armory National Historic Site, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Prince William Forest Park, Rock Creek Park, National Parks of New York Harbor, Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, George Washington Birthplace National Monument, Fort Stanwix National Monument, Fort Monroe National Monument, Statue of Liberty National Monument, and the George Washington Memorial Parkway.

    • National historic trails including Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail and StarSpangled Banner National Historic Trail.

    • National scenic trails including the Appalachian National Scenic Trail, the Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail, and the New England National Scenic Trail.

    • National heritage corridors and national heritage areas including Freedom’s Way National Heritage Area, Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor, Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor, Delaware and Lehigh National Heritage Corridor, Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area, Crossroads of the American Revolution National Heritage Area, Schuylkill River Valley National Heritage Area, and the Baltimore National Heritage Area.

 
Eight children standing in a line holding replica muskets on a stage in front of a sign reading "Find Your Park". A man in period clothes holds a replica musket while standing in front of a podium.
National Park Service education program

NPS Photo

Interpretive Themes

Interpretive themes are often described as the key stories or concepts that visitors should understand after visiting a park—they define the most important ideas or concepts communicated to visitors about a park unit. Themes are derived from, and should reflect, park purpose, significance, resources, and values. The set of interpretive themes is complete when it provides the structure necessary for park staff to develop opportunities for visitors to explore and relate to all park significance statements and fundamental and other important resources and values.

Interpretive themes are an organizational tool that reveal and clarify meaning, concepts, contexts, and values represented by park resources. Sound themes are accurate and reflect current scholarship and science. They encourage exploration of the context in which events or natural processes occurred and the effects of those events and processes. Interpretive themes go beyond a mere description of the event or process to foster multiple opportunities to experience and consider the park and its resources. These themes help explain why a park story is relevant to people who may otherwise be unaware of connections they have to an event, time, or place associated with the park.

The following interpretive themes have been identified for the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail:

  • The French Alliance and Its Global Context. The alliance between the United States and France during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) helped achieve American independence and was part of a larger geopolitical strategy for influence (in Europe, Africa, India, the West Indies), international trade, and for control of North America.
  • The Yorktown Campaign. The Yorktown Campaign (June to October 1781), culminating in the American and French victory over the British Army at Yorktown, Virginia, marked “the beginning of the end” of the Revolutionary War that guaranteed independence for the United States.


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Part 2: Dynamic Components

The dynamic components of a foundation document include special mandates and administrative commitments and an assessment of planning and data needs. These components are dynamic because they will change over time. New special mandates can be established and new administrative commitments made. As conditions and trends of fundamental and other important resources and values change over time, the analysis of planning and data needs will need to be revisited and revised, along with key issues. Therefore, this part of the foundation document will be updated accordingly.

 

Special Mandates and Administrative Commitments

Many management decisions for a trail are directed or influenced by special mandates and administrative commitments with other federal agencies, state and local governments, utility companies, partnering organizations, and other entities. Special mandates are requirements specific to a trail that must be fulfilled. Mandates can be expressed in enabling legislation, in separate legislation following the establishment of the trail, or through a judicial process. They may expand on the Trail purpose or introduce elements unrelated to the purpose of the trail. Administrative commitments are, in general, agreements that have been reached through formal, documented processes, often through memorandums of agreement. Examples include easements, rights-of-way, arrangements for emergency service responses, etc. Special mandates and administrative commitments can support, in many cases, a network of partnerships that help fulfill the objectives of the Trail and facilitate working relationships with other organizations. They are an essential component of managing and planning for Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail.

The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail has no special mandates. However, its administrative commitments are defined by its designation as a national historic trail and its management through the provisions of the National Trail Systems Act (PL 09-543 as amended through PL 111-11). Specifically:

SEC. 3. [16USC1242] (3)

  • National historic trails will be extended trails which follow as closely as possible and practicable the original trails or routes of travel of national historic significance.
  • National historic trails shall have as their purpose the identification and protection of the historic route and its historic remanants and artifacts for public use and enjoyment.
  • Only those selected land and water based components of a historic trail which are on federally owned lands and which meet the national historic trail criteria established in this Act are included as Federal protection components of a national historic trail.
  • The appropriate Secretary may certify other lands as protected segments of an historic trail upon application from state or local governmental agencies or private interests involved if such segments meet the national historic trail criteria established in this Act and such criteria supplementary thereto as the appropriate secretary may prescribe, and are administered by such agencies or interests without expense to the United States.
 
A liberty bell replica covered in red, white, and blue flowers is mounted over a small grassy area with several planters painted with colorful patriotic designs. The preamble of the Constitution is written on a wall as a backdrop.
Philadelphia Flower Show during National Park Service Centennial in 2016

NPS Photo

Assessment of Planning and Data Needs

Once the core components of part 1 of the foundation document have been identified, it is important to gather and evaluate existing information about the trail’s fundamental and other important resources and values, and develop a full assessment of the trail’s planning and data needs. The assessment of planning and data needs section presents planning issues, the planning projects that will address these issues, and the associated information requirements for planning, such as resource inventories and data collection, including GIS data.

There are three sections in the assessment of planning and data needs:

  1. analysis of fundamental and other important resources and values
  2. identification of key issues and associated planning and data needs
  3. identification of planning and data needs (including spatial mapping activities or GIS maps)

The analysis of fundamental and other important resources and values and identification of key issues leads up to and supports the identification of planning and data collection needs.

 
 

Analysis of Fundamental Resources and Values

The fundamental resource or value analysis table includes current conditions, potential threats and opportunities, planning and data needs, and selected laws and NPS policies related to management of the identified resource or value.

Fundamental Reource of Value

Historic Routes, Encampments, and Related Sites

Description of the Fundamental Value or Resource

  • Multiple routes taken by the French and American troops, camp followers, and their supply wagons along roads, paths, and waterways on the march to Yorktown and their victorious return north.
  • Coordinated French naval movements in support of the land actions.
  • Encampments, depots, and mustering grounds used during the march.
  • Cemeteries and gravesites of those who were buried along the route.
  • Battlefields associated with the march, including the Grand Reconnaissance and the battles at Gloucester Point and the Capes.
  • Iconic sites visited by French officers along the march.
  • Geographic features that influenced the joint French-American tactical and logistical decisions.
  • Organizational mechanisms used to overcome barriers of language, culture, tactical doctrine, and national agendas.
  • Public access to trail corridor and historic sites.

Related Significance Statements

  • The joint action taken by Washington's and Rochambeau's allied armies is the longest and most complex march/military maneuver of the Revolutionary War. The national historic trail corridor connects publicly accessible sites associated with the routes of the French and American troops on their way to Yorktown, Virginia, and their victorious return north.
  • The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides an outstanding opportunity to place the Revolutionary War within the context of the broader global struggle and to highlight the essential role of the French-American alliance in the success of the American Revolution.
  • Traversing some of the most densely populated areas in the country, the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides trail users with recreational and educational opportunities and connects communities through a network of organizations and public agencies to other parks, sites, and trails related to the American Revolution.

Importance

  • Designation of a national historic trail relies on the ability to identify the geographic locations of historic events. The exact routes followed by the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route are known in some detail, both from original documents and subsequent scholarship about the march.
  • Identification of the routes and understanding the landscapes through which they passed is significant for the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Rochambeau and stealth were important elements of this maneuver. The ability of a large force to move quickly and hide their route from nearby British forces required clear understanding of the geography of the Eastern Seaboard, the network of roads and trails, and the physical impacts of a large military force. The landscape was not simply a backdrop for historic events—it was fundamental to meeting the military objectives. The route available was constrained by wetlands along the coast, mountains to the west, and seven major rivers that cut across this route. Fortunately, this maneuver occurred in an area with a well-developed transportation network that has moved people and goods up and down the Eastern Seaboard for centuries. The route followed paths often first developed by American Indians, some of which were subsequently transformed into the colonial-era roads and then into 19th-century turnpikes, 20th-century parkways, and modern interstate highways.
  • Cultural landscapes are the locations, features, and components along the route associated with the joint French and American march. The integrity of these landscapes and their ability to convey the setting, feeling, and association of the expedition is important to the contemporary experience of the trail.

Current Conditions and Trends

Conditions

  • While there has been substantial research of the event, not all portions of the historic route and associated resources have been systematically inventoried and few are regularly monitored. As a result, there is no comprehensive strategy to monitor conditions, identify when issues arise, and proactively address threats to resources along the route.
  • Several traditional and modern methods have been used to rediscover the exact route of the joint French and American march, ranging from recalculating original survey notes and cartography based on historic maps to interpretation of aerial imagery and use of GIS; each of these efforts contributes to the continuing refinement of route location.
  • Because of the nature of the terrain and the growth of modern communities, designated auto tour routes may be disconnected from the historic route. As a result, auto route travelers may not experience the landscapes encountered by the French and American soldiers on this historic march.
  • Areas of the Trail under local, state, and federal ownership or management are afforded a degree of protection from alteration; however, a number of them are located in areas where public access is restricted for national security reasons. Some segments of the Trail lie in areas with other special designations that provide some protections and offer public access, such as the Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area, Crossroads of the American Revolution National Heritage Area, and the Chesapeake Bay Gateways Network.
  • The extent of development throughout this corridor has complicated the identification of the route and related historic GIS the route goes through the heart of the megalopolis that flows from Boston through Providence, Hartford, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore to Washington, DC, there is little left of the historic landscape experienced by the soldiers who marched along the route 230 years ago.In some places, changes along the route have been limited, and the original route and historic sites are still sites. Because, in other parts of the route, change has been more dramatic and in some cases has obliterated the colonial-era landscape, altered the underlying topography, and eliminated public access.In these most extreme situations, in addition to verifying the original historic route and locations of related sites, it is necessary to define corresponding locations on the modern roadways that reflect the historic event, provide a viable interpretive experience, and are accessible to the public.

Trends

  • Cultural landscapes, historic sites, national register sites, and national historic landmarks along the Trail are experiencing pressure from modern development. The level of pressure varies, but all are experiencing the threats related to modern development, including loss of setting and historic fabric, change of historic use, intrusion by modern noise and motion, change of vegetative communities, increase of invasive species, and limited regulatory mechanisms for protection.
  • Demands for energy transmission continue to carve swaths through this region and segment the landscape through which the Trail extends. The areas in which this development is focused are often those regions retaining conditions most similar to those experienced by the corps.

Threats and Opportunities

Threats

  • Urban and suburban development threatens the cultural and physical landscapes, historic sites, national register sites, and national historic landmarks along the trail. Encroachment threats include losses in place and historic fabric, change of historic use, intrusion by modern noise and motion, change of vegetative communities, increase of invasive species, and limited regulatory mechanisms for protection.
  • Increasing demands for energy consumption threaten to tear the historic and cultural fabric of the region and diminish the landscape through which the Trail extends. This development is focused in areas most similar to those experienced by the combined armies.

Opportunities

  • Portions of the Trail lie within lands owned by local, state, and federal governments and on property owned by preservation-minded individuals and organizations. These provide opportunities for visitors to visit the historic route and camps and experience the general setting similar to that experienced by the Washington and Opportunities armies.
  • Many cultural landscapes have not been identified along the length of the trail. Future protection of the Trail requires identification and documentation of important cultural landscapes. In addition, there may be national register-eligible sites along the Trail that have not been identified or documented.

Data and/or GIS Needs

  • Geospatial map of route, including location of multiple routes and the related historic sites used by French and American troops and sailors.
  • Resource inventory and assessment by state.
  • Identification of public access, site ownership, and likelihood of change.
  • Resource protection strategies.

Planning Needs

  • Comprehensive trail management plan (framework).
  • State trail segment plans.
  • Resource stewardship strategy.























































































































































 
Two historic drawings of Revolutionary War soldiers
Soldiers of the Continental Army, sketch by French army officer, circa 1781 (left). Uniform of the Army of the United States illustrated by Lt. Col. M. I. Ludington (right).

Unknown (left); Quartermaster General, U. S. Army. Washington (right)

Fundamental Resource or Value Historic Documents, Artifacts, and Collections

Description of the Fundamental Resource or Value

  • Original and translated correspondence, orders, and directives and other documentation by or to members of the joint military force.
  • Maps and drawings associated with the route and events of the march.
  • Artifacts associated with members of the joint military force.
  • Paintings, sculptures, monuments, and other visual material documenting the people or illustrating locations and events of the march.
  • Reviews of original documents and other scholarships linked to the people and events related to the march.

Related Significance Statements

  • The joint action taken by Washington’s and Rochambeau's allied armies is the longest and most complex march/military maneuver of the Revolutionary War. The national historic trail corridor connects publicly accessible sites associated with the routes of the French and American troops on their way to Yorktown, Virginia, and their victorious return north.
  • The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides an outstanding opportunity to place the Revolutionary War within the context of the broader global struggle and to highlight the essential role of the French-American alliance in the success of the American Revolution.
  • Traversing some of the most densely populated areas in the country, the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides trail users with recreational and educational opportunities and connects communities through a network of organizations and public agencies to other parks, sites, and trails related to the American Revolution.

Importance

  • Documentation, including journals, maps, oral histories, drawings, diagrams, and letters and correspondence, was collected by individuals, organizations, and public agencies in the United States and in Europe. They are part of national archives and important collections in this country and in England, France, Germany, and Spain.
  • These documents describe the changing political landscape and national agendas among those who eventually supported the American cause. They describe the geopolitical context for this war and the support provided by the French and Spanish governments.
  • The documents record poignant human stories of perseverance and chronicle the diversity of cultures that were engaged in this struggle.
  • The documents serve as a resource for present-day researchers and provide a look into U.S military, economic, political, and social agendas of those involved with the birth of this nation.

Current Conditions and Trends

Conditions

  • Primary resources are publicly accessible and documents are maintained by various institutions in this country and abroad, primarily in France. Some of the institutions include the Library of Congress and Princeton and Cornell Universities in the United States and Strasbourg and d'Evreux Bibliotheque Municipales, Bibliotheque Nationale de Paris, and the Archives Generales du Department de Meurthe-et-Moiselle in Europe.
  • Generally, documents are in good condition and are available for scholarly research.

Trends

  • None identified.

Threats and Opportunities

Threats

  • The integrity of archival collections is vulnerable to environmental conditions, lack maintenance, and theft.

Opportunities

  • Opportunities exist to coordinate access to primary resources among existing curatorial and archival staff.

Data and/or GIS Needs

  • Inventory and assessment of primary documentation and translations.
  • Inventory and assessment of collections and archives.
  • Inventory of scholarship, research, and reports.
  • Graphic image library.

Planning Needs

  • State trail segment plans.

 
An 18th-century map of New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania and an 18th-century map of New Castle, Delaware
An 18th-century map showing New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, and Pennsylvania in relation to the Atlantic Ocean. (left)  And 18th-century map of Newcastle, Delaware.

Library of Congress

Fundamental Resource or Value Partnerships

Description of the Fundamental Resource or Value

  • Support efforts to protect historic sites and cultural landscapes that engage visitors with the people, places, and events of the march, its context, and its impact on subsequent events.
  • Support efforts to protect vistas and directed views that illustrate the people, places, and impact of the march.
  • Support programs that offer visitors opportunities to interact with the sights, sounds, smells, and physical conditions similar to those experienced by the joint military force.
  • Expand public access to march-related sites, programs, and events.
  • Support efforts to interpret individual stories and broad historic trends associated with the march.
  • Amplify efforts to engage broader and more diverse audiences.
  • Solicit new partners to expand march-related protection, interpretation, promotion, and celebration activities.
  • Support partners in commemorating, celebrating, and promoting the people, communities, and events associated with the march.
  • Support integration of new march-related efforts within existing conservation, education, and commemorative mandates.

Related Significance Statements

  • The joint action taken by Washington's and Rochambeau's allied armies is the longest and most complex march/military maneuver of the Revolutionary War. The national historic trail corridor connects publicly accessible sites associated with the routes of the French and American troops on their way to Yorktown, Virginia, and their victorious return north.
  • The joint action taken by Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides an outstanding opportunity to place the Revolutionary War within the context of the broader global struggle and to highlight the essential role of the French-American alliance in the success of the American Revolution.
  • Traversing some of the most densely populated areas in the country, the Moiselle Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides trail users with recreational and educational opportunities and connects communities through a network of organizations and public agencies to other parks, sites, and trails related to the American Revolution.

Importance

  • Trail partners are stewards who are essential to the preservation, education, public access to, and protection of the Washington-GIS Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail They are individuals, organizations, and agencies that manage resources and connect visitors to trail stories and experiences through a variety of opportunities.
  • For the National Park Service to achieve its legislative mandate, national historic trail partners and partner organizations are critical The length and complexity of the Trail and the fact that little of the Trail is under NPS ownership mean that activities must be in collaboration with partners, landowners, and governmental organizations.

Current Conditions and Trends

Conditions

  • The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail staff engages in numerous partnerships through short-term agreements with a variety of not-for-profit organizations and local entities, but none are formal friends groups.
  • The National Washington-Washington Rochambeau Revolutionary Route Association, Inc (W3R-US) is the oldest national partner organization and the primary partner with which the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail cooperates. The W3R-US is a member-based national organization that played a prominent role in the creation of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail and is working with the National Park Service to improve trail visibility, improve education and interpretation opportunities, and identify partnerships to help engage people with the trail.

Trends

  • Interest in the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail from local community groups is admirable but often not sustained.

Threats and Opportunities

Threats

  • None identified.

Opportunities

  • More needs to be done to foster relationships with national partners and friends groups with shared goals and the ability to increase the influence of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail.
  • A national partner can aid in linking regional and local partners nationwide and elevate initiatives to a national level.
  • Other partners are needed to link the regional and national partners with groups interested and organized overseas.

Data and/or GIS Needs

  • Identification of site ownership, management, and likelihood of change.
  • Inventory of stakeholders, interested parties, and potential partners.
  • Inventory and assessment of public access.
  • Inventory of historic markers, statues, graves, and cemeteries.
  • Inventory of directional signs, tour routes, and promotional efforts.
  • Inventory of interpretive and educational materials and programs.
  • Inventory and assessment of those with familial ties or other ethnographic connections.
  • Inventory and assessment of related resource conditions, threats, and opportunities.
  • Graphic identity standards.
  • Assessment of investment and management capacity for existing partners.

Planning Needs

  • State trail segment plans.
  • Park partner action strategy.
  • Long-range interpretive plan.
  • Communications plan.
  • Management and development plans for Rochambeau owned and managed sites.
















































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A three-masted clipper with no sails raised in a harbor. An American flag and French flag fly from its stern.
Naval battles helped the allies to win the battles of Yorktown.

NPS Photo

Analysis of Other Important Resources and Values

Other Important Resource or Value

Scenic Vistas and Interpretive Views

Description of the Other Important Resource or Value

  • Long-range views that provide an exceptional opportunity for interpretation.
  • Broad vistas that allow visitors to separate themselves from the sensory experiences of the modern world.

  • A setting that is evocative of the colonial-era landscape.

Related Significance Statements

  • The joint action taken by Washington’s and Rochambeau’s allied armies is the longest and most complex march/military maneuver of the Revolutionary War.The national historic trail corridor connects publicly accessible sites associated with the routes of the French and American troops on their way to Yorktown, Virginia, and their victorious return north.
  • The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides an outstanding opportunity to place the Revolutionary War within the context of the broader global struggle and to highlight the essential role of the French-American alliance in the success of the American Revolution.
  • Traversing some of the most densely populated areas in the country, the Washington- Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides trail users with recreational and educational opportunities and connects communities through a network of organizations and public agencies to other parks, sites, and trails related to the American Revolution.

Importance

  • Long-range views, broad vistas, and localized setting provide opportunities for visitors to engage with the people and events of the march and understand the broad themes associated with this event.
  • Views, vistas, and setting provide sensory experiences unavailable through other interpretive media

Current Conditions and Trends

Conditions

  • The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail is experiencing increasing pressure from modern development. There are fewer and fewer landscapes capable of immersing visitors in a colonial-era experience.
  • The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail follows the alignment of many modern roadways and uses many modern bridges to cross the five major bays and seven major rivers along its route. As an unintended consequence of maximizing sight lines and minimizing grade changes, modern engineering practice and roadway maintenance have created long vistas of landscapes, especially where they cross bodies of water.

Trends

  • None identified.

Threats and Opportunities

Threats

  • The original route explored by engineers and pioneers followed transportation corridors still in use today; however, little remains of the original landscape. Modern development along these corridors threatens the cultural and physical landscapes, scenic vistas, interpretive views, historic sites, and national historic landmarks along the trail.
  • The introduction of modern infrastructure continues to encroach upon the historic landscape, threatening scenic vistas and interpretive views.

Opportunities

  • Opportunities exist to coordinate access to primary resources among existing curatorial and archival staff.
  • Portions of the trail lie within lands owned by local, state, and federal governments and on property owned by preservation-minded individuals and organizations. The settings of many of these segments retain a high degree of integrity and offer visitors an enhanced experience.
  • Opportunities exist to coordinate efforts with partner NPS sites and other state, regional, and community entities to connect the Trail with historic sites and recreation areas to improve the quality of and access to scenic vistas and interpretive views.
  • Scenic views may also be preserved through easements, covenants, and other legal mechanisms.

Data and/or GIS Needs

  • Inventory of scenic vistas and interpretive views.
  • Identification of public access, site ownership, and likelihood of change.
  • Graphic identity standards.
  • Resource protection strategies.

Planning Needs

  • Communications plan.
  • Long-range interpretive plan.
  • Park partner action strategy.
  • Outdoor recreation plan.








































































 

Other Important Rescource or Value

Opportunities for Recreation

Description of the Other Important Resource or Value

  • Areas that provide recreational opportunities that are open to the public and compatible with the goals of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail Some of these include regional trails, scenic auto tours, local and state parks, national forests and parks, heritage corridors, and cultural networks.

Related Signficance Statements

  • The joint action taken by Washington’s and Rochambeau’s allied armies is the longest and most complex march/military maneuver of the Revolutionary War The national historic trail corridor connects publicly accessible sites associated with the routes of the French and American troops on their way to Yorktown, Virginia, and their victorious return north.
  • The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides an outstanding opportunity to place the Revolutionary War within the context of the broader global struggle and to highlight the essential role of the French-American alliance in the success of the American Revolution.
  • Traversing some of the most densely populated areas in the country, the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail provides trail users with recreational and educational opportunities and connects communities through a network of organizations and public agencies to other parks, sites, and trails related to the American Revolution.

Importance

  • Outdoor recreation experiences expand the audiences who can be exposed to the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail.

Current Conditions and Trends

Conditions

  • The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail is relatively invisible to members of the general public and the siege of Yorktown by American and French armies during the Revolutionary War is unknown to most.
  • Many individuals, organizations, and public agencies are unaware that land they own or manage may be on the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trial and do not understand how trail activity could be compatible with their current use.

Trends

  • None identified.

Threats and Opportunities

Threats

  • The public tends not to be aware of different forms of recreation and may be unaware of how a historic trail may benefit them and their communities in terms of recreational and economic opportunities.
  • When thinking about recreation or recreational planning and use, cultural resources such as a historic trail can sometimes be overlooked.

Opportunities

  • None identified.

Data and/or GIS Needs

  • Inventory of recreational opportunities along the route.
  • Inventory of stakeholders, interested parties, and potential partners.

Planning Needs

  • Communications plan.
  • Long-range interpretive plan.
  • Park partner action strategy.
  • Outdoor recreation plan.
 

Identification of Key Issues and Associated Planning and Data Needs

This section considers key issues to be addressed in planning and management and therefore takes a broader view over the primary focus of part 1. A key issue focuses on a question that is important for a park unit. Key issues often raise questions regarding trail purpose and significance and fundamental and other important resources and values. For example, a key issue may pertain to the potential for a fundamental or other important resource or value in a trail to be detrimentally affected by discretionary management decisions. A key issue may also address crucial questions that are not directly related to purpose and significance, but which still affect them indirectly. Usually, a key issue is one that a future planning effort or data collection needs to address and requires a decision by NPS managers.

The following are key issues for the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail and the associated planning and data needs to address them:

  • Organizational and Operational Capacity. The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail is a new national historic trail that traverses some of the most densely populated areas in the country. The national historic trail will need a base operating budget to ensure sustained programmatic capacity and to enable the National Park Service to plan, implement, and render technical and financial assistance to partner organizations. The National Park Service must provide assistance to enable partner organizations to leverage efforts in support of the trail’s mission and to build their operational capacity as called for in the National Historic Trails Act. In addition, the Trail needs to establish a physical presence within the corridor, potentially co-locating with a partner organization.

    • Associated planning and data needs: Budget and funding strategy

  • Accessible and User-Friendly Resource Inventory. The existing comprehensive resource inventory is not digitized or indexed for ease of reference. The volume of information needs to be mapped, summarized, and available in an accessible format. In addition, digital graphic images need to be acquired, identified with appropriate metadata, and archived with sufficient intellectual property and usage rights.

    • Associated planning and data needs: Digital resource inventory

  • Integrated Comprehensive Planning. Planning a national historic trail through nine states using a traditional management plan model would take resources that the national historic trail is not likely to have. However, a grassroots, state-by-state planning model that combines the national historic trail planning efforts of individual states will be a practical alternative for the scale of this issue.

    • Associated planning and data needs: Comprehensive management plan; state trail segment plans that incorporate regional and community management and comprehensive plans; not-for-profit organizational plans; state, local, and regional master plans; interpretive plans; state, regional, and local government transportation plans; and state and local tourism initiatives

  • Communications, Outreach, Public Awareness, and Relevance. Considering its novelty, the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail is challenged to coordinate and connect with various NPS units, historic places, state parks, and local sites relating to the events of the American Revolution. It is imperative that the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail collaborate with fellow National Park Service and other revolutionary war sites, programs, events, local entities, existing visitor centers, and recreational venues.

    • Associated planning and data needs: Communications and social media plan with community outreach strategy.

 

Planning and Data Needs

To maintain connection to the core elements of the foundation and the importance of these core foundation elements, the planning and data needs listed here are directly related to protecting fundamental resources and values, park significance, and park purpose, as well as addressing key issues. To successfully undertake a planning effort, information from sources such as inventories, studies, research activities, and analyses may be required to provide adequate knowledge of trail resources and visitor information. Such information sources have been identified as data needs. Geospatial mapping tasks and products are included in data needs.

Items considered of the utmost importance were identified as high priority, and other items identified but not rising to the level of high priority were listed as either medium- or lowpriority needs. These priorities inform trail management efforts to secure funding and support for planning projects.

Planning Needs - Where A Decision-Making Process Is Needed

Related to an FRV, OIRV, or Key Issue? Planning Needs Priority (H, M, L) Notes
FRV Comprehensive trail management plan (framework) H This plan would provide a framework of common intrepretive themes and context for all partners for individual site, community, and state efforts. This plan would address teh transitions between jurisdictions.
Key Issue Budget and funding strategy to plan and implement the comprehensive trail management plan H Base funding shoudl be sufficient to support partnerships that demonstrate leveraging capactiy in order to impolement the national historic trail management plan.
FRV, Key Issue State trail segment plans H These plans would implement the framework and standards developed in the comprehensive management plan for each state and district along the route.
FRV, OIRV Park partner action strategy H A park partner action strategy would use a facilitated process to improve the effectiveness of a partnership and result in priortitized actions to meet partnership goals over a specificed period of time.
FRV Resource stewardship strategy (site by site for high priority properties) H This strategy would focus on identifying and tracking indicators of desired conditions, recommending comprehensive strategies to achieve and maintain desired conditions over time.
FRV, OIRV Long-range interpretive plan H This plan would provide a framework of common interpretive themes and context for all partners for individual site, community, and state efforts. This plan would address the transitions between jurisdictions.
FRV, OIRV, Key Issue Communications plan with social media and community outreach strategies H Communications planning would improve communications and collaboration among the various NPS units, state, regional, and local governments, nongovernment entities, and national, state, and local partners. Social media and outreach would improve trail visibility locally and nationwide. In addition to traditional standardized signage programs that present and interpret trail information, this effort would include a common starndard among individual trail sites for web accessibility and provide a common standard for social media outreach.
FRV Management and development plans for publicly owned and managed sites M Conducted cooperatively with the public and stakeholders, these plans would implement the comprehensive trail management plan and the state trail segment plans at the site level.
OIRV Outdoor recreation plan M This plan would align outdoor recreation opportunities with commemorative and interpretive opportunities wthin the trail corridor.























































Data Needs - Where Information Is Needed Before Decisions Can Be Made

Related to an FRV, OIRV, or Key Issue? Planning Needs Priority (H, M, L) Notes
FRV Geospatial map of route, including location of multiple routes and the related historic sites used by French and American sailors H Some map illustrations of the route exist, which are protected under intellectual property rights. The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail needs a comprehensive geospatial map of the historical route, as well as how it exists today, for planning/management decisions and for public information.
FRV Resource inventory and assessment by state H There is a lot of information available about the Trail but there is limited consistency regarding the accuracy, documentation, completeness, and presentation of the information. Individual sections of the Trail will require specific data to support the state trail segment plans.
FRV, Key Issue Inventory and assessment of regional, state, and local planning documents H This would identify the complex array of public and private partners and provide guidance for individuals, organizations, public agencies, and communities on the range of activities and criteria for inclusion in this trail effort. This would inform decision-making across multiple jurisdictions and lead to the inclusion of the Trail in multivariate planning efforts. It would include interpretive plans; outdoor recration plans; state, regional, and community long-range comprehensive plans; state, regional, and local transportation plans; state trail, greenway and byway plans; not-for-profit organizational plans; state, local, and regional master plans; and partner NPS unit plans, including general management plans, environmental impact studies, foundation documents, long-range interpretive plans, asset management plans, resource stewardship strategies, and cultural landscape reports.
Key Issue Digital resource inventory H Digital system is required to collect, organize, and query information from inventory and assessment.
FRV, Key Issue Inventory and assessment of primary documentation and translations H When completed, all primary documents would be organized in a system of record and classification according to professional archival and information management standards. Status on resource conditions including real time feedback would be readily available; partners would initiate and share information, and there would be a user-friendly mechanism in place to collect, input, retrive, and synthesize that information.
FRV Inventor of scholarship, research, and reports H No inventory of scholarship currently exists.
FRV Assessment of investment and management capacity for existing partners H No current inventory exists.
FRV Inventory of stakeholders, interested parties and potential parnters H This information is required to identify potential partnerships and to strategically manage them.
FRV, OIRV Resource protection strategies H Develop site-by-site protection strategies.
FRV, OIRV Graphic identity standards H The plan would provide a standardized system of graphic symbols, notations, and verificaiton. It would be flexible enough to include as much existing information as possible and provide useful information for partner education and documentation efforts.
FRV Inventory and assessment of collections and archives M The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail does not curate any collections; an inventory and assessment of cultural historical artifacts is needed to determine location, condition, significance, management, storage, and accessibility.
FRV Graphic image library M Library of photographs, images, etc., that includes right of use and copyright information for use in developing graphic materials for the Trail.
OIRV Inventory of scenic vistas and interpretive views M No current inventory exists.
FRV, OIRV Identificaiton of public access, site ownership, and likelihood of change M A parcel inventory may be obtained from county GIS offices.
FRV Intentory of historic markers, statues, graves, and cemeteries M No current inventory exists.
FRV Inventory of directional signs, tour routes, and promotional efforts M Information is required to effectively coordinate wayfinding efforts across multiple jurisdictions.
FRV Inventory and assessment of public access M Information is required to incorporate opportunities for public access in state trail segment plans.
FRV Inventory of interpetive and educational materials and programs L Information is required to effectively coordinate interpretive efforts across multiple jurisdictions.
FRV Inventory and assessment of those with familial ties or other ethnographic connections L No current inventory exists.
FRV Inventory and assessment of related resource conditions, threats, and opportunities L No current inventory exists.
 

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Part 3: Contributors

Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail

Joseph DiBello, Superintendent
Paul Kenney, Trails Program Manager
Phil Correll, Trails Program Manager (retired)

NPS Northeast Region

Brian Strack, Associate Regional Director, Planning, Facilities and Conservation Assistance
Allen Cooper, Senior Planner, Park Planning and Special Studies
Peter Iris-Williams, Park Planner and Project Manager (retired)
Joanne Blacoe, Chief Interpretive Planner
Helen Mahon, Community Planner (former), Park Planning and Special Studies
Colin Betts, Regional Park Ranger

Partners

National Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route Association, Inc.
The Society of the Cincinnati
The Daughters of the Cincinnati
The General Society of Sons of the Revolution
National Society, Sons of the American Revolution
Partnership for the National Trails System
The National Parks Conservation Association
National Parks Foundation
Eastern National
Mount Vernon Ladies’ Association
Socieity Française des Cincinnati
Hermione-La Fayette Association
The Friends of Rochambeau in Vendôme
The American Revolution Association
Museum of the American Revolution
The French Embassy
Crossroads of the American Revolution National Heritage Area
Schuylkill National Heritage Area
Baltimore National Heritage Area
Hudson River Valley National Heritage Area
Delaware and Lehigh National Heritage Corridor
Quinebaug and Shetucket Rivers Valley National Heritage Corridor
Chesapeake Bay Program
Star-Spangled Banner Trail National Historic Trail
Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail

Other NPS Staff

Ken Bingenheimer, Contract Editor (former), Denver Service Center, Planning Division
Mindy Burke, Contract Editor, Denver Service Center, Planning Division
Pam Holtman, Quality Assurance Coordinator, WASO Park Planning and Special Studies
John Paul Jones, Visual Information Specialist, Denver Service Center, Planning Division
Nancy Shock, Foundation Coordinator, Denver Service Center, Planning Division
Philip Viray, Publications Chief, Denver Service Center, Planning Division

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Appendices

 

Appendix A: Enabling Legislation and Administrative Directives for the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail

SEC. 5204. WASHINGTON-ROCHAMBEAU REVOLUTIONARY ROUTE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL.

Section 5(a) of the National Trails System Act (16 U.S.C. 1244(a)) (as amended by section 5202(a)) is amended by adding at the end the following:

(29) WASHINGTON-ROCHAMBEAU REVOLUTIONARY ROUTE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL.—

(A) IN GENERAL.—The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail, a corridor of approximately 600 miles following the route taken by the armies of General George Washington and Count Rochambeau between Newport, Rhode Island, and Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781 and 1782, as generally depicted on the map entitled ‘WASHINGTON-ROCHAMBEAU REVOLUTIONARY ROUTE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL,’ numbered T01/80,001, and dated June 2007.

(B) MAP.—The map referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be on file and available for public inspection in the appropriate offices of the National Park Service.

(C) ADMINISTRATION.—The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with—

(i) other Federal, State, tribal, regional, and local agencies; and

(ii) the private sector.

(D) LAND ACQUISITION.—The United States shall not acquire for the trail any land or interest in land outside the exterior boundary of any federally-managed area without the consent of the owner of the land or interest inland.


Only sections of the National Trails System Act (NTSA) relevant to the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail are included in the excerpt below. For the full text of the NTSA visit www.nps.gov/nts/legislation.html.

The National Trails System Act

(Public Law 90-543, as amended through Public Law 111-11, March 30, 2009)

AN ACT

To establish a national trails system, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

SHORT TITLE

SECTION l. This Act may be cited as the “National Trails System Act.”

STATEMENT OF POLICY

SEC. 2. [16USC1241]

(a) In order to provide for the ever-increasing outdoor recreation needs of an expanding population and in order to promote the preservation of, public access to, travel within, and enjoyment and appreciation of the open-air, outdoor areas and historic resources of the Nation, trails should be established

(i) primarily, near the urban areas of the Nation, and
(ii) secondarily, within scenic areas and along historic travel routes of the Nation which are often more remotely located.

(b) The purpose of this Act is to provide the means for attaining these objectives by instituting a national system of recreation, scenic and historic trails, by designating the Appalachian Trail and the Pacific Crest Trail as the initial components of that system, and by prescribing the methods by which, and standards according to which, additional components may be added to the system.
(c) The Congress recognizes the valuable contributions that volunteers and private, nonprofit trail groups have made to the development and maintenance of the Nation’s trails. In recognition of these contributions, it is further the purpose of this Act to encourage and assist volunteer citizen involvement in the planning, development, maintenance, and management, where appropriate, of trails.

NATIONAL TRAILS SYSTEM

SEC. 3. [16USC1242]

(a) The national system of trails shall be composed of the following:

(l) National recreation trails, established as provided in section 4 of this Act, which will provide a variety of outdoor recreation uses in or reasonably accessible to urban areas.
(2) National scenic trails, established as provided in section 5 of this Act, which will be extended trails so located as to provide for maximum outdoor recreation potential and for the conservation and enjoyment of the nationally significant scenic, historic, natural, or cultural qualities of the areas through which such trails may pass. National scenic trails may be located so as to represent desert, marsh, grassland, mountain, canyon, river, forest, and other areas, as well as landforms which exhibit significant characteristics of the physiographic regions of the Nation.
(3) National historic trails, established as provided in section 5 of this Act, which will be extended trails which follow as closely as possible and practicable the original trails or routes of travel of national historic significance. Designation of such trails or routes shall be continuous, but the established or developed trail, and the acquisition thereof, need not be continuous onsite. National historic trails shall have as their purpose the identification and protection of the historic route and its historic remnants and artifacts for public use and enjoyment. Only those selected land and water based components of a historic trail which are on federally owned lands and which meet the national historic trail criteria established in this Act are included as Federal protection components of a national historic trail. The appropriate Secretary may certify other lands as protected segments of an historic trail upon application from State or local governmental agencies or private interests involved if such segments meet the national historic trail criteria established in this Act and such criteria supplementary thereto as the appropriate Secretary may prescribe, and are administered by such agencies or interests without expense to the United States.
(4) Connecting or side trails, established as provided in section 6 of this Act, which will provide additional points of public access to national recreation, national scenic or national historic trails or which will provide connections between such trails.

The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with appropriate governmental agencies and public and private organizations, shall establish a uniform marker for the national trails system.
(b) For purposes of this section, the term ‘extended trails’ means trails or trail segments which total at least one hundred miles in length, except that historic trails of less than one hundred miles may be designated as extended trails. While it is desirable that extended trails be continuous, studies of such trails may conclude that it is feasible to propose one or more trail segments which, in the aggregate, constitute at least one hundred miles in length.

NATIONAL RECREATION TRAILS

SEC. 4. [16USC1243]

(a) The Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary of Agriculture where lands administered by him are involved, may establish and designate national recreation trails, with the consent of the Federal agency, State, or political subdivision having jurisdiction over the lands involved, upon finding that—

(i) such trails are reasonably accessible to urban areas, and, or
(ii) such trails meet the criteria established in this Act and such supplementary criteria as he may prescribe.

(b) As provided in this section, trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture or in other federally administered areas may be established and designated as “National Recreation Trails” by the appropriate Secretary and, when no Federal land acquisition is involved –

(i) trails in or reasonably accessible to urban areas may be designated as “National Recreation Trails” by the appropriate Secretary with the consent of the States, their political subdivisions, or other appropriate administering agencies;
(ii) trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas owned or administered by States may be designated as “National Recreation Trails” by the appropriate Secretary with the consent of the State; and
(iii) trails on privately owned lands may be designated ‘National Recreation Trails’ by the appropriate Secretary with the written consent of the owner of the property involved.

NATIONAL SCENIC AND NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAILS {Excerpted}

SEC. 5. [16USC1244]

(a) National scenic and national historic trails shall be authorized and designated only by Act of Congress. There are hereby established the following National Scenic and National Historic Trails:

(29) Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail –

(A) IN GENERAL - The Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail, a corridor of approximately 600 miles following the route taken by the armies of General George Washington and Count Rochambeau between Newport, Rhode Island, and Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781 and 1782, as generally depicted on the map entitled `WASHINGTON-ROCHAMBEAU REVOLUTIONARY ROUTE NATIONAL HISTORIC TRAIL’, numbered T01/80,001, and dated June 2007.
(B) MAP - The map referred to in subparagraph (A) shall be on file and available for public inspection in the appropriate offices of the National Park Service.
(C) ADMINISTRATION - The trail shall be administered by the Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with -

(i) other Federal, State, tribal, regional, and local agencies; and
(ii) the private sector.

(D) LAND ACQUISITION- The United States shall not acquire for the trail any land or interest in land outside the exterior boundary of any federally-managed area without the consent of the owner of the land or interest in land.

(b) The Secretary of the Interior, through the agency most likely to administer such trail, and the Secretary of Agriculture where lands administered by him are involved, shall make such additional studies as are herein or may hereafter be authorized by the Congress for the purpose of determining the feasibility and desirability of designating other trails as national scenic or national historic trails. Such studies shall be made in consultation with the heads of other Federal agencies administering lands through which such additional proposed trails would pass and in cooperation with interested interstate, State, and local governmental agencies, public and private organizations, and landowners and land users concerned. The feasibility of designating a trail shall be determined on the basis of an evaluation of whether or not it is physically possible to develop a trail along a route being studied, and whether the development of a trail would be financially feasible. The studies listed in subsection (c) of this section shall be completed and submitted to the Congress, with recommendations as to the suitability of trail designation, not later than three complete fiscal years from the date of enactment of their addition to this subsection, or from the date of enactment of this sentence, whichever is later. Such studies, when submitted, shall be printed as a House or Senate document, and shall include, but not be limited to:

(1) the proposed route of such trail (including maps and illustrations);
(2) the areas adjacent to such trails, to be utilized for scenic, historic, natural, cultural, or developmental purposes;
(3) the characteristics which, in the judgment of the appropriate Secretary, make the proposed trail worthy of designation as a national scenic or national historic trail; and in the case of national historic trails the report shall include the recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior’s National Park System Advisory Board as to the national historic significance based on the criteria developed under the Historic Sites Act of 1935 (40 Stat. 666; 16 U.S.C. 461);
(4) the current status of land ownership and current and potential use along the designated route;
(5) the estimated cost of acquisition of lands or interest in lands, if any;
(6) the plans for developing and maintaining the trail and the cost thereof;
(7) the proposed Federal administering agency (which, in the case of a national scenic trail wholly or substantially within a national forest, shall be the Department of Agriculture);
(8) the extent to which a State or its political subdivisions and public and private organizations might reasonably be expected to participate in acquiring the necessary lands and in the administration thereof;
(9) the relative uses of the lands involved, including: the number of anticipated visitor-days for the entire length of, as well as for segments of, such trail; the number of months which such trail, or segments thereof, will be open for recreation purposes; the economic and social benefits which might accrue from alternate land uses; and the estimated man-years of civilian employment and expenditures expected for the purposes of maintenance, supervision, and regulation of such trail;
(10) the anticipated impact of public outdoor recreation use on the preservation of a proposed national historic trail and its related historic and archeological features and settings, including the measures proposed to ensure evaluation and preservation of the values that contribute to their national historic significance; and
(11) To qualify for designation as a national historic trail, a trail must meet all three of the following criteria:

(A) It must be a trail or route established by historic use and must be historically significant as a result of that use. The route need not currently exist as a discernible trail to qualify, but its location must be sufficiently known to permit evaluation of public recreation and historical interest potential. A designated trail should generally accurately follow the historic route, but may deviate somewhat on occasion of necessity to avoid difficult routing through subsequent development, or to provide some route variations offering a more pleasurable recreational experience. Such deviations shall be so noted on site. Trail segments no longer possible to travel by trail due to subsequent development as motorized transportation routes may be designated and marked onsite as segments which link to the historic trail.
(B) It must be of national significance with respect to any of several broad facets of American history, such as trade and commerce, exploration, migration and settlement, or military campaigns. To qualify as nationally significant, historic use of the trail must have had a far reaching effect on broad patterns of American culture. Trails significant in the history of native Americans may be included.
(C) It must have significant potential for public recreational use or historical interest based on historic interpretation and appreciation. The potential for such use is generally greater along roadless segments developed as historic trails and at historic sites associated with the trail. The presence of recreation potential not related to historic appreciation is not sufficient justification for designation under this category.

(d) The Secretary charged with the administration of each respective trail shall, within one year of the date of the addition of any national scenic or national historic trail to the system, and within sixty days of the enactment of this sentence for the Appalachian and Pacific Crest National Scenic Trails, establish an advisory council for each such trail, each of which councils shall expire ten years from the date of its establishment, except that the Advisory Council established for the Iditarod Historic Trail shall expire twenty years from the date of its establishment.
If the appropriate Secretary is unable to establish such an advisory council because of the lack of adequate public interest, the Secretary shall so advise the appropriate committees of the Congress. The appropriate Secretary shall consult with such council from time to time with respect to matters relating to the trail, including the selection of rightsof-way, standards for the erection and maintenance of markers along the trail, and the administration of the trail. The members of each advisory council, which shall not exceed thirty-five in number, shall serve for a term of two years and without compensation as such, but the Secretary may pay, upon vouchers signed by the chairman of the council, the expenses reasonably incurred by the council and its members in carrying out their responsibilities under this section. Members of each council shall be appointed by the appropriate Secretary as follows:

(1) the head of each Federal department or independent agency administering lands through which the trail route passes, or his designee;
(2) a member appointed to represent each State through which the trail passes, and such appointments shall be made from recommendations of the Governors of such States;
(3) one or more members appointed to represent private organizations, including corporate and individual landowners and land users, which in the opinion of the Secretary, have an established and recognized interest in the trail, and such appointments shall be made from recommendations of the heads of such organizations: Provided, That the Appalachian Trail Conference shall be represented by a sufficient number of persons to represent the various sections of the country through which the Appalachian Trail passes; and
(4) the Secretary shall designate one member to be chairman and shall fill vacancies in the same manner as the original appointment.

(f) Within two complete fiscal years of the date of enactment of legislation designating a national historic trail or the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail or the North Country National Scenic Trail as part of the system, the responsible Secretary shall, after full consultation with affected Federal land managing agencies, the Governors of the affected States, and the relevant Advisory Council established pursuant to section 5(d) of this Act, submit to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, a comprehensive plan for the management, and use of the trail, including but not limited to, the following items:

(1) specific objectives and practices to be observed in the management of the trail, including the identification of all significant natural, historical, and cultural resources to be preserved, details of any anticipated cooperative agreements to be consummated with State and local government agencies or private interests, and for national scenic or national historic trails an identified carrying capacity of the trail and a plan for its implementation;
(2) the process to be followed by the appropriate Secretary to implement the marking requirements established in section 7(c) of this Act;
(3) a protection plan for any high potential historic sites or high potential route segments; and
(4) general and site-specific development plans, including anticipated costs.

(g) Revision of Feasibility and Suitability Studies of Existing National Historic Trails

(1) DEFINITIONS- In this subsection:

(A) ROUTE- The term ‘route’ includes a trail segment commonly known as a cutoff.
(B) SHARED ROUTE- The term ‘shared route’ means a route that was a segment of more than 1 historic trail, including a route shared with an existing national historic trail.

(2) REQUIREMENTS FOR REVISION

(A) IN GENERAL- The Secretary of the Interior shall revise the feasibility and suitability studies for certain national trails for consideration of possible additions to the trails.
(B) STUDY REQUIREMENTS AND OBJECTIVES- The study requirements and objectives specified in subsection (b) shall apply to a study required by this subsection.
(C) COMPLETION AND SUBMISSION OF STUDY- A study listed in this subsection shall be completed and submitted to Congress not later than 3 complete fiscal years from the date funds are made available for the study.37

CONNECTING AND SIDE TRAILS

SEC. 6. [16USC1245]
Connecting or side trails within park, forest, and other recreation areas administered by the Secretary of the Interior or Secretary of Agriculture may be established, designated, and marked by the appropriate Secretary as components of a national recreation, national scenic or national historic trail. When no Federal land acquisition is involved, connecting or side trails may be located across lands administered by interstate, State, or local governmental agencies with their consent, or, where the appropriate Secretary deems necessary or desirable, on privately owned lands with the consent of the landowners. Applications for approval and designation of connecting and side trails on non-Federal lands shall be submitted to the appropriate Secretary.

ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT

SEC. 7. [16USC1246]

(a)

(1)

(A) The Secretary charged with the overall administration of a trail pursuant to section 5(a) shall, in administering and managing the trail, consult with the heads of all other affected State and Federal agencies. Nothing contained in this Act shall be deemed to transfer among Federal agencies any management responsibilities established under any other law for federally administered lands which are components of the National Trails System. Any transfer of management responsibilities may be carried out between the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture only as provided under subparagraph (B).
(B) The Secretary charged with the overall administration of any trail pursuant to section 5(a) may transfer management of any specified trail segment of such trail to the other appropriate Secretary pursuant to a joint memorandum of agreement containing such terms and conditions as the Secretaries consider most appropriate to accomplish the purposes of this Act. During any period in which management responsibilities for any trail segment are transferred under such an agreement, the management of any such segment shall be subject to the laws, rules, and regulations of the Secretary provided with the management authority under the agreement except to such extent as the agreement may otherwise expressly provide.

(2) Pursuant to section 5(a), the appropriate Secretary shall select the rights-of-way for national scenic and national historic trails and shall publish notice thereof of the availability of appropriate maps or descriptions in the Federal Register; Provided, That in selecting the rights-of-way full consideration shall be given to minimizing the adverse effects upon the adjacent landowner or user and his operation. Development and management of each segment of the National Trails System shall be designed to harmonize with and complement any established multiple-use plans for the specific area in order to insure continued maximum benefits from the land. The location and width of such rights-of-way across Federal lands under the jurisdiction of another Federal agency shall be by agreement between the head of that agency and the appropriate Secretary. In selecting rights-of-way for trail purposes, the Secretary shall obtain the advice and assistance of the States, local governments, private organizations, and landowners and land users concerned.

(b) After publication of notice of the availability of appropriate maps or descriptions in the Federal Register, the Secretary charged with the administration of a national scenic or national historic trail may relocate segments of a national scenic or national historic trail right-of-way with the concurrence of the head of the Federal agency having jurisdiction over the lands involved, upon a determination that:

(i) Such a relocation is necessary to preserve the purposes for which the trail was established, or
(ii) the relocation is necessary to promote a sound land management program in accordance with established multiple-use principles: Provided, That a substantial relocation of the rights-of-way for such trail shall be by Act of Congress.

(c) National scenic or national historic trails may contain campsites, shelters, and relatedpublic-use facilities. Other uses along the trail, which will not substantially interfere with the nature and purposes of the trail, may be permitted by the Secretary charged with the administration of the trail. Reasonable efforts shall be made to provide sufficient access opportunities to such trails and, to the extent practicable, efforts be made to avoid activities incompatible with the purposes for which such trails were established. The use of motorized vehicles by the general public along any national scenic trail shall be prohibited and nothing in this Act shall be construed as authorizing the use of motorized vehicles within the natural and historical areas of the national park system, the national wildlife refuge system, the national wilderness preservation system where they are presently prohibited or on other Federal lands where trails are designated as being closed to such use by the appropriate Secretary: Provided, That the Secretary charged with the administration of such trail shall establish regulations which shall authorize the use of motorized vehicles when, in his judgment, such vehicles are necessary to meet emergencies or to enable adjacent landowners or land users to have reasonable access to their lands Or timber rights: Provided further, That private lands included in the national recreation, national scenic, or national historic trails by cooperative agreement of a landowner shall not preclude such owner from using motorized vehicles on or across such trails or adjacent lands from time to time in accordance with regulations to be established by the appropriate Secretary. Where a national historic trail follows existing public roads, developed rights-of-way or waterways, and similar features of man’s nonhistorically related development, approximating the original location of a historic route, such segments may be marked to facilitate retracement of the historic route, and where a national historic trail parallels an existing public road, such road may be marked to commemorate the historic route. Other uses along the historic trails and the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail, which will not substantially interfere with the nature and purposes of the trail, and which, at the time of designation, are allowed by administrative regulations, including the use of motorized vehicles, shall be permitted by the Secretary charged with administration of the trail. The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture, in consultation with appropriate governmental agencies and public and private organizations, shall establish a uniform marker, including thereon an appropriate and distinctive symbol for each national recreation, national scenic, and national historic trail. Where the trails cross lands administered by Federal agencies such markers shall be erected at appropriate points along the trails and maintained by the Federal agency administering the trail in accordance with standards established by the appropriate Secretary and where the trails cross non-Federal lands, in accordance with written cooperative agreements, the appropriate Secretary shall provide such uniform markers to cooperating agencies and shall require such agencies to erect and maintain them in accordance with the standards established. The appropriate Secretary may also provide for trail interpretation sites, which shall be located at historic sites along the route of any national scenic or national historic trail, in order to present information to the public about the trail, at the lowest possible cost, with emphasis on the portion of the trail passing through the State in which the site is located. Wherever possible, the sites shall be maintained by a State agency under a cooperative agreement between the appropriate Secretary and the State agency.

(d) Within the exterior boundaries of areas under their administration that are included in the right-of-way selected for a national recreation, national scenic, or national historic trail, the heads of Federal agencies may use lands for trail purposes and may acquire lands or interests in lands by written cooperative agreement, donation, purchase with donated or appropriated funds or exchange.
(e) Where the lands included in a national scenic or national historic trail right-of-way are outside of the exterior boundaries of federally administered areas, the Secretary charged with the administration of such trail shall encourage the States or local governments involved

(1) to enter into written cooperative agreements with landowners, private organizations, and individuals to provide the necessary trail right-of-way, or
(2) to acquire such lands or interests therein to be utilized as segments of the national scenic or national historic trail: Provided, That if the State or local governments fail to enter into such written cooperative agreements or to acquire such lands or interests therein after notice of the selection of the right-of-way is published, the appropriate Secretary, may

(i) enter into such agreements with landowners, States, local governments, private organizations, and individuals for the use of lands for trail purposes, or
(ii) acquire private lands or interests therein by donation, purchase with donated or appropriated funds or exchange in accordance with the provisions of subsection (f) of this section:

Provided further, That the appropriate Secretary may acquire lands or interests therein from local governments or governmental corporations with the consent of such entities. The lands involved in such rights-of-way should be acquired in fee, if other methods of public control are not sufficient to assure their use for the purpose for which they are acquired: Provided, That if the Secretary charged with the administration of such trail permanently relocates the right-of-way and disposes of all title or interest in the land, the original owner, or his heirs or assigns, shall be offered, by notice given at the former owner’s last known address, the right of first refusal at the fair market price.

(f)

(1) The Secretary of the Interior, in the exercise of his exchange authority, may accept title to any non-Federal property within the right-of-way and in exchange therefor he may convey to the grantor of such property any federally owned property under his jurisdiction which is located in the State wherein such property is located and which he classifies as suitable for exchange or other disposal. The values of the properties so exchanged either shall be approximately equal, or if they are not approximately equal the values shall be equalized by the payment of cash to the grantor or to the Secretary as the circumstances require. The Secretary of Agriculture, in the exercise of his exchange authority, may utilize authorities and procedures available to him in connection with exchanges of national forest lands.
(2) In acquiring lands or interests therein for a National Scenic or Historic Trail, the appropriate Secretary may, with consent of a landowner, acquire whole tracts notwithstanding that parts of such tracts may lie outside the area of trail acquisition. In furtherance of the purposes of this act, lands so acquired outside the area of trail acquisition may be exchanged for any non- Federal lands or interests therein within the trail right-of-way, or disposed of in accordance with such procedures or regulations as the appropriate Secretary shall prescribe, including:

(i) provisions for conveyance of such acquired lands or interests therein at not less than fair market value to the highest bidder, and
(ii) provisions for allowing the last owners of record a right to purchase said acquired lands or interests therein upon payment or agreement to pay an amount equal to the highest bid price. For lands designated for exchange or disposal, the appropriate Secretary may convey these lands with any reservations or covenants deemed desirable to further the purposes of this Act. The proceeds from any disposal shall be credited to the appropriation bearing the costs of land acquisition for the affected trail.

(g) The appropriate Secretary may utilize condemnation proceedings without the consent of the owner to acquire private lands or interests, therein pursuant to this section only in cases where, in his judgment, all reasonable efforts to acquire such lands or interest therein by negotiation have failed, and in such cases he shall acquire only such title as, in his judgment, is reasonably necessary to provide passage across such lands: Provided, That condemnation proceedings may not be utilized to acquire fee title or lesser interests to more than an average of one hundred and twenty-five acres per mile. Money appropriated for Federal purposes from the land and water conservation fund shall, without prejudice to appropriations from other sources, be available to Federal departments for the acquisition of lands or interests in lands for the purposes of this Act. For national historic trails, direct Federal acquisition for trail purposes shall be limited to those areas indicated by the study report or by the comprehensive plan as high potential route segments or high potential historic sites. Except for designated protected components of the trail, no land or site located along a designated national historic trail or along the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail shall be subject to the provisions of section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1653(f)) unless such land or site is deemed to be of historical significance under appropriate historical site criteria such as those for the National Register of Historic Places.
(h)

(1) The Secretary charged with the administration of a national recreation, national scenic, or national historic trail shall provide for the development and maintenance of such trails within federally administered areas, and shall cooperate with and encourage the States to operate, develop, and maintain portions of such trails which are located outside the boundaries of federally administered areas. When deemed to be in the public interest, such Secretary may enter written cooperative agreements with the States or their political subdivisions, landowners, private organizations, or individuals to operate, develop, and maintain any portion of such a trail either within or outside a federally administered area. Such agreements may include provisions for limited financial assistance to encourage participation in the acquisition, protection, operation, development, or maintenance of such trails, provisions providing volunteer in the park or volunteer in the forest status (in accordance with the Volunteers in the Parks Act of 1969 and the Volunteers in the Forests Act of 1972) to individuals, private organizations, or landowners participating in such activities, or provisions of both types. The appropriate Secretary shall also initiate consultations with affected States and their political subdivisions to encourage –

(A) the development and implementation by such entities of appropriate measures to protect private landowners from trespass resulting from trail use and from unreasonable personal liability and property damage caused by trail use, and
(B) the development and implementation by such entities of provisions for land practices compatible with the purposes of this Act, for property within or adjacent to trail rights-of-way. After consulting with States and their political subdivisions under the preceding sentence, the Secretary may provide assistance to such entities under appropriate cooperative agreements in the manner provided by this subsection.

(2) Whenever the Secretary of the Interior makes any conveyance of land under any of the public land laws, he may reserve a right-of-way for trails to the extent he deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act.

(i) The appropriate Secretary, with the concurrence of the heads of any other Federal agencies administering lands through which a national recreation, national scenic, or national historic trail passes, and after consultation with the States, local governments, and organizations concerned, may issue regulations, which may be revised from time to time, governing the use, protection, management, development, and administration of trails of the national trails system. In order to maintain good conduct on and along the trails located within federally administered areas and to provide for the proper government and protection of such trails, the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture shall prescribe and publish such uniform regulations as they deem necessary and any person who violates such regulations shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and may be punished by a fine of not more $500 or by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or by both such fine and imprisonment. The Secretary responsible for the administration of any segment of any component of the National Trails System (as determined in a manner consistent with subsection (a)(1) of this section) may also utilize authorities related to units of the national park system or the national forest system, as the case may be, in carrying out his administrative responsibilities for such component.
(j) Potential trail uses allowed on designated components of the national trails system may include, but are not limited to, the following: bicycling, cross-country skiing, day hiking, equestrian activities, jogging or similar fitness activities, trail biking, overnight and long-distance backpacking, snowmobiling, and surface water and underwater activities. Vehicles which may be permitted on certain trails may include, but need not be limited to, motorcycles, bicycles, four-wheel drive or all-terrain off-road vehicles. In addition, trail access for handicapped individuals may be provided. The provisions of this subsection shall not supersede any other provisions of this Act or other Federal laws, or any State or local laws.
(k) For the conservation purpose of preserving or enhancing the recreational, scenic, natural, or historical values of components of the national trails system, and environs thereof as determined by the appropriate Secretary, landowners are authorized to donate or otherwise convey qualified real property interests to qualified organizations consistent with section 170(h)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954, including, but not limited to, right-of-way, open space, scenic, or conservation easements, without regard to any limitation on the nature of the estate or interest otherwise transferable within the jurisdiction where the land is located. The conveyance of any such interest in land in accordance with this subsection shall be deemed to further a Federal conservation policy and yield a significant public benefit for purposes of section 6 of Public Law 96-541.

STATE AND METROPOLITAN AREA TRAILS

SEC. 8. [16USC1247]

(a) The Secretary of the Interior is directed to encourage States to consider, in their comprehensive statewide outdoor recreation plans and proposals for financial assistance for State and local projects submitted pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act, needs and opportunities for establishing park, forest, and other recreation and historic trails on lands owned or administered by States, and recreation and historic trails on lands in or near urban areas. The Secretary is also directed to encourage States to consider, in their comprehensive statewide historic preservation plans and proposals for financial assistance for State, local, and private projects submitted pursuant to the Act of October 15, 1966 (80 Stat. 915), as amended, needs and opportunities for establishing historic trails. He is further directed in accordance with the authority contained in the Act of May 28, 1963 (77 Stat. 49), to encourage States, political subdivisions, and private interests, including nonprofit organizations, to establish such trails.
(b) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is directed, in administering the program of comprehensive urban planning and assistance under section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, to encourage the planning of recreation trails in connection with the recreation and transportation planning for metropolitan and other urban areas. He is further directed, in administering the urban open space program under title VII of the Housing Act of 1961, to encourage such recreation trails.
(c) The Secretary of Agriculture is directed, in accordance with authority vested in him, to encourage States and local agencies and private interests to establish such trails.
(d) The Secretary of Transportation, the Chairman of the Interstate Commerce Commission, and the Secretary of the Interior, in administering the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, shall encourage State and local agencies and private interests to establish appropriate trails using the provisions of such programs. Consistent with the purposes of that Act, and in furtherance of the national policy to preserve established railroad rights-of-way for future reactivation of rail service, to protect rail transportation corridors, and to encourage energy efficient transportation use, in the case of interim use of any established railroad rights-of-way pursuant to donation, transfer, lease, sale, or otherwise in a manner consistent with the National Trails System Act, if such interim use is subject to restoration or reconstruction for railroad purposes, such interim use shall not be treated, for purposes of any law or rule of law, as an abandonment of the use of such rights-of-way for railroad purposes. If a State, political subdivision, or qualified private organization is prepared to assume full responsibility for management of such rights-of-way and for any legal liability arising out of such transfer or use, and for the payment of any and all taxes that may be levied or assessed against such rights-of-way, then the Commission shall impose such terms and conditions as a requirement of any transfer or conveyance for interim use in a manner consistent with this Act, and shall not permit abandonment or discontinuance inconsistent or disruptive of such use.
(e) Such trails may be designated and suitably marked as parts of the nationwide system of trails by the States, their political subdivisions, or other appropriate administering agencies with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior.

RIGHTS-OF-WAY AND OTHER PROPERTIES

SEC. 9. [16USC1248]

(a) The Secretary of the Interior or the Secretary of Agriculture as the case may be, may grant easements and rights-of-way upon, over, under, across, or along any component of the national trails system in accordance with the laws applicable to the national park system and the national forest system, respectively: Provided, That any conditions contained in such easements and rights-of-way shall be related to the policy and purposes of this Act.
(b) The Department of Defense, the Department of Transportation, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Communications Commission, the Federal Power Commission, and other Federal agencies having jurisdiction or control over or information concerning the use, abandonment, or disposition of roadways, utility rights-of-way, or other properties which may be suitable for the purpose of improving or expanding the national trails system shall cooperate with the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture in order to assure, to the extent practicable, that any such properties having values suitable for trail purposes may be made available for such use.
(c) Commencing upon the date of enactment of this subsection, any and all right, title, interest, and estate of the United States in all rights-of-way of the type described in the Act of March 8, l922 (43 U.S.C. 9l2), shall remain in the United States upon the abandonment or forfeiture of such rights-of-way, or portions thereof, except to the extent that any such right-of-way, or portion thereof, is embraced within a public highway no later than one year after a determination of abandonment or forfeiture, as provided under such Act.
(d)

(1) All rights-of-way, or portions thereof, retained by the United States pursuant to subsection (c) which are located within the boundaries of a conservation system unit or a National Forest shall be added to and incorporated within such unit or National Forest and managed in accordance with applicable provisions of law, including this Act.
(2) All such retained rights-of-way, or portions thereof, which are located outside the boundaries of a conservation system unit or a National Forest but adjacent to or contiguous with any portion of the public lands shall be managed pursuant to the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of l976 and other applicable law, including this section.
(3) All such retained rights-of-way, or portions thereof, which are located outside the boundaries of a conservation system unit or National Forest which the Secretary of the Interior determines suitable for use as a public recreational trail or other recreational purposes shall be managed by the Secretary for such uses, as well as for such other uses as the Secretary determines to be appropriate pursuant to applicable laws, as long as such uses do not preclude trail use.

(e)

(1) The Secretary of the Interior is authorized where appropriate to release and quitclaim to a unit of government or to another entity meeting the requirements of this subsection any and all right, title, and interest in the surface estate of any portion of any right-of-way to the extent any such right, title, and interest was retained by the United States pursuant to subsection (c), if such portion is not located within the boundaries of any conservation system unit or National Forest. Such release and quitclaim shall be made only in response to an application therefor by a unit of State or local government or another entity which the Secretary of the Interior determines to be legally and financially qualified to manage the relevant portion for public recreational purposes. Upon receipt of such an application, the Secretary shall publish a notice concerning such application in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the relevant portion is located. Such release and quitclaim shall be on the following conditions:

(A) If such unit or entity attempts to sell, convey, or otherwise transfer such right, title, or interest or attempts to permit the use of any part of such portion for any purpose incompatible with its use for public recreation, then any and all right, title, and interest released and quitclaimed by the Secretary pursuant to this subsection shall revert to the United States.
(B) Such unit or entity shall assume full responsibility and hold the United States harmless for any legal liability which might arise with respect to the transfer, possession, use, release, or quitclaim of such right-of-way. (C) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the United States shall be under no duty to inspect such portion prior to such release and quitclaim, and shall incur no legal liability with respect to any hazard or any unsafe condition existing on such portion at the time of such release and quitclaim.

(2) The Secretary is authorized to sell any portion of a right-of-way retained by the United States pursuant to subsection (c) located outside the boundaries of a conservation system unit or National Forest if any such portion is –

(A) not adjacent to or contiguous with any portion of the public lands; or
(B) determined by the Secretary, pursuant to the disposal criteria established by section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of l976, to be suitable for sale. Prior to conducting any such sale, the Secretary shall take appropriate steps to afford a unit of State or local government or any other entity an opportunity to seek to obtain such portion pursuant to paragraph (l) of this subsection.

(3) All proceeds from sales of such retained rights of way shall be deposited into the Treasury of the United States and credited to the Land and Water Conservation Fund as provided in section 2 of the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of l965.
(4) The Secretary of the Interior shall annually report to the Congress the total proceeds from sales under paragraph (2) during the preceding fiscal year. Such report shall be included in the President’s annual budget submitted to the Congress.

(f) As used in this section –

(1) The term “conservation system unit” has the same meaning given such term in the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (Public Law 96-487; 94 Stat. 237l et seq.), except that such term shall also include units outside Alaska.
(2) The term “public lands” has the same meaning given such term in the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of l976.

AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS

SEC. 10. [16USC1249]

(a)

(1) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for the acquisition of lands or interests in lands not more than $5,000,000 for the Appalachian National Scenic Trail and not more than $500,000 for the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail. From the appropriations authorized for fiscal year 1979 and succeeding fiscal years pursuant to the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act (78 Stat. 897), as amended, not more than the following amounts may be expended for the acquisition of lands and interests in lands authorized to be acquired pursuant to the provisions of this Act: for the Appalachian National Scenic Trail, not to exceed $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1979, $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1980, and $30,000,000 for fiscal year 1981, except that the difference between the foregoing amounts and the actual appropriations in any one fiscal year shall be available for appropriation in subsequent fiscal years.
(2) It is the express intent of the Congress that the Secretary should substantially complete the land acquisition program necessary to insure the protection of the Appalachian Trail within three complete fiscal years following the date of enactment of this sentence.

(b) For the purposes of Public Law 95-42 (91 Stat. 211), the lands and interests therein acquired pursuant to this section shall be deemed to qualify for funding under the provisions of section 1, clause 2, of said Act.
(c) Authorization of Appropriations

(1) IN GENERAL- Except as otherwise provided in this Act, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to implement the provisions of this Act relating to the trails designated by section 5(a).

VOLUNTEER TRAILS ASSISTANCE

SEC. 11. [16USC1250]

(a)

(1) In addition to the cooperative agreement and other authorities contained in this Act, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, and the head of any Federal agency administering Federal lands, are authorized to encourage volunteers and volunteer organizations to plan, develop, maintain, and manage, where appropriate, trails throughout the Nation.
(2) Wherever appropriate in furtherance of the purposes of this Act, the Secretaries are authorized and encouraged to utilize the Volunteers in the Parks Act of 1969, the Volunteers in the Forests Act of 1972, and section 6 of the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 (relating to the development of Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plans).

(b) Each Secretary or the head of any Federal land managing agency, may assist volunteers and volunteers’ organizations in planning, developing, maintaining, and managing trails. Volunteer work may include, but need not be limited to—

(1) planning, developing, maintaining, or managing (A) trails which are components of the national trails system, or (B) trails which, if so developed and maintained, could qualify for designation as components of the national trails system; or
(2) operating programs to organize and supervise volunteer trail building efforts with respect to the trails referred to in paragraph (1), conducting trail-related research projects, or providing education and training to volunteers on methods of trails planning, construction, and maintenance.

(c) The appropriate Secretary or the head of any Federal land managing agency may utilize and to make available Federal facilities, equipment, tools, and technical assistance to volunteers and volunteer organizations, subject to such limitations and restrictions as the appropriate Secretary or the head of any Federal land managing agency deems necessary or desirable.

DEFINITIONS

SEC. 12. [16USC1251] As used in this Act:

(1) The term “high potential historic sites” means those historic sites related to the route, or sites in close proximity thereto, which provide opportunity to interpret the historic significance of the trail during the period of its major use. Criteria for consideration as high potential sites include historic significance, presence of visible historic remnants, scenic quality, and relative freedom from intrusion.
(2) The term “high potential route segments” means those segments of a trail which would afford high quality recreation experience in a portion of the route having greater than average scenic values or affording an opportunity to vicariously share the experience of the original users of a historic route.
(3) The term “State” means each of the several States of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession of the United States.
(4) The term “without expense to the United States” means that no funds may be expended by Federal agencies for the development of trail related facilities or for the acquisition of lands or interest in lands outside the exterior boundaries of Federal areas. For the purposes of the preceding sentence, amounts made available to any State or political subdivision under the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965 or any other provision of law shall not be treated as an expense to the United States.

 

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Appendix B: Interpretive Theme Matrix

Theme 1: The French Alliance and its Global Context

The alliance between the United States and France during the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) helped achieve American independence and was part of a larger geopolitical strategy for influence (in Europe, Africa, India, the West Indies), international trade, and for control of North America.

This theme is about: Context and influences, stakes for various parties, why these matter, and the consequences This theme explores the “so what/why does it matter” of the Yorktown campaign and puts it into a global context.

Concept: Global Context, Influences, and Consequences

  • Global Context and Balance of Power: Explore how the War for Independence and the American Revolution were part of larger, global conflict Place the war and the revolution into context as a global conflict for trade, power, and European control of North America Describe the conflicting roles and aspiration of Britain and France for global control in the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • French Alliance and its Significance: Describe the terms of the French-American alliance (1778): that expanded French financial support, naval support and supplied troops Describe how the alliance was celebrated at Valley Forge on May 6, 1778.
  • Value of Alliance: Trace and describe the benefits to the United State in allying with France Describe the advantages and benefits to both the United States and France Describe the significance of the recognition of the United States as an independent nation by a foreign power and how this sent a powerful signal around the world.
  • Context and Background: Describe how after almost a century of conflict between the British/Americans and the French in Canada and on the colonies’ western frontiers (King William’s War 1689–1697, Queen Anne’s War 1702–1713, King George’s War 1740–1748 and the French and Indian War 1754–1763) an uneasy alliance resulted at the beginning with the French who were initially treated with suspicion Describe the practical aspects of turning a recent military foe (in the French and Indian War) into an ally.
  • The Enlightenment: Describe principles of the Enlightenment, principles of natural law, and how these affected and influenced the thinking of ordinary Americans Explore the paradox and evolution of concept of freedom and limited enfranchisement.
  • Civil Aspect of American Revolution: Describe the civil aspect of the American Revolution and how it triggered internal conflict, and as power and influence shifted new alliances were created, and opportunities appeared to even old scores.
  • Regional Interests: Describe how Washington and others were challenged by and acted to balance regional interests Describe how Washington was able to overcome reluctance and prejudices of the states and their people to unify the army and the country.
  • Diplomacy: Describe the roles that Franklin, Adams, and other revolutionary-era diplomats had in establishing and maintaining the French-American alliance Examine their respective diplomatic styles and the resulting conflicts.
  • Treaty of Paris 1783: Describe the terms and peace treaty that ended the American War for Independence Describe the roles of the peace commissioners—Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and John Adams in the peace process.

Concept: People

  • People: Describe some of the primary figures in the French Alliance on both sides and their roles in the revolution (For example: Ben Franklin, Comte de Vergennes, St Simon, etc ) Describe the role of Louis XVI in the decision for alliance Describe the role of Benjamin Franklin as diplomat in the French court and as ambassador for America and the roles that Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay played in negotiating peace.
  • Balancing Regional Interests: Describe how the Continental Army was challenged by regional interests that differed in influence, capability, financial support, supply, and recruitment Washington was able to overcome reluctance and prejudices of the states and their people to unify the army and the country Soldiers from different states became acquainted with each other as brothers-in-arms united in a common cause Describe how Washington was challenged by and acted to balance regional interests.
  • Political Legacy: Explore the political legacy of the Yorktown Campaign, and specifically, the American officers who participated in it, their later participation in American politics that shaped the nation For example, during the Federal Convention that resulted in the U S Constitution, ascribing to oppositional political theories for the new nation, serving in government, etc.

Concept: Results and Legacy

  • Strong Allies: Describe how the personal and professional relationships among the French and American allies changed American attitudes to embrace the French as heroes after the victory at Yorktown Trace the interactions among allies from France, Prussia, Spain, and other European nationalities that led to greater American understanding of European cultures and a cultural identity separate from Great Britain.
  • American Isolationism Policies: Explore why, after the war, America’s policies suggested isolationism; explore Washington’s warnings and thoughts on the fear of foreign entanglements.
  • Political Aftermath of the American Revolution: Describe the complex French Revolution, Louisiana Purchase, Monroe Doctrine, etc Explore whether Rochambeau’s units took the ideas of the Declaration of Independence with them Explore the sides that officers and enlisted men took after 1789 and evaluate if their American experiences influence their decision.
  • Building Toward an American Identity: Describe ways in which the American Revolution contributed to a shared American identity that united both individuals and states around the ideals expressed in the Declaration of Independence, despite the paradox and tension inherent in subordinating individual liberties and state interests to common goals and the common good Trace the role of the Continental Army and state militia service and their interaction with French forces during the war in building American identity.
  • Common Interests: Discuss the ways in which the American Revolution forged an American identity that united both individuals and states around the ideals expressed in the Declaration of Independence, despite the paradox and tension inherent in subordinating individual liberties and state interests to common goals and the common good.

Topics and Stories

  • French Alliance
  • Rochambeau
  • Washington
  • Louis XVI
  • Lafayette
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • John Adams
  • Continental Congress
  • Diplomats
  • Treaty of Paris 1783
  • Valley Forge
  • Saratoga
  • French Alliance
  • French Revolution
  • Global economics including slave trade
  • Chesapeake Bay
  • Trade
  • Slavery and enslavement
  • European powers
  • Colonialism
  • Legacy of the campaign
  • U S Constitution and Federal Convention

Theme 2: Yorktown Campaign

The Yorktown Campaign The Yorktown Campaign (June to October 1781), culminating in the American and French victory over the British Army at Yorktown, Virginia, marked “the beginning of the end” of the Revolutionary War that guaranteed independence for the United States.

This theme is about: The Yorktown Campaign and the people, events, and circumstances that comprised it.

Concept: Military and Naval Campaign

  • Context for the Yorktown Campaign: Place the Yorktown Campaign and the siege of Yorktown (September to October 1781) into the larger context of the American Revolution and its role in the war Provide the broad context of the American Revolution up to the point of the Yorktown Campaign including the precipitating events, geography, chronology, and the varied motivations of participants.
  • Strategy and Strategic Value: Describe the strategic value of victory at Yorktown (for General George Washington, the Continental Army, France, Britain, etc ) Describe Washington’s strategy that focused on staying in the game: holding the army together and turning it into an effective fighting force Describe how the march to Yorktown from Newburgh, New York (for the Continental Army) illustrates and reflects the conflicts, complexities, and contradictions inherent in the American Revolution and the War for Independence.
  • Scale and Scope: Provide a sense of the scale and scope of the Yorktown Campaign and what it took to move American and French troops and their supplies Describe how this movement of troops can, in some ways, be considered unprecedented and was among the most complex military maneuvers of the war based on the numbers of people involved.
  • Naval Siege: Describe the coordination and good fortune by the French navy to converge on Yorktown at the right moment Describe the effect the naval siege had on the outcome of the action at Yorktown.
  • Civilian Impact: Describe the effect that the sudden influx of thousands of soldiers, support personnel, and equipment on the civilian population along the Army’s route (from Newport, Rhode Island and Newburgh, New York) to Yorktown, Virginia (including crime, disease, and economic upheaval or advantages) Illustrate the impact of sheer numbers of soldiers compared to civilian populations Describe the how war affected institutions and infrastructure (businesses, churches, courts, etc ), the personal stories, and the toll that war takes Describe what happened in areas that were strongly patriot Describe responses by locals upon encountering Frenchmen and/or forces for the first time Explore, compare, and contrast how reactions were informed by ethic and cultural backgrounds (for example, Huguenots and the French, reactions of slaves, etc.).
  • Topography: Illustrate the geographical advantages of routes and encampment sites selected in the march from Rhode Island to Virginia Describe the advantages of choosing this route and describe how roads were selected to allow for advantageous troop movements.
  • Relationships: Describe Washington’s personal and professional relationships with the French and American allies Describe Washington’s relationships with his military aides and their careers Describe Washington’s relationships (personal and professional) with his generals, the Continental Congress, and others Describe the personal and professional relationships between Washington and his foreign allies Describe how these relationships affected the progress of the war effort for Americans Describe Washington’s reputation abroad.
  • Leadership and Strategy: Compare, contrast, and analyze the respective roles of Rochambeau and Washington in the leadership, strategy and tactics in the Yorktown Campaign and in the Battle (Siege) of Yorktown.

Concept: People in Wartime

  • Continental Army and Diversity: Describe how (and while it may look homogeneous to sensibilities) the Continental Army was a diverse mix of people, religions, cultures, and personalities with conflicts, complexities, and contradictions that characterized early America, the American Revolution, and the War for Independence Trace, over the course of the war, how the army became a catalyst for creating an American identity Describe the effects of the growing identity on American politics and leadership through the early days of the republic.
  • Soldiers’ Experiences: Place the Yorktown Campaign into the context of American, French, and British soldiers’ war experiences Compare and contrast the Continental Army and the Yorktown Campaign with earlier military actions Describe differences and lessons learned for the Army in these previous experiences Describe that by fall 1781, most of the soldiers were experienced veterans accustomed to military life Describe how these factors contributed to success at Yorktown.
  • Motivations: Describe how stories of military and civilian participants of the Yorktown Campaign reflect a spectrum of motivations and actions for their participation in the struggle for independence Explore how differences of opinion about the revolution were based on region, interests, class, gender, religion, age, and a mix of other factors Describe how the historical record reveals a complex and nuanced story of people who were divided by geography, culture, and class and torn by internal strife and uncertainty Trace how Americans’ individual motivations and decisions about involvement in the American Revolution and the War for Independence ranged from the ideals of the Enlightenment, loyalty, and religious conviction to practical issues such as daily survival, the promise of freedom, and a secure economic future.
  • Divided Loyalties: Describe stories of behavior of people in wartime (especially the less than noble behavior) Explain how divided loyalties caused deep (and often lasting) divisions in families and communities Describe what life was like for civilians during the encampment period Describe the treatment of patriots, traitors, and neutral parties.
  • Camp Followers: Describe the role of camp followers Explore the lives and circumstances of some of the women, children and families who were part of the Army and their roles in the military system.
  • People of African Descent: Describe the roles that people of African descent had on the American Revolution and the Revolutionary War.
  • Diversity: Describe how the Continental Army had a mix of people and personalities and the conflicts, complexities, and contradictions that characterized early America, the American Revolution, and the War for Independence.
  • Civilians: Discuss treatment of civilians and Washington’s instructions about this.

Concept: Civilian and Military Authority

  • Civilian and Military: Explore how the principle that the military was subordinate to civilian authority guided the actions of Washington and others Describe the effects of this principle, and in particular how Washington acted to respect it Provide examples of ways that Washington demonstrated political savvy in relationships and dealing with Congress and established precedents for military relationships with civilian authorities.
  • Washington’s Relationships: Describe Washington’s relationships with the Continental Congress and the states and his reasons for maintaining those relationships and strict protocols—even though he had the personal power, loyalty, and capital to act independently of them Describe Washington’s relationships (successful and strained) with people such as Lafayette, Rochambeau, St Clair, Wayne, Stewart, Huntington, Stark, Tilghman, McHenry, Laurens, Hamilton, and others.
  • Washington’s Leadership: Trace and explore Washington’s career as a professional soldier Trace his growth as a tactician and Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army culminating in the Allied victory at Yorktown, Virginia in October 1781.

Commemoration and Memorialization

  • Lafayette’s Triumphal return in 1824: Describe Lafayette’s Triumphal Tour of the United States as an elder statesman in 1824, nearly 50 years after the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence Describe how Lafayette was received and how his trip captured the imaginations of Americans and fostered a resurgence of patriotic spirit.
  • Commemoration: Describe how the Route taken from Newport Rhode Island to Yorktown Virginia is commemorated today as the Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route Explain that the armies used well-traveled 18th century transportation corridors—many of which are still used today—and illustrate where vestiges of the 18th century route can be seen today Describe the significance of Yorktown through works of art such as Trumbull’s Surrender of Cornwallis.
  • Memorialization: Explain how and why the myths surrounding the transformation of a formerly ragged Continental Army came to represent an “American resurrection” story with implications and connections to “civil religion” and patriotism and came to symbolize redemption through suffering, commemorated sacrifice and hardship, then evolved into a symbol of American ideals and identity Trace the circumstances, reasons, and means by which this came to symbolize the Continental Army.
  • Memorialization of Washington: Trace how attempts to enumerate George Washington’s accomplishments and commemorate his legacy have occupied the attention of generations of historians and regular Americans and spawned numerous efforts to preserve sites related to him, including the Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route through MA, RI, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, VA, and DC.
  • National Historic Trail: Describe community and grassroots efforts to create a national historic trail including the W3R-US organization and its state chapters, French diplomat support, the National Park Service, and local historic, tourism, and community organizations.

Topics and Stories

  • Newport, RI, Yorktown, VA
  • Naval siege
  • “Grand Reconnaissance” around the British troops in New York
  • Officers
  • Enlisted men
  • Camp followers, families
  • Civilians
  • Women and families
  • Children
  • Diplomats
  • Landscape
  • Enlistments
  • Differences between the states
  • Continental Congress
  • Professional Army
  • Effect of experience and “veteran” soldiers
  • Balancing the Individual vs common good
  • Militia
  • Spies
  • Foraging parties
  • Quakers and pacifist groups such as: Mennonites and Amish
  • African Americans
  • Officers’ wives
  • Neutral parties
  • British officers and soldiers
  • Spain
  • King George III
  • Cornwallis
  • Comte de Grasse
  • French and other officers and foreign volunteers
  • Behavior of people in wartime
  • Memorialization of the route
  • Private and public partners
  • Trumbull painting Surrender of Cornwallis
  • Washington
  • Leadership
  • Fort Necessity and French and Indian War
  • Integrity
  • Washington’s orders, actions, and correspondence
  • Washington keeping Congress informed (how and why)
  • “Mentoring” by Washington
  • Balance of regional interests
  • Concept of revolution as a civil war
  • Soldier/diarists such as JP Martin, Thatcher, etc
  • Military discipline
  • Commemoration
  • W3R-US organization (and state chapters)
  • Relationship with France
  • Civilians
  • Continental Army as catalyst for shaping American Identity
  • 1st Rhode Island Regiment
  • Militia
  • Continental Army

About the Matrix: The four sections in the matrix: 1) title/title description, 2) theme statement, 3) concepts, and 4) topics/stories allow people with different learning styles and interests to get a broader picture of what may be encompassed within a particular theme in ways that a theme statement cannot do alone. When testing themes, the question to answer is not, “What’s missing?” The concepts and topics/stories can only be validated if people see possibilities for information to be included under the concepts.

About the Concepts: Concepts are written as objectives to align interpretive services and media with trail significance. Themes should be relatively timeless; the concepts are designed to be flexible and adapted as new information comes to light. These objectives should be used to guide program and media development eliminating the need to develop new objectives for every interpretive product.

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Appendix C: Related Federal Legislation, Regulations, and Executive Orders

Legislation and Acts

  • National Trails Act
  • Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act of 1990
  • Antiquities Act of 1906
  • Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979
  • Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended
  • National Environmental Policy Act of 1969
  • National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended
  • National Trails Omnibus Management Act of 1998
  • “Parks, Forests, and Public Property” (36 CFR)
  • “Protection of Historic Properties” (36 CFR 800)
  • American Indian Religious Freedom Act

Executive Orders

  • Executive Order 13007, “Indian Sacred Sites”
  • Executive Order 13175, “Consultation and Coordination with Indian Tribal Governments”
  • Executive Order 13195, “Trails for America in the 21st Century”
  • Executive Order 13592, “Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational Opportunities and Strengthening Tribal Colleges and Universities”

NPS Director’s Orders

  • Director’s Order 2-1: Resource Stewardship Planning
  • Director’s Order 6: Interpretation and Education
  • Director’s Order 7: Volunteers in Parks
  • Director’s Order 12: Conservation Planning, Environmental Impact Analysis, and Decision-making
  • Director’s Order 17: National Park Service Tourism
  • Director’s Order 20: Agreements
  • Director’s Order 24: NPS Museum Collections Management
  • Director’s Order 26: Youth Programs
  • Director’s Order 28: Cultural Resource Management
  • Director’s Order 45: National Trails System

NPS Policy and Guidance

  • NPS Management Policies 2006
  • NPS Natural Resource Management Reference Manual #77
  • NPS Museum Handbook parts I, II, and III
  • The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation
  • The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties
  • The Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes
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Appendix D: Partial List of Additional Properties with Publicly Accessible Open Space with Recreational Facilities within the Trail Corridor

  • Regional multiuse trails like the Schuylkill River Trail (PA), Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Trail (DC, MD, and VA) and East Coast Greenway (MA, RI, CT, NY, NJ, PA, DE, MD, and VA).
  • National water trails like Bronx River Blueway and Hudson River Greenway Water Trail (NY) and Blueways Water Trail (VA).
  • National scenic byways like CT State Route 169 NSB (CT), Delaware River NSB and Millstone Valley NSB (NJ), Journey Through Hallowed Ground NSB (PA, MD, and VA), Brandywine Valley NSB (DE) and Baltimore’s Historic Charles Street NSB, Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad NSB, Religious Freedom NSB and Chesapeake Country NSB (MD).
  • National auto tour routes like the Hudson River (NY), Crossroads of the American Revolution (NJ) and Hallowed Ground (VA).
  • National wildlife refuges like Assabet River NWR (MA), John H. Chafee NWR (RI), Stewart B. McKinney NWR (CT), Oyster Bay NWR (NY), Great Swamp NWR (NJ), John Heinz NWR (PA), Susquehanna NWR and Patuxent Research Refuge (MD), Elizabeth Hartwell NWR, Rappahannock River Valley NWR, James River and Plum Tree Island NWR (VA),
  • National reserves like Pinelands National Reserve (NJ).
  • National wild and scenic rivers and national scenic and recreational rivers like Sudbury, Assabet and Concord WSR (MA), Farmington WSR (MA and CT) and Eightmile WSR (CT), Upper Delaware SRR (NY and PA), Middle Delaware NSR (PA and NJ), Lower Delaware WSR (PA and NJ), White Clay Creek WSR (PA and DE) and Great Egg Harbor SRR (NJ).
  • National networks like Chesapeake Bay Gateways and Watertrails (MD, and VA), and the Network to Freedom (VA, MD, DC, DE, PA, NJ, and NY).
  • National historic landmarks like Old North Church (MA), Vernon House and Rhode Island Battlefield (RI), Old New Gate Prison and John Trumbull House (CT), De Wint and Hasbrouk Houses (NY), Old Barracks and Monmouth Battlefield (NJ), Washington Crossing (NJ and PA), Independence Hall and Brandywine Battlefield (PA), Aspendale (DE), His Lordship’s Kindness and Chase-Lloyd House (MD), and Colonial Williamsburg and Mount Vernon (VA).
  • National natural landmarks like Poutwater Pond (MA), Ell Pond (RI), Cathedral Pines and Pachaug-Great Meadow Swamp (CT), Hook Mountain and Mianus River Gorge (NY), Palisades of the Hudson (NY and NJ), Great Falls of Paterson (NJ), Nottingham Serpentine Barrens and Monroe Border Fault (PA), Gilpin’s Fall and Belt Woods (MD), and Rich Hole and Great Dismal Swamp (VA).
  • State parks, reservations and forests like Blue Hills (MA), Breton Point and Snake Den (RI), Pachaug, Natchaug and Naugatuck (CT), Tallman Mountain and Grassy Sprain (NY), Washington Crossing, Battle of Trenton and Battle of Freehold (NJ), Gunpowder Falls, Patapsco Valley and Port Lookout (MD) and York River (VA).
  • State and local scenic parkways like the Merritt Parkway (CT), Taconic and Saw Mill River Parkways (NY), Garden State Parkway (NJ) and Baltimore-Washington Parkway (MD, DC, and VA).
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Northeast Region Foundation Document Recommendation Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route National Historic Trail December 2018

This Foundation Document has been prepared as a collaboarative effort between park and regional staff and is recommended for approval by the Northeast Regional Director.

Signed by Steven Sims, Superintendent of the Washington-Rochambeau Revolutionary Route Naitonal Historic Trail on December 10, 2018.

Approved by Gay Vietzke, Regional Director of the National Park Service Northeast Region on February 14 2019.
 
U.S. Department of the Interior logo that includes a bison, the agency name, and text "March 3, 1849"

As the nation’s principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural resources. This includes fostering sound use of our land and water resources; protecting our fish, wildlife, and biological diversity; preserving the environmental and cultural values of our national parks and historic places; and providing for the enjoyment of life through outdoor recreation. The department assesses our energy and mineral resources and works to ensure that their development is in the best interests of all our people by encouraging stewardship and citizen participation in their care. The department also has a major responsibility for American Indian
reservation communities and for people who live in island territories under U.S. administration.

Last updated: September 5, 2019

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Mailing Address:

Washington-Rochambeau National Historic Trail

1400 North Outer Line Drive

King of Prussia, PA 19406

Phone:

610-783-1006
Washington-Rochambeau National Historic Trail

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