Historic Overview
Existing Conditions
Assessment and Analysis
Preservation Philosophy
Implementation and Management
Outreach and Education
Selected Readings

Toothrock Viaduct, 20 July 1915, nearing completion, with crew who completed it. (Photo courtesy Robert Hadlow, Ph.D.)


Elliott, John Arthur. "The Location and Construction of the Mitchell Point Section of the Columbia River Highway, Oregon." C.E. thesis, University of Washington, 1929. Elliott was the Oregon State Highway Department locating engineer who envisioned a tunnel like one found on the Axenstrasse, in Switzerland. He wrote this thesis 14 years after he completed the tunnel.

First Annual Report of the Board of Park Commissioners, Seattle, Washington, 1884-1904. Olmsted Brothers, 1905. Reprinted by the Friend's of Seattle's Olmsted Parks. Lancaster designed the Lake Washington Boulevard that Olmsted had envisioned in a master plan for Seattle's park system.

Lancaster, Samuel Christopher. The Columbia: America's Great Highway through the Cascade Mountains to the Sea. Portland, 1915, 1916, and 1926. The history of the Columbia River as a great transportation link. Lancaster's study features black-and-white and color photography of the HCRH from 1915.

Williams, Ira A. "The Columbia River Gorge: Its Geologic History, Interpreted from the Columbia River Highway." Revised reprint of Mineral Resources of Oregon 2, no. 3 (May 1923). Reissued as Williams, Ira A. Geologic History of the Columbia River Gorge. 3d edition, revised, Portland: Oregon Historical Society Press, 1991. Williams' work is a classic study of Columbia River Gorge geology.


Birnbaum, Charles A. with Christine Capella Peters. The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties with Guidelines for the Treatment of Cultural Landscapes. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service Cultural Resource Stewardship and Partnerships Heritage Preservation Services, Historic Landscape Initiative, Washington, DC 1996. Applies the Standards and preservation planning principles to historic and cultural landscapes. Includes a number of historic road examples.

Carr, Ethan. Wilderness by Design: Landscape Architecture and the National Park Service. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. A compilation of case studies highlighting the accomplishments of the landscape architects of the National Park Service and documenting their contributions to American landscape history--from the perspective of the growing movement for regional planning in America. Includes a discussion on Samuel Lancaster and the Columbia River Highway (p. 83-85).

"Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Corridor Visual Inventory." Prepared for the Columbia River Gorge Commission Corridor Study Team, 1990.

Columbia River Highway Project. Columbia River Highway Guide for Maintenance. HCRS, National Park Service, Cascade Locks, OR, 1981. The National Park Service's Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service conducted a comprehensive survey of the HCRH and prepared several useful studies.

________. Columbia River Highway: Options for Conservation and Reuse. Prepared by Diane Ochi, HCRS, National Park Service, Cascade Locks, OR, 1981

Fahl, Ronald J. "S. C. Lancaster and the Columbia River Highway: Engineer as Conservationist." Oregon Historical Quarterly 74, no. 2 (June 1973): 101-44. Fahl provided much insight into Lancaster's reasons for designing a road such as the HCRH.

Gronowski, Nancy H. and Jeanette Kloos. A Study of the Historic Columbia River Highway. Salem: Oregon Department of Transportation, November 1987. These authors furthered the Columbia River Highway Project's work from 1981. They addressed the scenic, recreation, and economic development potential of the HCRH.

Horn, Jonathan C., and Mary Stuart. "Multnomah Falls Lodge and Footpath Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places." Gresham, OR: Mount Hood National Forest, USDA Forest Service, 1980.

Kloos, Jeanette B. Historic Columbia River Highway Master Plan. Portland: Oregon Department of Transportation, Region 1, 1996. This document provides direction for rehabilitation and the HCRH and construction of connection trails along abandoned segments.

Management Plan for the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Columbia River Gorge Commission and the USDA Forest Service, National Scenic Area. 1992. The Management Plan provides guidance for protecting and enhancing the scenic, cultural, natural, and recreation resources of the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area.

McClelland, Linda Flint. Building the National Parks: Historic Landscape Design and Construction. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998. History of the policies, principles, and practices of landscape design that guided the development and protection of the national parks from the founding of the National Park Service to the end of the 20th century. Includes a section on the development of park roads, with references to Lancaster and the Columbia River Highway (p.103-104).

Smith, Dwight A. "Columbia River Highway Historic District: Nomination of the Old Columbia River Highway in the Columbia Gorge to the National Register of Historic Places, Multnomah, Hood River, and Wasco Counties, Oregon." Salem: Oregon Department of Transportation, Highway Division, Technical Services Branch, Environmental Section, 1984.