What is there about the form or shape of the building that gives the building
its identity? Is the shape distinctive in relation to the neighboring
buildings? Is it simply a low, squat box, or is it a tall, narrow building
with a corner tower? Is the shape highly consistent with its neighbors?
Is the shape so complicated because of wings, or ells, or differences
in height, that its complexity is important to its character? Conversely,
is the shape so simple or plain that adding a feature like a porch would
change that character? Does the shape convey its historic function as
in smoke stacks or silos?
Notes on the Shape or Form of the Building:
2. Roof and Roof Features
Does the roof shape or its steep (or shallow) slope contribute
to the building's character? Does the fact that the roof is highly visible
(or not visible at all) contribute to the architectural identity of the
building? Are certain roof features important to the profile of the building
against the sky or its background, such as cupolas, multiple chimneys,
dormers, cresting, or weather vanes? Are the roofing materials or their
colors or their patterns (such as patterned slates) more noticeable than
the shape or slope of the roof?
Notes on the Roof and Roof Features:
Is there a rhythm or pattern to the arrangement of windows or other openings
in the walls; like the rhythm of windows in a factory building, or a three-part
window in the front bay of a house; or is there a noticeable relationship
between the width of the window openings and the wall space between the
window openings? Are there distinctive openings, like a large arched entranceway,
or decorative window lintels that accentuate the importance the window
openings, or unusually shaped windows, or patterned window sash, like
small panes of glass in the windows or doors, that are important to the
character? Is the plainness of the window openings such that adding shutters
or gingerbread trim would radically change its character? Is there a hierarchy
of facades that make the front windows more important than the side windows?
What about those walls where the absence of windows establishes its own
Notes on the Openings:
4. Projections and Recesses
Projections. Are there parts of the building that are character
defining because they project from the walls of the building like porches,
cornices, bay windows, or balconies? Are there turrets, or widely overhanging
eaves, projecting pediments, or chimneys?
Recesses. Are there voids in the building, such as open galleries,
arcades, or recessed balconies?
Notes on the Projections and Recesses:
5. Trim and Secondary Features
Does the trim around the windows or doors contribute to the character
of the building? Is there other trim on the walls or around the projections
that, because of its decoration or color or patterning contributes to
the character of the building? Are there secondary features such as shutters,
decorative gables, railings, or exterior wall panels?
Notes on the Trim and Secondary Features:
6. Materials from a Distance
Do the materials or combination of materials contribute to the overall
character of the building as seen from a distance because of their color
or patterning, such as broken faced stone, scalloped wall shingling, rounded
rock foundation walls, boards and battens, or textured stucco?
Notes on the Materials:
What are the aspects of the setting that are important to the visual character?
For example, is the alignment of buildings along a city street and their
relationship to the sidewalk the essential aspect of its setting? Or,
conversely, is the essential character dependent upon the tree plantings
and out buildings which surround the farmhouse? Is the front yard important
to the setting of the modest house? Is the specific site important to
the setting such as being on a hilltop, along a river, or, is the building
placed on the site in such a way to enhance its setting? Is there a special
relationship to the adjoining streets and other buildings? Is there a
view? Is there fencing, planting, terracing, walkways or any other landscape
aspects that contribute to the setting?
Notes on the Setting:
8. Materials at Close Range
Are there one or more materials that have an inherent texture that contributes
to the close range character, such as stucco, exposed aggregate concrete,
or brick textured with vertical grooves? Or materials with inherent colors
such as smooth orange colored brick with dark spots of iron pyrites, or
prominently veined stone, or green serpentine stone? Are there combinations
of materials, used in juxtaposition, such as several different kinds of
stone, combinations of stone and brick, dressed stones for window lintels
used in conjunction with rough stones for the wall? Has the choice of
materials or the combinations of materials contributed to the character?
Notes on Materials at Close Range:
9. Craft Details
Is there high quality brickwork with narrow mortar joints? Is there
hand tooled or patterned stonework? Do the walls exhibit carefully struck
vertical mortar joints and recessed horizontal joints? Is the wall shinglework
laid up in patterns or does it retain evidence of the circular saw marks
or can the grain of the wood be seen through the semitransparent stain?
Are there hand split or hand-dressed clapboards, or machine smooth beveled
siding, or wood rusticated to look like stone, or Art Deco zigzag designs
executed in stucco?
Almost any evidence of craft details, whether handmade or machine-made,
will contribute to the character of a building because it is a manifestation
of the materials, of the times in which the work was done, and of the
tools and processes that were used. It further reflects the effects of
time, of maintenance (and/or neglect) that the building has received over
the years. All of these aspects are a part of the surface qualities that
are seen only at close range.
Notes on the Craft Details:
10. Individual Spaces
Are there individual rooms or spaces that are important to this building
because of their size, height, proportion, configuration, or function,
like the center hallway in a house, or the bank lobby, or the school auditorium,
or the ballroom in a hotel, or a courtroom in a county courthouse?
Notes on the Individual Spaces:
11. Related Spaces and Sequences of Spaces
Are there adjoining rooms that are visually and physically related with
large doorways or open archways so that they are perceived as related
rooms as opposed to separate rooms? Is there an important sequence of
spaces that are related to each other, such as the sequence from the entry
way to the lobby to the stairway and to the upper balcony as in a theatre;
or the sequence in a residence from the entry vestibule to the hallway
to the front parlor, and on through the sliding doors to the back parlor;
or the sequence in an office building from the entry vestibule to the
lobby to the bank of elevators?
Notes on the Related Spaces and Sequences of Spaces:
12. Interior Features
Are there interior features that help define the character of the building,
such as fireplace mantels, stairways and balustrades, arched openings,
interior shutters, inglenooks, cornices, ceiling medallions, light fixtures,
balconies, doors, windows, hardware, wainscoting, paneling, trim, church
pews, courtroom bars, teller's cages, waiting room benches?
Notes on the Interior Features:
13. Surface Finishes and Materials
Are there surface finishes and materials that can affect the design, the
color or the texture of the interior? Are there materials and finishes
or craft practices that contribute to the interior character, such as
wooden parquet floors, checkerboard marble floors, pressed metal ceilings,
fine hardwoods, grained doors or marbleized surfaces, or polychrome painted
surfaces, or stenciling, or wallpaper that is important to the historic
character? Are there surface finishes and materials that, because of their
plainness, are imparting the essential character of the interior such
as hard or bright, shiny wall surfaces of plaster or glass or metal?
Notes on the Surface Finishes and Materials:
14. Exposed Structure
Are there spaces where the exposed structural elements define the interior
character, such as the exposed posts, beams, and trusses in a church or
train shed or factory? Are there rooms with decorative ceiling beams (nonstructural)
in bungalows, or exposed vigas in adobe buildings?
Notes on the Exposed Structure: