Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes
This abbreviated bibliography includes books, thematic issues of publications, and conference proceedings dedicated to the preservation of cultural landscapes.
Ahern, Katherine; Blythe, Leslie H. and; Page, Robert R., eds. Cultural Landscape Bibliography: An Annotated Bibliography on Resources in the National Park System. Washington D.C.: Park Historic Architecture Division, Cultural Landscape Program, Washington Office, 1992. A variety of reports since 1940—over 100 studies for seventy parks organized by National Park Service Region. Chronological and park indices. bib. illus.
Andropogon Associates, Ltd. Earthworks Landscape Management Manual., U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service Park Historic Architecture Division. Cultural Resources, Washington, D.C., 1989. Management strategies and interpretive guidelines to resolve conflicts between preservation requirements and visitor impact on earthwork sites. Applicable to both natural and cultural landscapes. Includes guidelines of generic solutions. bib. illus.
Andrus, Patrick W. Guidelines for Identifying, Evaluating, and Registering America’s Historic Battlefields., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Interagency Resources Division., Washington, D.C., 1992. 27 pp. Historical perspective and current status. Rationale for battlefield preservation. Guidance for successful preparation of nominations. Definitions and types. Mapping, field work, setting boundaries, documentation and assessment techniques. Step-by-step process for determining integrity and significance. bib. illus.
Austin, Richard L., Coordinating ed.; Kane, Thomas, J.; Melnick, Robert Z.; Turner, Suzanne Louise, Contributing eds. The Yearbook of Landscape Architecture Historic Preservation. New York, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983. Twenty articles on the theory, philosophy, and implementation of landscape preservation work in the US. A variety of landscape types and geographic regions are represented.
Birnbaum, Charles A., ed. “Focus on Landscape Preservation.” Historic Preservation Forum 7, no.3 (1993): 69 pp. Presentation of recent advancements with an emphasis on the landscape preservation planning process. bib. illus.
Birnbaum, Charles A., ed. The Landscape Universe: Historic Designed Landscape in Context., Armor Hall at Wave Hill, Bronx, New York, 23 April, 1993. United States: The Catalog of Landscape Records at Wave Hill in conjunction with the National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, 1993. 113 pp. Consideration of an individual designer’s career canon, extant legacy, design philosophy, in addition to geographic context, prior to treatment work at an individual property. Exploration of a variety of landscape types including estates, cemeteries, residential subdivisions, parks and park systems. bib. illus.
Birnbaum, Charles A. Preservation Brief 36: Protecting Cultural Landscapes: Planning, Treatment and Management of Historic Landscapes., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Preservation Assistance Division., Washington, D.C., (1994): 20 pp. Background and definitions. Step-by-step process for preserving historic designed and vernacular landscapes. A framework and guidance for undertaking project work to ensure a balance between historic preservation and change. Research, inventory, documentation, period plans, historic plant inventory, archaeology, analysis, treatment, interpretation, maintenance and implementation. bib. illus.
Birnbaum, Charles A., ed. “A Reality Check for Our Nation’s Parks.” CRM 16, no.4 (1993): 44 pp. National case studies organized under three themes: establishing a context for treatment; planning for treatment; and, treatment implementation. All projects utilize the draft Guidelines for the Treatment of Historic Landscapes.’ bib. illus.
Birnbaum, Charles A.; Crowder, Lisa E., eds. Pioneers of American Landscape Design: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resources, Preservation Assistance Division, Historic Landscape Initiative, 1993. Sixty-one biographical profiles. Nearly 1,200 bibliographic citations with location and description of archival collection contents. Introduction relates research to treatment work. illus. 144 pp.
Birnbaum, Charles A.; Fix, Julie K., eds. Pioneers of American Landscape Design II: An Annotated Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Cultural Resources, Heritage Preservation Services Program, Historic Landscape Initiative, 1995. Fifty biographical profiles. Nearly 1,200 bibliographic citations with location and description of archival collection contents. illus. 180 pp.
Birnbaum, Charles A.; Page, Robert R., eds. “Thematic Issue on Landscape Interpretation.” CRM 17, no.7 (1994): 48 pp. An exploration of research and documentation techniques, interpretive planning tools, the influence of culture values, and innovative projects. Examples from the US, UK, Europe and Australia. bib. illus.
Bratton, Susan, ed. Vegetation Change and Historic Landscape Management: Proceedings of the Conference on Science in the National Parks., Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 13-18 July 1986. The George Wright Society and the U.S. National Park Service, 1988. 214 pp. A variety of park landscapes from across the country. Mostly case study format including documentation, inventory and management. bib. illus.
Buggey, Susan, ed. “Special Issue: Conserving Historic Landscapes.” APT Bulletin 9, no. 3 (1977): 106 pp. Focus on research and technology challenges from documentation techniques to treatment. illus.
Buggey, Susan, ed. “Special Issue: Conserving Historic Landscapes.” APT Bulletin 11, no. 4 (1979): 132 pp. Current developments. Unlike the theme issue two years earlier, a greater focus is placed on rural/vernacular landscapes. Examples from the US, UK, Canada and Australia. bib. illus.
Buggey, Susan, ed. “Special Issue: Conserving Historic Landscapes.” APT Bulletin 24, no.3&4 (1992): 84 pp. Definitions, principles, planning processes, standards and guidelines. Examples from the US, UK, Canada, with supplementary information on relative organizations. bib. illus.
Burns, John and the staff of HABS/HAER, National Park Service, eds. “Recording Historic Landscapes” in Recording Historic Structures. Washington, D.C.: The American Institute of Architects Press, 1989. Predominantly structures. Includes chapter on the documentation of Meridian Hill Park, Wash., D.C. Detailed plans, sections, photographs. bib. illus. pp. 206-219.
Clay, Grady, ed. “Whose Time is This Place? The Emerging Science of Garden Preservation.” Landscape Architecture vol 66, no.5 (1976): First theme issue of magazine devoted to the topic of landscape preservation.
Coffin, Margaret. Guide to Developing a Preservation Maintenance Plan for a Historic Landscape., Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation, Cultural Landscape Publication No. 7, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995. 55 pp. Integrating preservation objectives into landscape maintenance operations, and for planning and documenting work. bib. illus.
Comp, T. Allan, ed. Regional Heritage Areas: Approaches to Sustainable Development., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1994. 48 pp. National overview. Case studies: Southwestern Pennsylvania Heritage Preservation Program, Tennessee Overhill, Southwest Montana, Iowa (Silos and Smokestacks Program), Mississippi Headwaters, and Potomac River Heritage Project. Systems examples: French Heritage Parks, Pennsylvania Heritage Parks. National Coalition background, concept, purpose and principles. Annotated state-by-state national guide. bib. illus.
Day, Karen E. Restoring Vine Coverage to Historic Buildings., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Preservation Assistance Division., Washington, D.C., 6 pp. Tech Note case study of nineteenth century trellis restoration project at Fairsted, Frederick Law Olmsted National Historic Site, Brookline, Mass. Historic background and experimental systems. Types: spiraled steel strapping, aircraft cable, modular pipe and combination alternatives. Notes on fabrication, installation, maintenance and findings. Construction details. bib. illus.
Diehl, Janet; Barrett, Thomas S. et al. The Conservation Easement Handbook: Managing Land Conservation and Historic Preservation Easement Programs. 4th ed. San Francisco, California/ Washington, D.C.: Trust for Public Land/Land Trust Alliance, (1988): 269 pp. Tools to improve land protection efforts. Guidance for operating an easement program. Includes: techniques, criteria, compliance issues, competing land uses, and ethical responsibilities. Appendices: Model easement, IRS requirement checklist and national contacts. illus.
Frey, Susan Rademacher, ed. “Preservation Leaps the Garden Wall.” Landscape Architecture 71, no.1 (1981): Second landscape preservation theme issue.
Frey, Susan Rademacher, ed.; with O’Donnell, Patricia M. and Melnick, Robert Z. “Preservation: Defining an Ethic.” Landscape Architecture 77, no.4 (1987): 136 pp. Third theme issue of magazine. Planning treatment and management issues. Broadening the role of preservation within professional practice. bib. illus.
Gagliardi, Neil; Morris, Stephen. Local Historic Preservation Plans: A Selected Annotated Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Branch of Preservation Planning, Interagency Resources Division, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1993. Results of national survey of 1,800 communities. Emphasis on regional diversity, scale variety, scope and linking preservation with community concerns. Includes comprehensive and area preservation plans. Sample plans and charts. illus.
Gayle, Margot; Look, David W; and, Waite, John G. Metals in America’s Historic Buildings. Washington, D.C.: Preservation Assistance, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1992. Although the focus of this publication is on structures, the historical survey of metals and strategies for dealing with deterioration and methods of preservation have applications to cultural landscapes.
Gilbert, Cathy A.; Page, Robert R. and; Dolan, Susan A. Preparing Cultural Landscape Reports for Resources in the National Park System. Washington, D.C.: Park Historic Architecture and Cultural Landscapes Division, Cultural Landscape Program, 1996. The manual clarifies the purpose and use of the report, and defines its content, process and format. Additionally, technical information is provided on the methodologies and techniques for cultural landscape research, documentation, analysis and treatment.
Gittings, Kirk. Introduction to Photographing Historic Properties., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1992. 16 pp. Tools, techniques and processes. Artistic and documentary methodologies. Considerations: on-site, selecting film, processing, printing and storage. Focus on structures. Photography standards from the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the National Register of Historic Places. bib. illus.
Groth, Paul, ed., Vision, Culture and Landscape. Berkeley, California: Department of Landscape Architecture, University of California, Berkeley, 1990. 245 pp. Interpreting and reading cultural landscapes. Geographically and regionally diverse examples include rural, suburban and urban landscape types. bib. illus.
Hart, John. Farming on the Edge: Saving Family Farms in Marin County, California. Berkeley and Los Angelos, California: University of California Press, 1991. 174 pp. Essays include: Waiting for the End; Back from the Edge; Crisis and Alliance; Something More Permanent; The Land in Trust; Marin the Model; a Grassland History; What Marin County Did (and Didn’t Do). illus.
Henry, Susan L. Protecting Archeological Sites on Private Lands. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, Preservation Planning Branch, Interagency Resources Division, 1993. Archaeological values, regulatory, and non- regulatory strategies. Annotated appendices: protection strategies; the assessment process; seeking expertise; developer liaison; financial assistance; federal laws. bib. illus.
International Symposium on the Conservation of Urban Squares and Parks., Montreal, Canada, 12-15 May 1993. Quebec: Association Des Architectes, 391 pp. Ninety-three papers from Canada, the United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, New-Zealand, Australia, Spain, Turkey, France, Switzerland, Mexico, Malaysia, Italy and Singapore explore the history of urban parks and squares, historical and archaeological research methodologies, site inventories, recording, documentation, analysis, treatment, interpretation, management, maintenance and ecology.
Jackson, John Brinkerhoff. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, 1984. 165 pp. A cultural geographer’s perspective on interpreting the vernacular landscape. Definitions. Reading landscape types and features including natural spaces, roads, forests, parks and habitats. bib. illus.
Jester, Thomas C.; Park, Sharon C. Making Historic Properties Accessible., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Preservation Assistance Division., Washington, D.C., 14 pp. Planning accessibility modifications and illustrated solutions. Overview of Federal Accessibility Law. Focus on structures, but includes “Making Historic Landscapes Accessible” (Charles A. Birnbaum). bib. illus.
Keller, J. Timothy; Keller, Genevieve P. How to Evaluate and Nominate Designed Historic Landscapes., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Interagency Resources Division, Washington, D.C., 14 pp. Guidance for successful preparation of nominations for designed historic landscapes. Definitions and types. Field work, research, documentation and assessment techniques. Landscape archaeology. Step-by-step process for determining integrity and significance. National examples. bib. illus.
Lamme, Ary J., III. America’s Historic Landscapes: Community Power and the Preservation of Four National Historic Sites. Knoxville, Tennessee: The University of Tennessee Press, 1989. 213 pp. Landscape and meaning, including a review of literature. Analysis of historic landscapes; “contemplative” analysis of landscape meaning; and, community perspectives. Eastern U.S. case studies: St. Augustine, Fla.; Colonial National Historical Park, Va.; Sackets Harbor, N.Y.; and, Gettysburg, Pa. Review of findings and strategies. bib. illus.
Land Trust Alliance; The National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States. Appraising Easements: Guidelines for Valuation of Historic Preservation and Land Conservation Easements. 2d ed. Land Trust Alliance and the National Trust for Historic Preservation in the United States, 1990. 82 pp. The process of easement appraisal. Includes the general principles of valuation, guidelines for appraisal reports, use of professional appraisal approaches, typical easements, and the role of the holding organization. bib.
Landscape Preservation Seminar. University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 25-26 March 1988. University of Massachusetts at Amherst: Division of Continuing Education, 1988. 89 pp. Preservation planning and management of a variety of landscape types from parks and gardens, to farms and battlefields. Tools and techniques for research, inventory, documentation, registration, analysis, treatment and management.
Lee, Sharon, ed. “Historic Gardens.” The Public Garden 7, no. 2 (1992): 40 pp. Preservation and management of historic public landscapes with an emphasis on historic plant materials. bib. illus.
Lind, Brenda. The Conservation Easement Stewardship Guide: Designing, Monitoring, and Enforcing Easements., Washington, D.C.: Land Trust Alliance, 1991. 107 pp. Establishing a program, accepting, documenting, monitoring, enforcing and funding easements. Property owner and community relations. Appendices: rules for record keeping; sample survey and documentation forms; and, sample policies. illus.
Mastran, Shelley S. The Protection of America’s Scenic Byways., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1993. 20 pp. Overview of federal and state programs. Threats from tourism and urban sprawl. Preservation planning tools: Corridor Management Plans and incentive programs. Case studies: Lexington-Frankfort, Ky. Scenic Corridor; Red Hills Regions of Ga. and Fla; Brandywine River Valley, Pa; and Columbia River Highway, Oreg. bib., annotated. illus.
McClelland, Linda Flint and; Keller, J. Timothy; Keller, Genevieve P.; Melnick, Robert Z. Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Rural Historic Landscapes., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Interagency Resources Division., Washington, D.C., 33 pp. Guidance for successful preparation of nominations for rural/historic landscapes. Definitions and types. Field work, documentation and assessment techniques. Landscape archaeology. Matrix of landscape characteristics. Step-by-step process for determining integrity and significance. National examples. bib. illus.
McMahon, Edward T.; Watson, A. Elizabeth. In Search of Collaboration: Historic Preservation and the Environmental Movement., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1992. 16 pp. Exploration of common roots, interests, and problems: energy conservation, urban environment, transportation, tourism, greenways and heritage corridors. Opportunities: sustainable development, partnerships, sharing tools, planning and programs. Case studies: Lancaster County, Pa.; Bodie State Park, Calif.; Fenstermarker Ranch, San Antonio, Tex. illus.
Meinig, D.W., ed. The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979. 255 pp. A collection of essays on reading the landscape. from a cultural geographer’s perspective. Reading landscape types and features including natural spaces, roads, forests, parks and habitats. bib. illus.
Melnick, Robert Z. with; Sponn, Daniel and; Saxe, Emma Jane. Cultural Landscapes: Rural Historic Districts in the National Park Service., Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1984. 80 pp. Identification, evaluation, registration, and management of rural landscapes including features, components and patterns. Contents of a Cultural Landscape Report. Appendices: Standards for managing cultural resources (NPS-28); definitions, sources or information. bib., annotated. illus.
Melnick, Robert Z. Cultural and Historic Landscapes: A Selected Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1980. Organized in seven sections: architecture, geography, historic preservation, landscape, planning, miscellaneous, and related bibliographies. Focus on vernacular and rural landscape information contained in journals.
Miller, Naomi F.; Gleason, Kathryn Louise. The Archeology of Garden and Field. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994. 228 pp. A contributed work with a variety of case studies and strategies for landscape archaeology. Includes inventory and analysis methodologies. bib. illus.
Montagna, Dennis R. Conserving Outdoor Bronze Sculpture., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Preservation Assistance Division., Washington, D.C., 1989. 8 pp. Treatment case study of the Thaddeus Kosciuszko Monument, Wash., D.C. with air abrasive cleaning with pulverized walnut shells, followed by applications of corrosion inhibitor and protective wax coatings. Suggestions for maintenance and later evaluations. bib. illus.
Noble, Bruce J. Jr; Spude, Robert. Guidelines for Identifying, Evaluating, and Registering Historic Mining Properties., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Interagency Resources Division., Washington, D.C., 1992. 30 pp. Background and contexts for mining. Guidance for successful preparation of nominations. Description of processes: extraction, beneficiation and refining. Related property type descriptions. Field work, setting boundaries, documentation, inventory and assessment techniques. Step-by-step process for determining integrity and significance. bib. illus.
Page, Robert R., ed. “Cultural Landscapes: The Intent and the Tenor of the Times.” CRM 14, no.6 (1991): 28 pp. Highlights a diversity of landscape types and the range of activity underway in the research, documentation, planning, and management. illus.
Potter, Elisabeth Walton; Boland, Beth M. Guidelines for Evaluating and Registering Cemeteries and Burial Places., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service Cultural Resources. Interagency Resources Division., Washington, D.C., 33 pp. American burial customs and cemeteries. Descriptions and types of burial places and their associated features. Guidance for successful preparation of nominations. Mapping, field work, archaeology, photography, setting boundaries, documentation and assessment techniques. Step-by-step process for determining integrity and significance. bib. illus.
Proceedings of the Canadian Parks Service Reconstruction Workshop., Hull, Quebec, 11-13 March 1992. Canada: National Historic Sites, Parks Service, Environment Canada, 1993. 107 pp. Proceedings addressing five issues including: Challenges the CPS Faces with Existing Reconstructions; Values of Reconstructions as They Relate to Presentation; What CPS Should Do with its Ageing Reconstructions; Alternatives to Period Reconstruction; and Criteria for Reconstructions in the Future.
Ramsay, Juliet. How to Record the National Estate Values of Gardens., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia, 1991. 24 pp. A guide to identifying, surveying and evaluating condition and integrity of a garden as required by the Commission. Step-by-step process for researching its history, compiling a written narrative and generating plan. Summary of the Australian Heritage Commission Criteria, examples of survey forms and garden layout plans. bib. illus.
Ramsay, Juliet. Parks, Gardens and Special Trees: A Classification and Assessment Method for the Register of the National Estate., Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, Australia, 1991. 54 pp. To standardize the assessment of nominations, different category classifications are described. To establish common terminology, groups of gardens with similar characteristics, called “types” or “type profiles” are defined with representative examples. Two sections: classification methods; assessment process. Matrix, plans. bib. illus.
Reilly, Marilou, issue consultant. “Historic Transportation Corridors: A New and Dynamic Element of Historic Preservation.” CRM 16, no.11 (1993): 60 pp. Selected papers from the international conference held in Natchitoches, Louisiana. Tools for identification, documentation, registration, analysis, and management. illus.
Rogers, Elizabeth Barlow. Rebuilding Central Park: A Management and Restoration Plan. Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, U.K.: MIT Press, 1987. 160 pp. Preservation planning for N.Y.C., N.Y. landmark. Historic overview and detailed methodology for park analysis and later management. Divides park into twenty-two project areas, each with plans and photographs. Overview of Central Park Conservancy. illus.
Starke, Barry M. Maymont Park—The Italian Garden., National Park Service, Washington, D.C., 1980. Rehabilitation plan for historic Richmond, Va. garden. Plans, sections, specs and details with an emphasis on masonry. bib. illus.
Stokes, Samuel N.; Watson, A. Elizabeth; Keller, Genevieve P.; Keller, J. Timothy. Saving Americas Countryside: A Guide to Rural Conservation., Baltimore, Maryland: National Trust for Historic Preservation and Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. 306 pp. Present day concerns and trends. Strategies and tools for identifying, analyzing, preserving and protecting rural and vernacular landscapes. National case studies include conservation programs, land protection techniques, voluntary techniques for protecting private property and community outreach and education. Sources of assistance and suggested readings. bib., annotated. illus.
Strangstad, Lynette. A Graveyard Preservation Primer., 2d ed. Nashville, Tennessee: American Association for State and Local History, 1990. A “how-to” manual. Inventory, data collection, archaeology, and assessment strategies. Organizational concerns: rubbings, volunteer coordination, public awareness, security, interpretation and funding. Sample survey forms. bib., annotated. illus.
Strangstad, Lynette. Preservation of Historic Burial Grounds., National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, D.C., 1994. 24 pp. Preservation planning guide. Project organization, necessary professionals, archaeology, maintenance, management, treatment and phasing. Cleaning burial markers. Preserving historic plant materials (by Scott Kunst). Case studies: Mt. Moriah Cemetery, Deadwood, N. Dak.; Magnolia Cemetery, Mobile, Ala.; and Randolph Cemetery, Columbia, S.C. Sample survey sheet for individual grave markers. Other national examples. bib. illus.
Technologies for Prehistoric and Historic Preservation., U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C., 1986. 186 pp. Background and summary of findings: preservation process, treatment issues, applied technology, public information, and federal policy. Landscape and archaeology discussed. illus.
Technologies for the Preservation of Prehistoric and Historic Landscapes—Background Paper., U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C., 1987. 46 pp. Technology and legislative recommendations pertaining to: landscape identification, the need for a center for preservation technology, and federal policy. bib. illus.
Toth, Edward. An Ecosystem Approach to Woodland Management: The Case of Prospect Park., National Association for Olmsted Parks, Bethesda, Maryland, 1991. 14 pp. Urban park management for 1866 Olmsted/Vaux designed historic park. Over 100 acres of remnant woodland in various states of deterioration are addressed by specialized maintenance crews for horticulture, lawns, and natural resources. Six main tasks: controlling slope erosion, arresting soil depletion, controlling invasive species, replanting interior gaps, understory restoration and minimizing disturbance. Ravine I case study. Management zones and associated plant lists. Plans. bib. illus.
Vernon, Noel Dorsey; Garvey, C. Elizabeth; Williams, Sherda K. Oral History Guidelines for Landscape Historians. Washington,D.C.: American Society of Landscape Architects Open Committee on Historic Preservation, 1990. Types of projects, organization, preparation, execution, and transcription. Ethical and legal considerations. bib., annotated.
Weeks, Kay D.; Grimmer, Anne E. Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for Preserving, Rehabilitating, Restoring and Reconstructing Historic Buildings., U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. Cultural Resource Stewardship and Partnerships. Heritage Preservation Services, Washington, D.C., 1995. 188 pp. Using the standards and choosing the most appropriate treatment for a building. Organized by building exterior and interior. The parallel document to these guidelines for structures. illus.
Yaro, Robert D., ed. New England Landscape: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Landscape Planning and Design., 1, no.1 (1988): 110 pp. First and only issue published. Preservation-related papers: Land Trusts: Innovations on an Old New England Idea, Gordon Abbott, Jr.; The Changing New England Landscape: A Sociodemographic History, A.E. Luloff; Conserving Special Landscapes: a Case Study of Block Island, Judith Benedict; Cross-Cultural Planning: Learning from the British Countryside, Richard W. Carbin. bib. illus.