National Register Bulletin: How to Prepare National Historic Landmark Nominations (1999 Edition; Reformatted for Web 2018)
Preface & Acknowledgements
By definition, the almost 2,300 properties designated as National Historic Landmarks are the most significant places in American history-they illustrate and commemorate our collective past and help us to understand our national identity. National Historic Landmarks outstandingly represent and interpret the best and brightest and the most tragic aspects of our history. Through these Landmarks, all Americans can better understand and appreciate the broad trends and events, important persons, great ideas and ideals, and valuable accomplishments in the arts and sciences, and humanities, that are truly significant in our history.
In the last several years, National Historic Landmark theme studies in the areas of women's history, early contact between Native Americans and Europeans, and the Underground Railroad have produced numerous new Landmarks while fostering a better understanding of these important trends in our diverse history. Examples of the range of properties recently recognized for their important linkages to our past include: the Holland Tunnel, New York/New Jersey, significant for Engineering; Jackson Pollock's Studio, Long Island, New York, significant for Art; Little Tokyo, Los Angeles, California, a significant Ethnic neighborhood, Bentonville Battlefield, North Carolina, a significant Civil War battlefield; Greenbelt, Maryland, an early suburban development; Philip Johnson's Glass House, Connecticut, significant for Architecture; Titan 11 Missile Complex, Arizona, a Cold War military site; Mapleleaf Shipwreck, Florida, significant in Maritime history; Brown Chapel AME Church, Alabama, a pivotal place in the Civil Rights movement; Brooks River District, Alaska, a significant archeological district; and Dealey Plaza, Texas, the location of the Kennedy Assassination.
Although its legislative history stretches back to the Historic Sites Act of 1935, the current National Historic Landmarks program, as the Department of the Interior's way of recognizing nationally significant sites, is soon approaching its 40th anniversary The National Historic Landmarks Survey is unique in that it provides a nationally comparative perspective for the significance of individual historic places and requires that these places retain a high level of integrity that communicates an association with important events or trends. The requirements for designation as a National Historic Landmark have always been and will continue to be high.
The National Historic Landmarks program is also about people, our citizens who care enough about the history of the nation to seek designation as a nationally significant site. It is my hope that this publication will encourage individuals, organizations, government agencies and Indian tribes to work with us to recognize the very best in American history through designation as National Historic Landmarks.
Robert G. Stanton
Director, National Park Service
This bulletin was prepared by Patty Henry, Historian, National Historic Landmarks Survey; Barbara Little, Archeologist, National Register of Historic Places, wrote the section on the revised thematic framework; Susan Kline, National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, prepared the section on multiple property nominations; and Marilyn Harper, Architectural Historian, National Register of Historic Places, contributed the section on boundary and documentation studies.
The author appreciates the use of portions of The Historic Sites Survey and National Historic Landmarks Program: A History by Barry Mackintosh, Bureau Historian, Park History, National Register, History and Education; Archeology in the National Historic Landmarks Program by Robert S. Grumet, Archeologist, Philadelphia Support Office; and various descriptive paragraphs from a forthcoming guide to National Historic Landmarks by Al Chambers.
This bulletin drew heavily upon National Register Bulletin: How to Complete the National Register Registration Form by Linda McClelland, Architectural Historian, National Register of Historic Places, and National Register Bulletin: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation by staff of the National Register of Historic Places and revised into final form by Patrick Andrus, Historian, National Register of Historic Places. The author gratefully acknowledges these two previous works and the strong foundation they prepared for this bulletin.
The bulletin also reflects the comments and suggestions of many individuals from State Historic Preservation Offices, Federal agencies, and National Park Service staff. Special appreciation is extended to Antoinette Lee, Special Projects Director, Heritage Preservation Services; Robie Lange, Historian, and Carolyn Pitts, Architectural Historian, National Historic Landmarks Survey; and Kira Badamo, Historian, and Robert Sandoval, Historian, National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, for their assistance during the preparation of the bulletin.
This bulletin was developed under the guidance of John H. Sprinkle, Jr., Supervisory Historian, National Historic Landmarks Survey and under the general editorship of Carol D. Shull, Chief, National Historic Landmarks Survey and Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places. Beth Savage, Architectural Historian, National Register of Historic Places, was responsible for publications coordination and Sarah Pope, Historian, National Register of Historic Places, provided editorial and technical support. Comments on this publication should be directed to Chief, National Historic Landmarks Survey, National Register, History and Education, National Park Service, 1849 C Street, N.W., #2280, Washington, D.C. 20240.
I. Introduction to National Historic Landmarks
What are National Historic Landmarks?
National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) are cultural properties designated by the Secretary of the Interior as being nationally significant. Acknowledged as among the nation's most significant historic places, these buildings, sites, districts, structures, and objects possess exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the United States in history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture. NHL designation is an official recognition by the federal government of the national significance of historic properties. By 1999, almost 2300 properties had been designated as National Historic Landmarks.
Authorized by the Historic Sites Act of 1935 (Public Law 74-292) and administered by the National Park Service, the NHL program focuses attention on places of exceptional value to the nation as a whole, by recognizing and promoting the preservation efforts of private organizations, individuals, and government agencies. While some NHLs are units, or are included within units of the National Park System, the NHL program is important to the preservation of many outstanding historic places that are not included in the National Park System. Designation of NHLs also furthers the educational objective of the Historic Sites Act, because it leads to increased public attention to and interest in a property. The program also serves as one of the tools used to screen proposed additions to the National Park System and to select properties for nomination to the World Heritage List. Regulations for the program are contained in 36 CFR Part 65.
What is the National Register of Historic Places?
In addition to administering the National Historic Landmarks Program, the National Park Service also administers the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official federal list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects significant in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture. National Register properties have significance to the history of their community state, or the nation. Nominations for listing historic properties come from State Historic Preservation Officers, from Federal Preservation Officers for properties owned or controlled by the United States Government, and from Tribal Historic Preservation Officers for properties on tribal lands. Private individuals and organizations, local governments, and American Indian tribes often
initiate this process and prepare the necessary documentation. A professional review board in each state considers each property proposed for listing and makes a recommendation on its eligibility. Upon designation, National Historic Landmarks are listed in the National Register of Historic Places if not already listed.
What is the Purpose of this Bulletin?
This bulletin has been prepared in response to the growing interest and appreciation of National Historic Landmarks. It contains instructions for completing the National Historic Landmarks nomination form. This form is used to document historic properties for potential designation as National Historic Landmarks.
One nomination form is completed for each property nominated for designation. This property may be a single resource, such as a historic house or bridge, or it may be a historic district containing multiple buildings, structures, sites, and objects. Information on the nomination form identifies, locates, and describes the historic property in order to determine its integrity; explains how the property meets one or more of the NHL criteria; and makes the case for the national significance of the property.
A brief history of the NHL program; NHL theme studies and their use; NHL designation procedures; preparing NHL boundary studies' NHL documentation improvement studies, and studies to withdraw NHL designation; and using NHL documentation are also discussed in this document.
How are Potential NHLs Identified?
The NHL Survey requires a comparative framework for the determination of national significance. National Historic Landmarks are most often identified through "theme studies" which consider related properties within a specific historic context. However, National Historic Landmarks may also be identified through special studies of individual properties which may be initiated by either the National Park Service or outside parties. Nominations outside the context of theme studies need to establish the properties' integrity and strength of historical associations in relation to comparable properties within the content of the nomination.
The aspects of a NHL nomination that differ from a National Register nomination are:
- National significance
- National context
- High level of integrity
- Different criteria
Who Prepares NHL Nominations?
NHL nominations are prepared by interested individuals, organizations, contractors, State Historic Preservation Officers, Federal Preservation Officers, and NPS staff, with the participation and assistance of the owner(s) of the property. The NPS staff can provide information about theme studies and other comparable properties that may be relevant in the evaluation of particular properties and provide preliminary advice on whether a property appears likely to meet NHL criteria. The NPS recommends that those wishing to prepare a NHL nomination consult with the NHL Survey to discuss the property before preparing, the nomination. National Park Service regional and support office staff who administer the NHL program in their areas may also provide preliminary evaluations and assistance in preparing NHL nominations. Preparers of nominations should also work with property owners, the State Historic Preservation Officers, and other interested parties to apprise them of the intended nomination and to receive their input and assistance.
How are NHLs Designated?
Once a draft nomination is prepared, it may be reviewed by the NHL staff of the NPS regional and support offices, as well as the NHL Survey in Washington. Following these reviews and any appropriate revisions, owners and elected officials are officially and formally notified and given an opportunity to comment on those nominations that are likely candidates for NHL designation. (Owners of private property are given an opportunity to concur in, or object to, designation. In the case of more than one owner, if a majority of private property owners object, the Secretary of the Interior cannot designate the property but can determine whether it is eligible for designation.) The nominations are then forwarded to the National Park System Advisory Board for review and recommendation to the Secretary of the Interior. After considering the Board's recommendations, the Secretary designates NHLs.
What are the National Historic Landmarks Criteria?
The National Historic Landmarks criteria (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, Part 65.4[a and b]) set a stringent test for national significance, including high historical integrity. Potential NHLs are evaluated against the National Historic Landmarks criteria and their justification for NHL designation must be documented in narrative form.
National Historic Landmarks Criteria
The quality of national significance is ascribed to districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects that possess exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the United States in history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture and that possess a high degree of integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association, and:
- Criterion 1: That are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to, and are identified with, or that outstandingly represent, the broad national patterns of United States history and from which an understanding and appreciation of those patterns may be gained; or
- Criterion 2: That are associated importantly with the lives of persons nationally significant in the history of the United States; or
- Criterion 3: That represent some great idea or ideal of the American people; or
- Criterion 4: That embody the distinguishing characteristics or an architectural type specimen exceptionally valuable for the study of a period, style, or method of construction, or that represent a significant, distinctive, and exceptional entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or
- Criterion 5: That are composed of integral parts of the environment not sufficiently significant by reason of historical association or artistic merit to warrant individual recognition but collectively compose an entity or exceptional historical or artistic significance, or outstandingly commemorate or illustrate a way of life or culture; or
- Criterion 6: That have yielded or may be likely to yield information of major scientific importance by revealing new cultures, or by shedding light upon periods of occupation of large areas of the United States. Such sites are those which have yielded, or which may reasonably be expected to yield, data affecting theories, concepts, and ideas to a major degree.
Ordinarily, cemeteries, birthplaces, graves of historical figures, properties owned by religious institutions or used for religious purposes, structures have been moved from their original locations, reconstructed historic buildings and properties that have achieved significance within the past fifty years are not eligible for designation. If such properties fall within the following categories they may, nevertheless, be found to qualify:
- Exception 1: A religious property deriving its primary national significance from architectural or artistic distinction or historical importance; or
- Exception 2: A building removed from its original location but which is nationally significant primarily for its architectural merit, or for association with persons or events of transcendent importance in the nation's history and the association consequential; or
- Exception 3: A site of a building or structure no longer standing but the person or event associated with it is of transcendent importance in the nation's history and the association consequential; or
- Exception 4: A birthplace, grave or burial if it is of a historical figure of transcendent national significance and no other appropriate site, building, or structure directly associated with the productive life of that person exists; or
- Exception 5: A cemetery that derives its primary national significance from graves of persons of transcendent importance, or from an exceptionally distinctive design or an exceptionally significant event; or
- Exception 6: A reconstructed building or ensemble of buildings of extraordinary national significance when accurately executed in a suitable environment and presented in a dignified manner as part of a restoration master plan, and when no other buildings or structures with the same association have survived; or
- Exception 7: A property primarily commemorative in intent if design, age, tradition, or symbolic value has invested it with its own national historical significance; or
- Exception 8: A property achieving national significance within the past 50 years if it is of extraordinary national importance.
II. Brief History of the NHL Program
The Historic Sites Act of 1935 directed the Secretary of the Interior, through the NPS, to "make a survey of historic and archaeologic sites, buildings, and objects for the purpose of determining which possess exceptional value as commemorating or illustrating the history of the United States." The framers of the act envisioned that most of those places found from the survey to possess national significance would be acquired by the NPS. Initially then, the survey was viewed as a means of expanding the National Park System and improving its representation of the nation's past.
In supporting the act in his testimony before the House Public Lands Committee, Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes also said that such a survey "would make it possible to call to the attention of States, municipalities and local historical organizations, the presence of historical sites in their particular regions which the National Government cannot preserve, but which need attention and rehabilitation." Thus, from the beginning of the survey, education and encouraging preservation by non-NPS entities were major goals as well.
The Historic Sites Act also established the Secretary of the Interior's Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments (today the National Park System Advisory Board). Survey activity under the act was formally inaugurated in July 1936. Although the Advisory Board disclaimed any government commitment to acquire properties found nationally significant, survey recommendations were kept confidential to forestall public concern about government intentions.
America's entry into World War II brought a virtual end to survey activity. It was not until 1956, in the course of planning for Mission 66, a ten-year development program to improve facilities throughout the National Park System for the 50th anniversary of the NPS that the survey was reactivated. The intention was to contribute to planning for the "orderly rounding out of the National Park System." The revival of the survey also was viewed as important to historic preservation efforts nationwide in the face of massive highway construction, river basin projects, and urban renewal.
Beginning in 1960, historic properties found nationally significant by the Secretary of the Interior received a new designation: National Historic Landmark. Publicizing the list of such properties would make their history and significance known to the public. NHL designation also was seen as a way to encourage private owners to preserve their important properties. The NPS regarded NHL designation as an attractive alternative to federal acquisition of historic properties, in effect, a supplement to the National Park System.
Passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966 greatly expanded the federal government's role in historic preservation. The act established the National Register of Historic Places, which included properties of state and local significance, as well as NHLs and historic units of the National Park System. Historic preservation grants were made available to assist the preservation of properties listed in the National Register, including NHLs. In addition, Section 106 of the NHPA requires federal agencies to consider properties included in or eligible for the National Register in federal project planning and allows the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation an opportunity to comment before funding, licensing, or assisting projects that would affect them.
In the 1980 amendments to the National Historic Preservation Act, National Historic Landmarks were given explicit recognition in law. In 1983, regulations (36 CFR Part 65) were published that defined the National Historic Landmarks criteria and the procedures for considering new properties for inclusion as NHLs.
III. NHL Theme Studies
What are NHL Theme Studies and How are They Prepared?
Usually, NHLs are identified through theme studies. Theme studies are the most effective way of identifying and nominating properties because they provide a comparative analysis of properties associated with a specific area of American history, such as the fur trade, earliest Americans, women's history, Greek Revival architecture, space exploration, or labor history. Theme studies provide a national historic context for specific topics in American history. A theme study must provide that necessary national historic context so that national significance may be judged for a number of related properties.
Some theme studies are mandated by Congress, while others are determined by the NPS, and are generally prepared under cooperative agreements or contracts with other governmental entities or private organizations. In the development of theme studies, partnerships with the academic community, independent scholars, and others knowledgeable about the subject are encouraged. Emphasis is placed on the preparation of theme studies that meet academic and professional standards, that provide a context from which the most appropriate properties within the theme are identified, that can be used to assist in the evaluation of historic properties at all levels, and that can be used to educate the public about the nation's heritage.
A potential NHL nomination preparer should consult with the NHL Survey to obtain information on already prepared NHL theme studies (see Appendix B). The NHL Survey can determine if the proposed theme for the property has had a study prepared in the past, if the proposed property itself has been under review or consideration at any time in the past, or if comparable properties have been designated.
If no theme study exists, or if the theme study is incomplete or outdated, the applicant must document the context within the individual nomination form. In order to have a successful nomination, the preparer should research, outline, synthesize, and interpret the historical record on one or more nationally significant historical themes to which the property relates through its historic uses, activities, associations, and physical characteristics. The nomination should discuss how the property reflects an important aspect of the history of the nation as a whole, has contributed in an exceptional way to the diverse geographical and cultural character of the nation, or is illustrative of a national trend, issue, or movement. One way to do this is by citing judgments of national significance from scholarly professional literature. The nomination should provide a compelling justification for national significance based on sound reasoning which establishes why this property is worthy of this exceptional consideration. The preparer should also explain how the property relates to other properties nationwide having similar associations.
In developing the appropriate historic context for the property, nomination preparers should refer to the National Park Service's Thematic Framework. This framework provides for eight categories, each representing a significant aspect of the human experience.
Guidelines for Developing Historic Context
Identify and provide facts about one or more historical themes for the nation as a whole to which the property relates through its historic uses, activities, associations, and physical characteristics. Discuss how the property reflects an important aspect of that theme or has contributed in an exceptional way to the diverse geographical and cultural character of the Nation. The facts should be organized by theme, geographical place, and period of time. Also, explain how the property relates to other properties nationwide having similar associations. (For a complete discussion of historic context that may be applied to National Historic Landmark nominations in some cases, see National Register Bulletins: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation and How to Complete the National Register Multiple Property Documentation Form.)
- Properties Signficant for Criterion 1: Explain how the event or pattern of events made an important contribution to the history of the nation, and how related types of properties reflect these events.
- Properties Significant for Criterion 2: Explain why the person with whom the property is associated is important to the history of the nation. Identify also other properties associated with the person and explain their role in the career of the person.
- Properties Significant for Criterion 3: Explain how the property represents a great ideal of the American people. Discuss the great ideal and why it is an ideal to the people of the United States. Identify other properties that could be associated with this ideal and thoroughly explain that association.
- Properties Signficant for Criterion 4: Explain why the type, period or method of construction represents architectural features that are significant in the development of the nation; or provide facts about the career and work of the artist, architect, engineer, or landscape architect to explain how the person was accomplished in his or her field and made contributions to the art, architecture, or landscape architecture of the nation and why the property being nominated is an outstanding example of his or her work.
- Properties Significant for Criterion 5: Explain why the property and its integral parts reflect some exceptional historic movement, event, way of life, culture or architectural style or period which is important to the development of the nation. Identify and explain the association of related types of properties to the same movement, event, way of life, culture, architectural style or period.
- Properties Signficant for Criterion 6: Explain why the information the site is likely to yield is important to the knowledge of the prehistory or history of the nation.
Using the Thematic Framework
Public Law 101-628, Section 1209, directed the NPS to revise its thematic framework for history to reflect current scholarship and represent the full diversity of America's past. Before this, the NPS had been using a theme structure developed in 1987 based on earlier attempts to organize American history into identifiable national themes. The revision presents a larger and more integrated view of history, as it stresses the interplay of race, ethnicity, class, and gender within and among the framework's broadened topics. The 1996 thematic framework is attached as Appendix A.
Evaluation of historic sites for NHL designation is a professional process that involves analysis based on the best current scholarship. Given the broad, conceptual nature of the framework, it will need to be supplemented, on a case by case basis, by more detailed outlines as particular topics are addressed.
The revised thematic framework makes it easier to incorporate the insights of social and cultural history, which seek to tell the stories of broad social trends and ordinary people. Unique and notable events are still included in the framework's goals, but they are more likely to be placed firmly within the broader contexts of their time. Studies of properties may be on specific topics (jazz history, for example) but should consider the holistic framework.
In using the thematic framework, it is important to remember that it covers human history in what is now the United States whether it occurred 10,000 or 50 years ago. "American" refers to both precontact history and history. Also note that history can be informed from many sources including archeology, oral tradition, and documentary history.
This thematic framework is intended to make the lives of the majority of Americans more visible and to enhance one?s understanding of the connections between people through time and place. The contexts of People, Place, and Time are settings in which the themes are suspended. It is vital to consider each of these elements in researching and interpreting the history of the American people.
- People: People provide one of the over-arching contexts within which to study the past. Issues such as gender and ethnicity are not confined to any particular place, time, or topic in history. Nor are they the only issues; culture also provides continuity and a perspective from which to view events. Such an approach may help to avoid the division of American history into limited categories.
- Place: The relationship of people to place is central to evaluating particular properties for national significance since it is physical properties that are designated NHLs. Relationship to place permeates each of the topics and broad spheres of human activity.
- Time: Human actions develop through time; however relevant chronological dates vary greatly, and it is cumbersome to attempt to include each possible relevant time period for all of the themes. Therefore it is most efficient to define time periods according to the study that is being undertaken. An example of variable dates for a similar "event" is the timing of contact between indigenous people and European explorers or settlers.
In using the thematic framework, one must recognize that not all history is nationally significant. A holistic overview encourages discussion of all facets of a property's history, but does not guarantee that all of that history will be recognized as nationally significant.
Preparers of NHL nominations must cite the appropriate themes and subthemes as included in the thematic framework when nominating properties for NHL designation. In addition, preparers should also refer to other NHL theme studies (or historic contexts) already prepared which are relevant for a particular nomination. The NHL Survey will be able to assist the preparers in locating and reviewing past theme studies.
Theme Studies as Multiple Property Submissions
In the past, theme studies have been prepared using a variety of formats. New theme studies will be in the format of a Multiple Property Submission (MPS) which will consist of:
- a historic context (the patterns or trends in history by which a specific occurrence, property, or site is understood and its meaning and ultimately its national significance within history is made clear),
- a discussion of the individual properties which may exist and relate to the historic context,
- the associative and physical attributes a property must have in order to be considered for designation,
- geographical data,
- the methodology used in preparing the Multiple Property Submission, and
- a bibliography of sources.
The Multiple Property format, as used by the National Register of Historic Places and explained in National Register Bulletin: How to Complete the National Register Multiple Property Documentation Form (NPS 10-900-b), will be used for National Historic Landmark theme studies.
While NHL theme studies using the Multiple Property format are conducted primarily to identify a related group of nationally significant properties, these studies can, at the same time, provide information that is useful in identifying and evaluating properties of state and local significance for National Register eligibility within the contexts which are documented in the Multiple Property studies. The same general principles will apply to completing most of the sections of the MPS format which follow.
MPS FORM Section A. "Name of Multiple Property Listing"
Racial Desegregation in Public Education
Great Camps of the Adirondacks
Village Sites of the Middle Missouri Subarea
Underground Railroad Resources in the United States
MPS FORM SECTION B. "Associated Historic Contexts"
Multiple Property Listing
The Development of Cemetery Design in the United States
Frontier Graves, Homestead Graveyards, and Churchyards, 1620-1947
The Development of Rural Cemeteries, 1831-1880
The Emergence of the Lawn-park Cemetery, 1855-1929
Military Cemeteries, 1862-1947
The Development of the Memorial Park, 1917-1947
MPS FORM SECTION C. "Form Prepared By"
Follow the instructions as given on page 9 of the National Register Bulletin, How to Complete the National Register Multiple Property Documentation Form.
MPS FORM SECTION D. "Certification"
The information for Section D. "Certification" generally will not apply as most NHL nominations do not go through state or federal agency (other than the National Historic Landmarks Survey) review.
MPS FORM SECTION E. "Developing Statement of Historic Contexts for NHL Theme Studies"
The historic context should be written as a concise description of the historical theme against which a property or a group of properties will be evaluated. The historic context statement must be developed in sufficient depth to support the relevance, the relationships, and the national importance of the properties to be considered. Historic context may emphasize economic, social, and political forces, such as certain industries, arts, literature, and military subjects. A historic context may also be associated with the life of a person or groups of persons that influenced the destiny or character of the nation. Architectural styles, building and structural types, as well as building materials and methods of construction may also serve as the organizing device for the historic context. A historic context for the precontact period may involve an examination of sites within a culture area.
Well-documented subjects (a renowned architect) or events (the Lewis and Clark Expedition) require a historical description that can be used to specifically evaluate the properties within the broader historical context. The description may be strengthened by citing published sources and conclusions from scholars in the subject area as to the specific significance of the theme and the properties within the theme.
For subjects that command fewer published sources, it may be necessary to conduct considerable research in the course of preparing a Multiple Property Submission. Scholars and others knowledgeable about the subject should be contacted for their views on the significance of the theme and properties related to it. The subject matter must be presented in a concise manner and must demonstrate its relationship to the properties discussed within the Multiple Property Submission.
The theme must be presented in the context of national significance. Occasionally the theme is regional, but in such cases, the national importance of the regional phenomena must be clear.
National Register Bulletin: How to Complete the National Register Multiple Property Documentation Form goes into considerable detail for completing Statements of Historic Contexts. This bulletin can be used as a guide for developing historic contexts related to the various NHL criteria with the understanding that the test of national significance must be established in the context.
MPS FORM SECTION F. "Associated Properties and Registration Requirement"
The Multiple Property Submission must state clearly the necessary requirements or qualities of historical association and integrity that make a property or properties within a theme nationally significant and therefore eligible for NHL designation. Close study of the historic context statement will highlight those trends or topics which have the potential to be illustrated by tangible properties. Nationally significant associations, high integrity and close relationship to the historic theme (context) are the thresholds needed for NHL consideration and designation. This section must also cite and justify the appropriate NHL criterion or criteria.
The discussion of properties within the Multiple Property Submission should focus not just on specific property types such as schools, train depots, or residences, but rather on the nationally significant topics or subtopics that have been identified in the historic context with which properties may be most closely associated. The topics can be based on both associative and physical attributes. Evaluating properties within their appropriate historic contexts and comparing the individual properties with other properties in their appropriate topic provides the basis for determining which have nationally significant historical associations or attributes with the highest level of integrity and are therefore potential candidates for NHL designation.
MPS FORM SECTION G. "Geographical Data"
The geographical data defines the limits of the area where properties included within the multiple property group exist or are likely to exist. The geographical area covered by the multiple property listing should incorporate the area covered by its related historic context or contexts.
MPS FORM SECTION H. "Summary of Identification and Evaluation Methods"
A concise explanation of the methods used to prepare the Multiple Property Submission should be provided. This information should contain:
- how the historic context was determined;
- how the research on the historic context was conducted;
- how were those properties which might still exist and which illustrate the nationally significant topics or subtopics in the historic context determined;
- the survey methods used to identify properties to be considered; and
- how was the decision of what constitutes the high integrity needed to be considered made.
This section also should include descriptions of properties considered for inclusion in the Multiple Property Submission that were later rejected as not meeting the applicable criteria. A discussion of why these properties were excluded must be included.
MPS FORM SECTION I. "Major Bibliographical References"
The bibliography of sources used to prepare the Multiple Property Submission should include primary and secondary sources of information used in writing the historic context and identifying the properties which may illustrate the nationally significant topics within the historic context. These sources may include other theme studies, published histories, historic photographs and maps, oral histories, archeological surveys, folklife studies, field surveys, and archival research in public and private records. Do not include general reference works, unless they provided specific information or assisted in evaluating and documenting the properties to be considered.
The Multiple Property nomination cover form includes the historic context, the necessary requirements needed to be considered under the theme, the discussion of properties which may or have been considered, the geographical data, the methodology used in preparing the theme study, and the general bibliography. The nominations of individual properties related to the Multiple Property Submission are prepared on individual National Historic Landmark Nomination forms. (This form is a slightly modified National Register of Historic Places Registration Form. See Section V: Preparation of NHL Nominations.) The individual nomination form need not repeat all of the history common to the theme. However, each individual nomination must be able to stand on its own, and national significance must be demonstrated for each property individually. The Multiple Property nomination cover form provides the historic context of the theme being studied and allows interested parties to determine if their properties may meet the requirements for designation under this particular theme. The individual nominations are still the official documentation for properties.
Preparers of NHL Multiple Property Submissions are urged to work closely with the NHL Survey in developing historic contexts, evaluating associated properties, creating registration requirements, outlining the methodology, and finalizing any other aspects associated with the cover document and related individual NHL nominations.
IV. How to Evaluate and Document National Significance for Potential National Historic Landmarks
Potential NHLs are evaluated for their national significance according to a set of criteria that is different from the more familiar National Register criteria. In preparing a nomination of a property for National Historic Landmark designation, the following guidelines should be considered. Claims for national significance should be supported by presenting a historical summary and reasoned comparison of the property to themes of national importance and to similar properties nationwide. In order to establish the relative merit of the proposed property, it generally should be compared not only to properties already identified as nationally significant in the same theme (i.e., existing NHLs or units of the National Park System), but also should take into consideration all similar properties not yet recognized by NHL designation or NPS authorization.
Establishing national significance requires the examination of the theme in which the property is significant to the extent necessary to document that the property represents an important aspect of the theme on a national level and is outstanding in its representation. A property should also be exceptionally important compared to similar properties within that theme. Not every residence of a nationally prominent person is a strong candidate; only the one with the strongest association is likely to be designated. Similarly, only the finest or the most influential works by a master American architect are likely to be designated NHLs.
NHL themes are not necessarily represented uniformly nationwide. Regional patterns found only in one part of the country may be significant nationally if the pattern they represent reflects an important trend in the history of the United States.
The areas of national significance for a property may differ from those of local and state significance. For example, a hospital may be important nationally, statewide, and locally in the history of medicine, but only have local architectural significance.
Explanation of NHL Criteria
The following discussion is arranged by each NHL criterion and explains each criterion in more detail.
NHL Criterion 1:
Properties that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to, and are identified with, or that outstandingly represent, the broad national patterns of United States history and from which an understanding and appreciation of those patterns may be gained.
The events associated with the property must be outstandingly represented by that property and the events be related to the broad national patterns of U.S. history. Thus, the property?s ability to convey and interpret its meaning must be strong and definitive and must relate to national themes. The property can be associated with either a specific event marking an important moment in American history or with a pattern of events or a historic movement that made a significant contribution to the development of the United States.
The property that is being evaluated must be documented, through accepted means of historical or archeological research, to have existed at the time of the event or pattern of events and to have been strongly associated with those events. A property is not eligible if its associations are merely speculative. Mere association with historic events or trends is not enough to qualify under this criterion. The property's specific association must be considered of the highest importance.
NHL Criterion 2:
Properties that are associated importantly with the lives of persons nationally significant in the history of the United States.
This criterion relates to properties associated with individuals whose specific contributions to American history can be identified and documented. The person(s) associated with the property must be individually exceptionally significant within a national historic context. The association must be with the person's productive life, reflecting the time period when he or she achieved significance. Properties that pre- or post-date an individual's significant accomplishments are usually not eligible. The individual's association with the property must be documented by accepted methods of historical or archeological research.
Generally, each property associated with an important individual must be compared to other associated properties to identify the one that best represents the person's nationally historic contributions, and those comparisons must be documented. The length of association is often an important factor when assessing several properties with similar historically important associations.
NHL Criterion 3:
Properties that represent some great idea or ideal of the American people.
This criterion relates to properties that express some great overarching concept or image held by the population of the United States. It could be a general historical belief, principle, or goal. The application of this criterion clearly requires the most careful scrutiny and would apply only in rare instances involving ideas and ideals of the highest order in the history of the United States. For example, the Brown Chapel A.M.E. Church, in Selma, Alabama, was designated under this criterion because of the role it played in the events that led to the adoption of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the ideal of democratic, representative government in the United States.
NHL Criterion 4:
Properties that embody the distinguishing characteristics of an architectural type specimen exceptionally valuable for a study of a period, style, or method of construction, or that represent a significant, distinctive and exceptional entity whose components may lack individual distinction.
This criterion's intent is to qualify exceptionally important works of design or collective elements of design extraordinarily significant as an ensemble, such as a historic district. It applies to properties significant for their physical design or construction, including such elements as architecture, landscape architecture, and engineering. The property must clearly illustrate the physical features or traits that commonly recur in individual types, periods or methods of construction. A property also must clearly contain enough of those characteristics to be considered one of the best representatives of a particular type, period, or method of construction. (Characteristics can be expressed in terms such as form, proportion, structure, plan, style, or materials.) A building or structure is a specimen of its type or period of construction if it is an exceptionally important example (within its context) of design or building practices of a particular time in history. The language is restrictive in requiring that a candidate be "a specimen exceptionally valuable for the study of a period, style, or method of construction" rather than simply embodying distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction. With regard to historic districts, an entity must be distinctive and exceptional. This criterion will not qualify all of the works of a master, per se, but only such works that are exceptional or extraordinary. Artistic value is considered only in the context of history's judgment in order to avoid current conflicts of taste.
NHL Criterion 5:
Properties that are composed of integral parts of the environment not sufficiently significant by reason of historical association or artistic merit to warrant individual recognition but collectively compose an entity of exceptional historical or artistic significance, or outstandingly commemorate or illustrate a way of life or culture.
This criterion is meant to cover historic districts such as Williamsburg, Virginia; New Bedford, Massachusetts; or Virginia City, Nevada, which qualify for their collective association with a nationally significant event, movement, or broad pattern of national development. Most historic districts that are nationally significant for their extraordinary historic importance, rather than for their architectural significance, are recognized by this criterion.
NHL Criterion 6:
Properties that have yielded or may be likely to yield information of major scientific importance by revealing new cultures, or by shedding light upon periods of occupation over large areas of the United States. Such sites are those which have yielded, or which may reasonably be expected to yield, data affecting theories, concepts and ideas to a major degree.
Criterion 6 was developed specifically to recognize archeological properties, all of which must be evaluated under this criterion. Properties being considered under this criterion must address two questions:
what nationally significant information is the site likely to yield? and
is the information already produced nationally important?
Answers to both questions must be well documented and logically organized. In order to establish the national significance of an archeological resource, it must be demonstrated how the data has made or will make a major contribution to the existing corpus of information. This criterion requires that potentially recoverable data are likely to substantially modify a major historic concept, resolve a substantial historical or anthropological debate, or close a serious gap in a major theme of American history. It is necessary to be explicit in demonstrating the connection between the important information and a specific property. The discussion of the property must include the development of specific important research questions which may be answered by the data contained in the property. Research questions can be related to property-specific issues, to broader questions about a large geographic area, or to theoretical issues independent of any particular geographic location.
The current existence of appropriate physical remains must be ascertained in considering a property's ability to yield important information. Properties that have been partly excavated or otherwise disturbed and that are being considered for their potential to yield additional important information must be shown to retain that potential in their remaining portions.
Properties that have yielded important information in the past and that no longer retain additional research potential (such as completely excavated archeological sites) must be assessed essentially as historic sites under Criterion 1. Such sites must be significant for associative values related to:
the importance of the data gained or
the impact of the property's role in the history of the development of anthropology/ archeology or other relevant disciplines.
The following discussion is arranged by each NHL criteria exception and explains each exception in more detail.
NHL Exception 1:
A property owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes would qualify if the property derives its primary national significance from architectural or artistic distinction or historical importance.
A religious property requires justification on architectural, artistic, or historical grounds to avoid any appearance or judgment by the government about the endorsement of any religion or belief. If the property is nationally significant for its architectural design or construction, it should be evaluated within an established architectural context, and compared to other properties of its type, period, or method of construction. A religious property can also be eligible if it is directly associated with either a specific event or a broad pattern that is nationally significant in another historic context, or a specific event or a broad pattern in the history of religion. Individuals who were nationally significant by virtue of their formation of or significant influence on an important religious institution or movement, or who were important in the social, economic, or political history of the nation may also qualify a religious property for designation. This exception must be considered if:
the resource was constructed by a religious institution;
the resource is presently owned by a religious institution or is used for religious purposes; or
the resource was owned by a religious institution or used for religious purposes during its period of significance.
NHL Exception 2:
A building or structure that has been moved from its original location, but which is nationally significant primarily for its architectural merit, or for its association with persons or events of transcendent importance in the nation's history and the association is consequential, would qualify for designation.
Because national significance is embodied in locations and settings as well as in the properties themselves, moving a property usually destroys the relationships between the property and its surroundings and usually destroys associations with historic events and persons. If the moved property is nationally significant for its architectural merit, it must retain enough historic features to convey its architectural values and retain integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. If the moved property is nationally significant for its associations with persons or events of transcendent importance, it must be demonstrated that this property is the only surviving property most importantly associated with a particular nationally significant historic event or an important aspect of a nationally significant person's life. However, the use of the word transcendent indicates that the person or event must have a level of national significance which is greater than that which would ordinarily qualify a person or event to be nationally significant. In addition, the property must be the single surviving property that is most closely associated with the event or with the part of the person's life for which he or she is nationally significant.
Moved properties must still have an orientation, setting, and general environment that are comparable to those of the historic location and that are compatible with the property's significance. A rural house that is moved into an urban area or an urban property moved into a rural setting or a bridge, originally built over water, that is no longer situated over a waterway would not meet this exclusion.
A property designed to be moved or a property frequently moved during its historic use must be located in a historically appropriate setting in order to qualify, retaining its integrity of setting, design, feeling, and association. Such properties include ships, railroad cars and engines, airplanes, and other passenger vehicles.
NHL Exception 3:
A site of a building or structure no longer standing would qualify if the person or event associated with it is of transcendent importance in the nation's history and the association is consequential.
The nomination must demonstrate that the person or event associated with the site of a building or structure no longer standing is of a level of national significance greater than that which would ordinarily qualify a person or event to be nationally significant. In addition, that association to the property must be demonstrated to have been consequential rather than a connection that was incidental and of little impact on either the event or the reason for the person to be considered of exceptional national significance. This exception is rarely met.
NHL Exception 4:
A birthplace, grave, or burial would be considered for designation if it is for a historical figure of transcendent national significance and no other appropriate site, building or structure directly associated with the productive life of that person exists.
The lives of persons nationally significant in the nation's past normally are recognized by the designation of properties illustrative of or associated with their productive lives. Birthplaces and graves, as properties that represent the beginning and the end of the life of important individuals, may be temporally and geographically far removed from their nationally significant activities, and therefore are not usually considered eligible. To qualify, the birthplace or grave must be the birthplace or grave of a person with a level of national significance greater than that which would ordinarily qualify a person to be nationally significant. In addition to the person being of outstanding national significance, the site must be the last surviving property associated with the person. When all other properties directly associated with his or her productive life are gone or have lost integrity, a birthplace or grave may be eligible for designation.
A birthplace or grave may also be eligible if they are nationally significant for reasons other than associations with the person in question. It could be considered for association with important event(s) (Criterion 1) such as the Haymarket Martyrs? Monument in Forest Park, Illinois, or for architectural significance (Criterion 4). In very rare cases, a birthplace or grave could also be eligible if, after the passage of time, it is significant for its commemorative value. (See discussion on Exception 7, Commemorative Properties)
Properties that must meet this criteria exception are birthplaces of nationally significant persons who lived elsewhere during their period of significance, or a grave that is nominated for its association with the significant person buried in it. If the birthplace is the location of the nationally significant person's productive contributions, or if the grave is located on the grounds of a property where the nationally significant person spent his or her productive years, then the property does not need to meet this exception.
NHL Exception 5:
A cemetery would be eligible if it derives its primary national significance from graves of persons of transcendent importance, or from an exceptionally distinctive design or from an exceptionally significant event.
A cemetery is defined as a collection of graves that is marked by stones or other artifacts or that is unmarked but is recognizable by features such as fencing or depressions, or through maps, or by means of archeological testing. A cemetery which contains the graves of persons of a level of national significance greater than that which would ordinarily qualify a person to be nationally significant may be eligible for designation. These persons must have been of great eminence in their fields of endeavor or had a nationally significant impact upon the nation's history.
Cemeteries may also qualify based on distinctive design values. These are the same values which are addressed in Criterion 4 and could include aesthetic or technological achievement in the fields of landscape architecture, city planning, architecture, art, sculpture, or engineering. As for all other properties being considered under Criterion 4, a cemetery must clearly express its design values and be able to convey its historic appearance, such as Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A cemetery associated with nationally significant historic events which could include either a specific important event or general events which illustrate broad patterns could also be considered for designation.
A cemetery that is nominated with its associated church when the church is the main resource nominated does not need to meet this exception. In addition, a cemetery does not need to meet the exception if it is nominated as part of a district but is not the focal point of the district.
NHL Exception 6:
A reconstructed building or ensemble of buildings would qualify if the buildings are of extraordinary national significance and are accurately executed in a suitable environment and presented in a dignified manner as part of a restoration master plan, and when no other buildings or structures with the same association have survived.
A reconstruction is defined as the reproduction of the exact form and detail of a vanished building, structure, or object, or a part thereof, as it appeared at a specific period of time. The reconstruction may be wholly constructed of new materials or may be reassembled from some historic and some new materials.
The event, person, movement, or style that the property is significant for must be of a level of national significance greater than that which would ordinarily qualify a person, event, movement, or style to be nationally significant. When all other properties directly associated with the event or person are gone or have lost integrity, a reconstruction also may be eligible.
In addition, the reconstruction must be based upon sound archeological, architectural, and historic data concerning the historic construction and appearance of the resource. That documentation should include both analysis of any above or below ground material and research in written and other records. The reconstructed property must be located at the same site as the original and must also be situated in its original grouping of buildings, structures, and objects (as many as are extant), and that grouping must retain integrity. In addition, the reconstruction must not be misrepresented as an authentic historic property. The reconstructed property should also be an essential component in a historic district and the reconstruction part of an overall restoration plan for the entire district.
After the passage of fifty years, a reconstruction may on its own attain national significance for what it reveals about the period in which it was built, rather than the historic period it was intended to depict. A reconstruction may then be eligible if it addresses the particular criteria for which it has now attained national significance.
NHL Exception 7:
A property that is primarily commemorative in intent may be eligible if design, age, tradition, or symbolic value has invested it with its own national historical significance.
Commemorative properties are designed or constructed after the occurrence of an important historic event or after the life of an important person. They are not directly associated with the event or with the person's productive life, but serve as evidence of a later generation's assessment of the past. Their significance comes from their value as cultural expressions at the date of their creation.
A commemorative property must be over 50 years old and must possess significance based on its own value, not on the value of the event or person being memorialized. The Haymarket Martyrs' Monument is an example of this criterion exception. A commemorative property's design often represents the aesthetic values of the period of its creation. The property, therefore, may be nationally significant for the architectural, artistic, or other design qualities of its own period in history. In this case, the property should be evaluated within an established national architectural, artistic, or construction context, and compared to other properties of its type, period, or method of construction.
A commemorative property may also acquire national significance after the time of its creation through age, tradition, or symbolic value. In this case, the property must be nationally significant under one of the criteria and the national significance must be documented by accepted methods of historical research.
A commemorative marker erected to memorialize a nationally significant person, event, or movement in the nation's history would not be eligible simply for its association with the person, event, or movement it memorialized. Neither is the case strengthened for the consideration of a commemorative property by the loss of other properties directly associated with a significant event or person. The commemorative property does not have direct historical association.
A single marker that is a component of a district does not need to meet this criteria exception.
NHL Exception 8:
A property achieving national significance within the past 50 years may be eligible if it is of extraordinary national importance.
Fifty years is a general estimate of the time needed to develop historical perspective and to evaluate national significance. A property that has achieved national significance within the last 50 years can be evaluated only when sufficient historical perspective exists to determine that the property has a level of national significance greater than that which would ordinarily qualify a person or event to be nationally significant. The necessary perspective can be provided by scholarly research and evaluation, and must consider both the national historic context and the specific property's role in that context.
A property that begins its period of national significance more than fifty years before the nomination but continues to achieve national significance into a period less than fifty years before the nomination must meet this exception. In addition, a property that is more than fifty years old but whose nationally significant associations or qualities are less than fifty years old must also meet the exception.
A historic district in which a few properties are less than fifty years old, but the majority of properties and their nationally significant period of significance are greater than fifty years old, does not need to meet this exception.
Defining a High Degree of Integrity
Integrity is the ability of a property to convey its historical associations or attributes. The evaluation of integrity is somewhat of a subjective judgment, but it must always be grounded in an understanding of a property's physical features and how they relate to its historical associations or attributes. The NHL Survey recognizes the same seven aspects or qualities of integrity as the National Register. These are location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association.
Location is the place where the historic property was constructed or the place where the historic event occurred. The actual location of a historic property, complemented by its setting, is particularly important in recapturing the sense of historic events and persons.
Design is the combination of elements that create the historic form, plan, space, structure, and style of a property. This includes such elements as organization of space, proportion, scale, technology, ornamentation, and materials. Design can also apply to districts and to the historic way in which the buildings, sites, or structures are related. Examples include spatial relationships between major features; visual rhythms in a streetscape or landscape plantings; the layout and materials of walkways and roads; and the relationship of other features, such as statues, water fountains, and archeological sites.
Setting is the physical environment of a historic property. It refers to the historic character of the place in which the property played its historical role. It involves how, not just where, the property is situated and its historical relationship to surrounding features and open space. The physical features that constitute the historic setting of a historic property can be either natural or manmade and include such elements as topographic features, vegetation, simple manmade paths or fences and the relationships between buildings and other features or open spaces.
Materials are the physical elements that were combined or deposited during a particular period of time and in a particular pattern or configuration to form a historic property. If the property has been rehabilitated, the historic materials and significant features must have been preserved. The property must also be an actual historic resource, not a re-creation; a property whose historic features have been lost and then reconstructed is usually not eligible.
Workmanship is the physical evidence of the crafts of a particular culture or people during any given period in history. It is the evidence of artisans' labor and skill in constructing or altering a building, structure, object, or site. It may be expressed in vernacular methods of construction and plain finishes or in highly sophisticated configurations and ornamental detailing. Examples of workmanship in historic buildings include tooling, carving, painting, graining, turning, and joinery. Examples of workmanship in precontact contexts include Paleo-Indian Clovis points, Archaic period beveled adzes, Hopewellian worked bone pendants, and Iroquoian effigy pipes.
Feeling is a property's expression of the aesthetic or historic sense of a particular period of time. It results from the presence of physical features that, taken together, convey the property's historic character. For example, a rural historic district which retains its original design, materials, workmanship, and setting will relate the feeling of agricultural life in the 19th century.
Association is the direct link between an important historic event or person and a historic property. A property retains association if it is the place where the event or activity occurred and is sufficiently intact to convey that relationship to an observer. Therefore, a property where a nationally significant person carried out the action or work for which they are nationally significant is preferable to the place where they returned to only sleep, eat or spend their leisure time. Like feeling, association requires the presence of physical features that convey a property's historic character.
For NHL designation, a property should possess these aspects to a high degree. The property must retain the essential physical features that enable it to convey its historical significance. The essential physical features are those features that define both why a property is significant (NHL criteria and themes) and when it was significant (periods of significance). They are features without which a property can no longer be identified as, for instance, a late 19th century dairy barn or an early 20th century commercial building. To assess integrity one must
define the essential physical features that must be present to a high degree for a property to represent its significance;
determine whether the essential physical features are apparent enough to convey the property's significance; and
compare the property with similar properties in the nationally significant theme.
A property that is significant for its historical association should retain the essential physical features that made up its character or appearance during the period of its association with the important event, historical pattern, or person(s). If the property is a site where there are no material cultural remains, such as a battlefield, the setting must be intact. If the historic building associated with the event, pattern, or person no longer exists, the property has lost its historical integrity.
A property important for illustrating a particular architectural style or construction technique must retain the physical features that constitute that style or technique. A property that has lost some historic materials or details can be considered if it retains the majority of the features that illustrate its style in terms of the massing, spatial relationships, proportion, pattern of windows and doors, texture of materials, and ornamentation. A property should not be considered if it retains some basic features conveying massing but has lost the majority of the features that once characterized its style.
For properties to be considered under Criterion 6, integrity is based upon the property's professionally demonstrated intactness of archeological deposits and features. These are important for identifying whether a site has the potential to yield data that may address nationally significant research questions.
Properties being considered under Criteria 1 through 5 must not only retain the essential physical features, but the features must be visible enough to convey their significance and historic identity. This means that even if a property is physically intact, its integrity is questionable if its significant features are concealed under modern construction. Archeological properties are the exception to this; by nature they may not require visible features to convey their significance.
V. Preparation of NHL Nominations
A thorough knowledge of the property and the national context in which it is to be evaluated are the beginning points for completing a nomination. The following information should be provided in order to illustrate how a property possesses exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting a national context and to make a compelling justification for NHL designation.
Cite and justify the qualifying NHL criteria,
State the related NHL theme (see Chapter III on NHL Theme Studies) and explain the property's relationship to it,
Explain how the property has significance at a national level (which must include a summary statement of national significance to introduce the significance section),
Outline the historical background of this individual property, and
Establish the relative merit of the significance and integrity of the property in comparison to other similar, potentially nominated properties.
Nomination preparers should use the NHL form which is a slightly modified National Register of Historic Places Registration Form (NPS Form 10-900) to nominate properties for designation. A computer template for this form is available on diskette from the National Historic Landmarks Survey and NPS regional and support offices that work with the NHL Program along with technical instructions for its completion. When submitting a nomination, the electronic version of the nomination should be submitted, whether on diskette or via electronic mail, along with a printed copy of the nomination.
Anyone wishing to prepare an NHL nomination should first consult either the NHL Survey or the NPS regional and support office staff for information about theme studies and other comparable properties that may be relevant in the evaluation of particular properties and for preliminary advice on whether a property appears likely to meet NHL criteria. Copies of relevant studies and National Register documentation should be consulted if the property is listed in the National Register. State Historic Preservation Officers, Federal Preservation Officers, and Tribal Preservation Officers should also be consulted for information in their inventories that may be helpful in documenting a property.
The following special instructions for the text should be followed:
NHL Form Section 1.
Name of Property
Select the historic name reflecting the property's national significance.
Bethune, Mary McLeod, Home
Virginia City Historic District
Other Names/Site Number
Enter any other names by which the property has been commonly known. These names may reflect the property's history, current ownership, or popular use and may or may not reflect the historic name. Site numbers are often assigned to archeological sites for identification. This number may be placed on this line.
NHL Form Section 2.
Enter the street address of the property or the most specific location when no street number exists.
Mark an "x" in the boxes for both "not for publication" and "vicinity" (and add the name of the nearest city or town in the provided blank) to indicate that a property needs certain protection. The NPS shall withhold from disclosure to the public information about the location, character, or ownership of a historic resource if the Secretary of the Interior and the NPS determine that disclosure may
cause a significant invasion of privacy,
risk harm to the historic resource, or
impede the use of a traditional religious site by practitioners.
The Federal Register will indicate "Address Restricted" and give the nearest city or town as the property=s location. The NHL database will also refer to the location this way. Further, the NPS will exclude location and other appropriate information from any copies of documentation requested by the public.
Any information about the location, boundaries, or character of a property that should be restricted should be compiled on a separate sheet. On the same sheet, explain the reasons for restricting the information.
When it has been determined that this information should be withheld from the public, the Secretary, in consultation with the official recommending the restriction of information, shall determine who may have access to the information for the purpose of carrying out the National Historic Preservation Act.
NHL Form Section 3.
Ownership of Property
Mark an "x" in all boxes that apply to indicate ownership of the property.
Category of Property
Mark an "x" in only one box to indicate the type of property being documented.
Name of Multiple Property Listing
Enter the name of the multiple property listing if the property is being nominated as part of a multiple property submission.
Number of Resources Within Property
Enter the number of resources in each category that make up the property. Count contributing resources separately from noncontributing resources. Total each column.
A contributing building, site, structure, or object adds to the historical associations, historic architectural qualities, or archeological values for which a property is nationally significant because it was present during the period of significance, relates to the documented significance of the property, and possesses a high degree of historical integrity.
A noncontributing building, site, structure, or object was not present during the period of national significance, does not relate to the documented national significance of the property, or due to alterations, disturbances, additions, or other changes, it no longer possesses a high degree of historical integrity. If resources of state or local significance are included and their significance is justified in the documentation, they should be counted separately from those that contribute to the national significance.
Number of Contributing Resources Previously Listed in the National Register
Enter the number of any contributing resources already listed in the National Register. This would include both previously designated NHLs and authorized historic units of the National Park System as well as other previously listed National Register properties. If no resources are already listed, enter "N/A."
National Register Property and Resource Types
Building - A building, such as a house, barn, church, hotel, or similar construction, is created principally to shelter any form of human activity. "Building" may also be used to refer to a historically and functionally related unit, such as a courthouse and jail or a house and barn.
Examples: houses, barns, stables, sheds, garages, courthouses, city halls, social halls, commercial buildings, libraries, factories, mills, train depots, stationary mobile homes, hotels, theaters, schools, stores, and churches.
Site - A site is the location of a significant event, a prehistoric or historic occupation or activity, or a building or structure, whether standing, ruined, or vanished, where the location itself possesses historic, cultural, or archeological value regardless of the value of any existing structure.
Examples: habitation sites, funerary sites, rock shelters, village sites, hunting and fishing sites, ceremonial sites, petroglyphs, rock carvings, gardens, grounds, battlefields, ruins of historic buildings and structures, campsites, sites of treaty signings, trails, areas of land, shipwrecks, cemeteries, designed landscapes, and natural features, such as springs and rock formations, and land areas having cultural significance.
Structure - The term "structure" is used to distinguish from buildings those functional constructions made usually for purposes other than creating human shelter.
Examples: bridges, tunnels, gold dredges, firetowers, canals, turbines, dams, power plants, corncribs, silos, roadways, shot towers, windmills, grain elevators, kilns, mounds, cairns, palisade fortifications, earthworks, railroad grades, systems of roadways and paths, boats and ships, railroad locomotives and cars, telescopes, carousels, bandstands, gazebos, and aircraft.
Object - The term "object" is used to distinguish from buildings and structures those constructions that are primarily artistic in nature or are relatively small in scale and simply constructed. Although it may be, by nature or design, movable, an object is associated with a specific setting or environment.
Examples: sculpture, monuments, boundary markers, statuary, and fountains.
District - A district possesses a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, buildings, structures, or objects united historically or aesthetically by plan or physical development.
Examples: college campuses; central business districts; residential areas; commercial areas; large forts; industrial complexes; civic centers; rural villages; canal systems; collections of habitation and limited activity sites; irrigation systems; large farms, ranches, estates, or plantations; transportation networks; and large landscaped parks.
Rules for Counting Resources
Count all buildings, structures, sites, and objects located within the property's boundaries that are substantial in size and scale. Do not count minor resources, such as small sheds or grave markers, unless they strongly contribute to the property's historic significance.
Count a building or structure with attached ancillary structures, covered walkways, and additions as a single unit unless the attachment was originally constructed as a separate building or structure and later connected.
Count rowhouses individually, even though attached.
Do not count interiors, facades, or artwork separately from the building or structure of which they are a part.
Count gardens, parks, vacant lots, or open spaces as "sites" only if they contribute to the significance of the property.
Count a continuous site as a single unit regardless of its size or complexity.
Count separate areas of a discontiguous archeological district as separate sites.
Do not count ruins separately from the site of which they are a part.
Do not count landscape features, such as fences and paths, separately from the site of which they are a part unless they are particularly important or large in size and scale, such as a statue by a well-known sculptor or an extensive system of irrigation ditches.
If a group of resources, such as backyard sheds in a residential district, was not identified during a site inspection and cannot be included in the count, state that this is the case and explain why in the narrative for section 7.
For additional guidance, contact the SHPO.
Guidelines for Entering Functions
Enter the most specific category and subcategory. For example, "Education/education-related housing" rather than "Domestic/institutional housing" for a college dormitory.
If no subcategory applies, enter the general category by itself. If, in addition, none of the general categories relates to the property's function, enter "Other:" and an appropriate term for the function.
For properties with many functions, such as a farm, list only the principal or predominant ones, placing the most important first.
For districts, enter the functions applying to the district as a whole, such as Domestic/village site or Education/college.
For districts, also enter the functions of buildings, sites, structures, and objects that are:
of outstanding importance to the district, such as a county courthouse in a commercial center (Government/county courthouse) or,
present in substantial numbers, such as apartment buildings in a residential district (Domestic/multiple dwelling) or storage pits in a village site (Trade/trade).
For districts containing resources having different functions and relatively equal importance, such as a group of public buildings whose functions are Government/city hall, Government/courthouse, and Government/post office.
Enter functions for contributing resources only.
Select functions that relate directly to the property's significance and occurred during the period of significance (see Period of Significance).
Enter functions for extant resources only.
Enter only functions that can be verified by research, testing, or examination of physical evidence.
Enter functions related to the property itself, not to the occupation of associated persons or role of associated events. For example, the home of a prominent doctor is "Domestic/single dwelling" not "Health Care/medical office" unless the office was at home (in which case, list both functions).
Enter functions for both contributing and noncontributing resources.
For properties undergoing rehabilitation, restoration, or adaptive reuse, enter "Work in Progress" in addition to any functions that are current or anticipated upon completion of the work.
NHL Form Section 4.
State/Federal Agency Certification
Preparers should leave this blank.
NHL Form Section 5.
National Park Service Certification
Preparers should leave this blank.
NHL Form Section 6.
Function or Use
Select one or more category and subcategory that most accurately describe the property's principal historic functions. Enter functions for contributing resources only and for extant resources only. Select functions that relate directly to the property's significance and occurred during the period of national significance. Enter only functions that can be verified by research, testing, or examination of physical evidence.
Select one or more category and subcategory that most accurately describe the property's most recent principal functions. Enter functions for both contributing and noncontributing resources.
Data Categories for Functions and Uses:
- single dwelling
- Examples: single dwelling rowhouse, mansion, residence, rockshelter, homestead, cave
- multiple dwelling
- Examples: duplex, apartment building, pueblo, rockshelter, cave
- secondary structure
- Examples: dairy, smokehouse, storage pit, storage shed, kitchen, garage, other dependencies
- Examples: inn, hotel, motel, way station
- institutional housing
- Examples: military quarters, staff housing, poor house, orphanage
- Examples: hunting campsite, fishing camp, summer camp, forestry camp, seasonal residence, temporary habitation site, tipi rings
- village site
- Examples: pueblo group
- single dwelling
- Examples: office building
- Examples: architect's studio, engineering office, law office
- Examples: trade union, labor union, professional association
- financial institution
- Examples: savings and loan association, bank, stock exchange
- specialty store
- Examples: auto showroom, bakery, clothing store, blacksmith shop, hardware store
- department store
- Examples: general store, department store, marketplace, trading post
- Examples: cafe, bar, roadhouse, tavern
- Examples: warehouse, commercial storage
- trade (archeology)
- Examples: cache, site with evidence of trade, storage pit
- meeting hall
- Examples: grange; union hall; Pioneer hall; hall of other fraternal, patriotic, or political organization
- Examples: facility of literary, social, or garden club
- Examples: facility of volunteer or public service organizations such as the American Red Cross
- meeting hall
- Examples: statehouse, assembly building
- city hall
- Examples: city hall, town hall
- correctional facility
- Examples: police station, jail, prison
- fire station
- Examples: firehouse
- govenment office
- Examples: municipal building
- diplomatic building
- Examples: embassy, consulate
- custom house
- Examples: custom house
- post office
- Examples: post office
- public works
- Examples: electric generating plant, sewer system
- Examples: county courthouse, federal courthouse
- Examples: schoolhouse, academy, secondary school, grammar school, trade or technical school
- Examples: university, college, junior college
- Examples: library
- research facility
- Examples: laboratory, observatory, planetarium
- Examples: college dormitory, housing at boarding schools
- religious facility
- Examples: church, temple, synagogue, cathedral, mission, temple, mound, sweathouse, kiva, dance court, shrine
- ceremonial site
- Examples: astronomical observation post, intaglio, petroglyph site
- church school
- Examples: religious academy or schools
- church-related residence
- Examples: parsonage, convent, rectory
- religious facility
- Examples: burying ground, burial site, cemetery, ossuary
- Examples: burial cache, burial mound, grave area, crematorium
- Examples: mortuary site, funeral home, cremation
Category: Recreation and Culture
- Examples: cinema, movie theater, playhouse
- Examples: hall, auditorium
- Examples: museum, art gallery, exhibition hall
- music facility
- Examples: concert-hall, opera house, bandstand, dance hall
- sports facility
- Examples: gymnasium, swimming pool, tennis court, playing field, stadium
- outdoor recreation
- Examples: park, campground, picnic area, hiking trail,fair, amusement park, county fairground
- Examples: commemorative marker, commemorative monument
- work of art
- Examples: sculpture, carving, statue, mural, rock art
- Examples: meatpacking plant, cannery, smokehouse, brewery, winery, food processing site, gathering site, tobacco barn
- Examples: granary, silo, wine cellar, storage site, tobacco warehouse, cotton warehouse
- Examples: pasture, vineyard, orchard, wheatfield, crop field marks, stone alignments, terrace, hedgerow
- animal facility
- Examples: hunting & kill site, stockyard, barn, chicken coop, hunting corral, hunting run, apiary
- fish hatchery
- Examples: fish hatchery, fishing grounds
- horticultural facility
- Examples: greenhouse, plant observatory, garden
- agricultural outbuilding
- Examples: wellhouse, wagon shed, tool shed, barn
- irrigation facility
- Examples: irrigation system, canals, stone alignments, headgates, check dams
- manufacturing facility
- Examples: mill, factory, refinery, processing plant, pottery, kiln
- extractive facility
- Examples: coal mine, oil derrick, gold dredge, quarry, salt mine
- Examples: reservoir, water tower, canal, dam
- energy facility
- Examples: windmill, power plant, hydroelectric dam
- communcations facility
- Examples: telegraph cable station, printing plant, television station, telephone company facility, satellite tracking station
- processing site
- Examples: shell processing site, toolmaking site, copper mining and processing site
- industrial site
- Examples: warehouse
- manufacturing facility
Category: Health Care
- Examples: veteran's medical center, mental hospital, private or public hospital, medical research facility
- Examples: dispensary, doctor's office
- Examples: nursing home, rest home, sanitarium
- medical business/office
- Examples: pharmacy, medical supply store, doctor or dentist's office
- baths, spas, resort facility
- arms storage
- Examples: magazine, armory
- Examples: fortified military or naval post, earth fortified village, palisaded village, fortified knoll or mountain top, battery, bunker
- military facility
- Examples: military post, supply depot, garrison fort, barrack, military camp
- battle site
- Examples: battlefield
- coast guard facility
- Examples: lighthouse, coast guard station, pier, dock, lifesaving station
- naval facility
- Examples: submarine, aircraft carrier, battleship, naval base
- air facility
- Examples: aircraft, air base, missile launching site
- arms storage
- parking lot
- Examples: city park, state park, national park
- Examples: square, green, plaza, public common
- unoccupied land
- Examples: meadow, swamp, desert
- Examples: underwater site
- natural feature
- Examples: mountain, valley, promontory, tree, river, island, pond, lake
- street furniture/object
- Examples: street light, fence, wall, shelter, gazebo, park bench
- conservation area
- Examples: wildlife refuge, ecological habitat
- Examples: railroad, train depot, locomotive, streetcar line, railroad bridge
- Examples: aircraft, airplane hangar, airport, launching site
- Examples: lighthouse, navigational aid, canal, boat, ship, wharf, shipwreck
- road-related (vehicular)
- Examples: parkway, highway, bridge, toll gate, parking garage
- Examples: boardwalk, walkway, trail
Category: Work in Progress
- Use this category when work is in progress.
NHL Form Section 7.
Complete this item for properties having architectural or historical importance. Select one or more subcategories to describe the property's architectural styles or stylistic influences. (See Figure 7.) If none of the subcategories describes the property's style or stylistic influence, enter the category relating to the general period of time. For properties not described by any of the listed terms, including bridges, ships, locomotives and buildings and structures that are prehistoric, folk, or vernacular in character, enter "other" with the descriptive term most commonly used to classify the property by type, period, method of construction, or other characteristics.
Other: Pratt through truss;
Other: split-log cabin;
Other: Gloucester fishing schooner.
Do not enter "vernacular" because the term does not describe any specific characteristics. For properties not having any buildings or structures enter N/A. For buildings and structures not described by the listed terms or by "other" and a common term, enter "No style."
Data Categories for Architectural Classification
Category: No Style
- French Colonial
- Spanish Colonial
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Mexican Baroque
- Dutch Colonial
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Flemish Colonial
- Other Stylistic Terminology: English, English Gothic; Elizabethan; Tudor; Jacobean or Jacobethan; New England Colonial; Southern Colonial
Category: Early Republic
- Early Classical Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Jeffersonian Classicism; Roman Republican; Roman Revival; Roman Villa; Monumental Classicism; Regency
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Adams or Adamesque
- Early Classical Revival
Category: Mid-19th Century
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Early Romanesque Revival
- Greek Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Early Gothic Revival
- Italian Villa
- Exotic Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Egyptian Revival; Moorish Revival
- Octagon Mode
- Greek Revival
Category: Late Victorian
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Victorian or High Victorian Eclectic
- Other Stylistic Terminology: High Victorian Gothic; Second Gothic Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Victorian or High Victorian Italianate
- Second Empire
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Mansard
- Queen Anne
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Queen Anne Revival; Queen Anne-Eastlake
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Eastern Stick; High Victorian Eastlake
- Shingle Style
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Romanesque Revival; Richardsonian Romanesque
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Renaissance Revival; Romano-Tuscan Mode; North Italian or Italian Renaissance; French Renaissance; Second Renaissance Revival
Category: Late 19th & 20th Century Revivals
- Beaux Arts
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Beaux Arts Classicism
- Colonial Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Georgian Revival
- Classical Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Neo-Classical Revival
- Tudor Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Jacobean or Jacobethan Revival; Elizabethan Revival
- Late Gothic Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Collegiate Gothic
- Mission/Spanish Colonial Revival
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Spanish Revival; Mediterranean Revival
- Italian Renaissance
- French Renaissance
- Beaux Arts
Category: Late 19th & Early 20th Century American Movements
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Sullivanesque
- Prairie School
- Commercial Style
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Western Stick; Bungaloid
Category: Modern Movement
- Modern Movement
- Other Stylistic Terminology: New Formalism; Neo-Expressionism; Brutalism; California Style or Ranch Style; Post-Modern; Wrightian
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Modernistic; Streamlined Moderne; Art Moderne
- International Style
- Other Stylistic Terminology: Miesian
- Art Deco
- Modern Movement
- More than three styles from different periods (for a building only)
Enter one or more terms to describe the principal exterior materials of the property. Enter only materials visible from the exterior of a building, structure, or object. Do not enter materials of interior, structural, or concealed architectural features even if they are significant. Enter both historic and nonhistoric materials. Under "other" list the principal materials of other parts of the exterior, such as chimneys, porches, lintels, cornices, and decorative elements. For historic districts, list the major building materials visible in the district, placing the most predominant ones first.
Data Categories for Materials
- Examples: Weatherboard; Shingle; Log; Plywood/particle board; Shake
- Examples: Granite; Sandstone (including brownstone); Limestone; Marble; Slate
- Examples: Iron; Copper; Bronze; Tin; Aluminum; Steel; Lead; Nickel; Cast Iron
- Terra cotta
- Ceramic Tile
- Examples: Fiberglass; Vinyl; Rubber; Plastic
Provide a narrative describing the property and its physical characteristics. Describe the setting, buildings, and other major resources, outbuildings, surface and subsurface remains (for properties with archeological national significance), and landscape features for all contributing and noncontributing resources. The narrative must document the evolution of the property, describing major changes since its construction or period of national significance.
This section should begin with a summary paragraph that briefly describes the general characteristics of the property, such as its location and setting, type, style, method of construction, size, and significant features. The summary paragraph should create a rough sketch of the property and its site and then use subsequent paragraphs to fill in the details.
The rest of the narrative should describe the current condition of the property and indicate whether the property has historic integrity in terms of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association. Clearly delineate between the original appearance and current appearance. The more extensively a property has been altered, the more thorough the description of additions, replacement materials, and other alterations should be. Photographs and sketch maps must be used to supplement the narrative. (See Additional Documentation Section for more information.)
The description should be concise, factual, and well organized. Organize the information in a logical manner by describing a building from the foundation up and from the exterior to the interior. Include specific facts and dates. The information should be consistent with the resource counts in Section 5 and the architectural classification and materials in Section 7. All of the contributing and noncontributing resources should be clearly identified and listed. Resources of state and local significance may be evaluated, but need to be clearly differentiated from those that contribute to the NHL themes and periods of significance for which the NHL is designated. The documentation must clearly distinguish which properties contribute to the national significance, and why, and which are significant at the state or local level. Resources that have national significance may also have state and locally significant values that may need to be documented in the nomination. These values must be clearly differentiated from those for which the resource is being nominated for NHL designation.
Historic districts usually require street by street description with a more detailed description of pivotal resources. Begin by outlining the general character of the group or district and then describe the individual resources one by one.
Describe the pivotal resources and the common types of resources, noting their general condition, historical appearance, and major changes. Follow a logical progression, moving from one resource to the next up and down each street in a geographical sequence or by street address.
Archeological nominations must also contain a brief description of the location and condition of previously excavated artifacts and collections made from the nominated property. This is a critical recognition of the importance of intact archeological collections to the scientific analyses and understanding of nationally significant archeological sites, both now and in the future.
Guidelines for Describing Properties
Buildings, Structures, and Objects
A. Type or form, such as dwelling, church, or commercial block.
B. Setting, including the placement or arrangement of buildings and other resources, such as in a commercial center or a residential neighborhood or detached or in a row.
C. General characteristics:
- Overall shape of plan and arrangement of interior spaces.
- Number of stories.
- Number of vertical divisions or bays.
- Construction materials, such as brick, wood, or stone, and wall finish, such as type of bond, coursing, or shingling.
- Roof shape, such as gabled, hip, or shed.
- Structural system, such as balloon frame, reinforced concrete, or post and beam.
D. Specific features, by type, location, number, material, and condition:
- Porches, including verandas, porticos, stoops, and attached sheds.
E. Important decorative elements, such as finials, pilasters, barge boards, brackets, half timbering, sculptural relief, balustrades, corbelling, cartouches, and murals or mosaics.
F. Significant interior features, such as floor plans, stairways, functions of rooms, spatial relationships, wainscoting, flooring, paneling, beams, vaulting, architraves, moldings, and chimneypieces .
G. Number, type, and location of outbuildings, with dates, if known.
H. Other manmade elements, including roadways, contemporary structures, and landscape features.
I. Alterations or changes to the property, with dates, if known. A restoration is considered an alteration even if an attempt has been made to restore the property to its historic form (see L below). If there have been numerous alterations to a significant interior, also submit a sketch of the floor plan illustrating and dating the changes.
J. Deterioration due to vandalism, neglect, lack of use, or weather, and the effect it has had on the property's historic integrity.
K. For moved properties:
- Date of move.
- Descriptions of location, orientation, and setting historically and after the move.
- Reasons for the move.
- Method of moving.
- Effect of the move and the new location on the historic integrity of the property.
L. For restored and reconstructed buildings:
- Date of restoration or reconstruction.
- Historical basis for the work.
- Amount of remaining historic material and replacement material.
- Effect of the work on the property's historic integrity.
- For reconstructions, whether the work was done as part of a master plan.
M. For properties where landscape or open space adds to the significance or setting of the property, such as rural properties, college campuses, or the grounds of public buildings:
- Historic appearance and current condition of natural features.
- Land uses, landscape features, and vegetation that characterized the property during the period of significance, including gardens, walls, paths, roadways, grading, fountains, orchards, fields, forests, rock formations, open space, and bodies of water.
N. For industrial properties where equipment and machinery is intact:
- Types, approximate date, and function of machinery.
- Relationship of machinery to the historic industrial operations of the property.
A. Environmental setting of the property today and, if different, its environmental setting during the periods of occupation or use. Emphasize environmental features or factors related to the location, use, formation, or preservation of the site.
B. Period of time when the property is known or projected to have been occupied or used. Include comparisons with similar sites and districts that have assisted in identification.
C. Identity of the persons, ethnic groups, or archeological cultures who, through their activities, created the archeological property. Include comparisons with similar sites and districts that have assisted in identification.
D. Physical characteristics:
- Site type, such as rockshelter, temporary camp, lithic workshop, rural homestead, or shoe factory.
- Prehistorically or historically important standing structures, buildings, or ruins.
- Kinds and approximate number of features, artifacts, and ecofacts, such as hearths, projectile points, and faunal remains.
- Known or projected depth and extent of archeological deposits.
- Known or projected dates for the period when the site was occupied or used, with supporting evidence.
- Vertical and horizontal distribution of features, artifacts, and ecofacts.
- Natural and cultural processes, such as flooding and refuse disposal, that have influenced the formation of the site.
- Noncontributing buildings, structures, and objects within the site.
E. Likely appearance of the site during the periods of occupation or use. Include comparisons with similar sites and districts that have assisted in description.
F. Current and past impacts on or immediately around the property, such as modern development, vandalism, road construction, agriculture, soil erosion, or flooding.
G. Previous investigations of the property, including,
- Archival or literature research.
- Extent and purpose of any excavation, testing, mapping, or surface collection.
- Dates of relevant research and field work. Identity of researchers and their institutional or organizational affiliation.
- Important bibliographic references.
- Repository or repositories where excavated collections are curated.
A. Present condition of the site and its setting.
B. Natural features that contributed to the selection of the site for the significant event or activity, such as a spring, body of water, trees, cliffs, or promontories.
C. Other natural features that characterized the site at the time of the significant event or activity, such as vegetation, topography, a body of water, rock formations, or a forest.
D. Any cultural remains or other manmade evidence of the significant event or activities.
E. Type and degree of alterations to natural and cultural features since the significant event or activity, and their impact on the historic integrity of the site.
F. Explanation of how the current physical environment and remains of the site reflect the period and associations for which the site is significant.
Architectural and Historic Districts
A. Natural and manmade elements comprising the district, including prominent topographical features and structures, buildings, sites, objects, and other kinds of development.
B. Architectural styles or periods represented and predominant characteristics, such as scale, proportions, materials, color, decoration, workmanship, and quality of design.
C. General physical relationship of buildings to each other and to the environment, including facade lines, street plans, squares, open spaces, density of development, landscaping, principal vegetation, and important natural features. Any changes to these relationships over time. Some of this information may be provided on a sketch map.
D. Appearance of the district during the time when the district achieved significance (see Period of Significance) and any changes or modifications since.
E. General character of the district, such as residential, commercial, or industrial, and the types of buildings and structures, including outbuildings and bridges, found in the district.
F. General condition of buildings, including alterations, additions, and any restoration or rehabilitation activities.
G. Identity of buildings, groups of buildings, or other resources that do and do not contribute to the district's significance. (See Determining Contributing and Noncontributing Resources for definitions of contributing and noncontributing resources.) If resources are classified by terms other than "contributing" and "noncontributing," clearly explain which terms denote contributing resources and which noncontributing. Provide a list of all resources that are contributing or noncontributing or identify them on the sketch map submitted with the form (see Sketch Map).
H. Most important contributing buildings, sites, structures, and objects. Common kinds of other contributing resources.
I. Qualities distinguishing the district from its surroundings.
J. Presence of any archeological resources that may yield important information with any related paleo-environmental data (see guidelines for describing archeological sites and districts).
K. Open spaces such as parks, agricultural areas, wetlands, and forests, including vacant lots or ruins that were the site of activities important in prehistory or history.
L. For industrial districts:
- Industrial activities and processes, both historic and current, within the district; important natural and geographical features related to these processes or activities, such as waterfalls, quarries, or mines.
- Original and other historic machinery still in place.
- Transportation routes within the district, such as canals, railroads, and roads including their approximate length and width and the location of terminal points.
M. For rural districts:
- Geographical and topographical features such as valleys, vistas, mountains, and bodies of water that convey a sense of cohesiveness or give the district its rural or natural characteristics.
- Examples and types of vernacular, folk, and other architecture, including outbuildings, within the district.
- Manmade features and relationships making up the historic and contemporary landscape, including the arrangement and character of fields, roads, irrigation systems, fences, bridges, earthworks, and vegetation.
- The historic appearance and current condition of natural features such as vegetation, principal plant materials, open space, cultivated fields, or forests.
A. Environmental setting of the district today and, if different, its environmental setting during the periods of occupation or use. Emphasize environmental features or factors related to the location, use, formation, or preservation of the district.
B. Period of time when the district is known or projected to have been occupied or used. Include comparisons with similar sites and districts that have assisted in identification.
C. Identity of the persons, ethnic groups, or archeological cultures who occupied or used the area encompassed by the district. Include comparisons with similar sites and districts that have assisted in identification.
D. Physical characteristics:
- Type of district, such as an Indian village with outlying sites, a group of quarry sites, or a historic manufacturing complex.
- Cultural, historic, or other relationships among the sites that make the district a cohesive unit.
- Kinds and number of sites, structures, buildings, or objects that make up the district.
- Information on individual or representative sites and resources within the district (see Archeological Sites above). For small districts, describe individual sites. For large districts, describe the most representative sites individually and others in summary or tabular form or collectively as groups.
- Noncontributing buildings, structures, and objects within the district.
E. Likely appearance of the district during the periods of occupation or use. Include comparisons with similar sites and districts that have assisted in description.
F. Current and past impacts on or immediately around the district, such as modern development, vandalism, road construction, agriculture, soil erosion, or flooding. Describe the integrity of the district as a whole and, in written or tabular form, the integrity of individual sites.
G. Previous investigations of the property, including:
- Archival or literature research.
- Extent and purpose of any excavation, testing, mapping, or surface collection.
- Dates of relevant research and field work. Identity of researchers and their institutional or organizational affiliation.
- Important bibliographic references.
- Repository or repositories where excavated collections are curated.
NHL Form Section 8.
Statement of Significance
Applicable National Register Criteria
If the property has already been listed in the National Register of Historic Places, mark the criteria identified in the National Register nomination and any new criteria not already marked in the National Register nomination which apply to the national significance of the property.
If the property was listed in the National Register with any applicable criteria considerations, mark those in addition to any new criteria considerations which apply to the national significance of the property if not covered by the National Register nomination.
National Historic Landmarks Criteria
Type in the National Historic Landmarks criteria for which the property qualifies for designation. Properties may be nationally significant for more than one criterion, but those qualifying criteria must be supported by the narrative statement of significance.
National Historic Landmarks Criteria Exceptions
Enter all National Historic Landmarks criteria exceptions which apply to the property. The criteria exceptions are a part of the NHL criteria and they set forth special standards for designating certain kinds of properties normally excluded from NHL designation. If no exceptions apply to the property, leave this section blank.
National Historic Landmarks Theme(s)
List the National Historic Landmarks theme and subtheme from The National Park Service's Thematic Framework for each criterion marked (See Appendix A). You may enter more than one nationally significant theme and subtheme but they must be supported by the narrative statement of significance. (See discussion in Chapter III.)
For a property nationally significant under Criterion 1, 3, or 5, select the theme and subtheme that relates to the historic event, ideal, or role for which the property is nationally significant. If Criterion 2 is being used, select the theme and subtheme in which the nationally significant individual made the contributions for which he or she is known or for which the property is illustrative. For a property nationally significant under Criterion 4, the themes and subthemes will most often be "Expressing Cultural Values: architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design" (for architecture); "Expressing Cultural Values: visual and performing arts" (for art); and "Expanding Science and Technology: technological applications" (for engineering). If Criterion 6 is being used, select the theme and subtheme that best describes the topic for which the site is likely to yield information.
Do not confuse the NHL theme with the historic function. Historic function relates to the practical and routine uses of a property. The theme(s) relates to the property's nationally significant contributions to the broader patterns of American history, archeology, architecture, engineering, and culture.
Areas of Significance
If the property has already been listed in the National Register of Historic Places, list those areas of significance identified in the National Register nomination in addition to those which apply to the national significance of the property if not already covered in the National Register nomination. If the property has not been listed in the National Register, select one or more areas of history in which the property is nationally significant. (See Figure 10.) Choose only areas that are supported by the narrative statement. Do not confuse area of significance with historic function which relates to the practical and routine uses of a property. Area of significance relates to a property's nationally significant contributions to the broader patterns of American history, archeology, architecture, engineering, and culture.
List the theme study or historic context or contexts within which the national significance of the property is being considered. This may be a theme study or historic context that has been or continues to be studied under past themes or a theme from the 1996 Thematic Framework. It may also be an area of significance or another historic context within which the property is being evaluated for NHL designation.
The classification of resources is important and fundamental to the comparative analysis necessary in making judgments of relative significance. It is also useful in determining where the property under consideration for NHL designation ranks when compared with other properties in the same theme or historical context. The NHL Survey staff and staff in the regional and support offices should be consulted for information about defining the theme or historic context and whether the property fits within a theme or historic context that has previously been studied.
You may enter more than one nationally significant theme or historic context, but they must be supported by the narrative statement of significance.
Period of National Significance
The period of national significance is the length of time when a property was associated with nationally significant events, activities, and persons, or attained the national characteristics which qualify it for designation as a National Historic Landmark. Therefore, enter the dates for one or more periods of time when the property attained this national significance. Some periods of significance are as brief as one day or year while others span many years and consist of beginning and closing dates.
Base the period of national significance on specific events directly related to the national significance of the property. For the site of a nationally significant event, the period of significance is the time when the event occurred, while the period of significance for properties associated with nationally significant historic trends is the span of time when the property actively contributed to the trend. For properties associated with nationally significant persons, the period of significance is the length of time of that association. Architecturally significant properties use the date of construction and/or the dates of any significant alterations and additions for the period of significance. For precontact properties, the period of significance is the broad span of time about which the site or district is likely to provide information. The property must possess historic integrity for all periods of national significance listed.
Continued use or activity does not necessarily justify continuing the period of significance. The period of significance is based solely upon the time when the property made the nationally significant contributions or achieved the national character on which the significance is based. Fifty years ago is used as the closing date for periods of significance where activities begun historically continued to have importance and no more specific date greater than 50 years ago can be defined to end the historic period. For some properties, such as those relating to the Cold War or the Civil Rights Movement, the period of significance may be within the last 50 years. However, if the closing date of the period of national significance is less than 50 years ago then you will have to apply Criteria Exception 8 to the property.
Nationally Significant Dates
A nationally significant date is the year when one or more major events directly contributing to the national significance of a historic property occurred. Therefore, enter the year of any events, associations, construction, or alterations that add to its national significance and contribute to qualifying the property for designation as a National Historic Landmark. A property may have several dates of significance; all of them, however, must fall within the periods of significance. In addition, the property must have historic integrity for all the significant dates entered.
The beginning and closing dates of a period of significance are "significant dates" only if they mark specific events directly related to the national significance of the property. For properties using Criterion 4, the date of construction is a significant date but list the dates of alterations only if they contribute to the national significance of the property. Some properties may not have any specific dates of significance. In these cases, enter "N/A."
Complete this item only if the property is being considered under Criterion 2. Enter the full name, last name first, of the nationally significant person with whom the property is importantly associated. Do not list the name of a family, fraternal group, or other organization. Enter the names of several individuals in one family or organization only if each person is nationally significant and made nationally significant contributions for which the property is being designated. List the name of the property's architect or builder only if the property's nationally significant association is with the life of that individual, such as the nationally significant architect's home, studio, or office.
Complete this item only if the property is being considered under Criterion 6. Cultural affiliation is the archeological or ethnographic culture to which a collection of artifacts or resources belongs. It is generally a term given to a specific cultural group for which assemblages of artifacts have been found at several sites of the same age in the same region.
For Native American cultures, list the name commonly used to identify the cultural group (such as Hopewell or Mississippian), or list the period of time represented by the archeological remains (such as Paleo-Indian or Late Archaic).
For non-Native American historic cultures, list the ethnic background, occupation, geographical location or topography, or another term that is commonly used to identify members of the cultural group (such as Appalachian, Black Freedman, or Moravian).
For properties nationally significant for criteria besides Criterion 6, list important cultural affiliations under areas of significance.
List the full name, last name first, of the person(s) responsible for the design or construction of the property. This includes architects, artists, builders, craftsmen, designers, engineers, and landscape architects. Enter the names of architectural and engineering firms, only if the names of specific persons responsible for the design are unknown. If the property's design is derived from the stock plans of a company or government agency, list the name of the company or agency (such as the U.S. Army or the Southern Pacific Railroad). The names of the property owners are listed only if they were actually responsible for the property's design and/or construction. If the architect or builder is not known, enter "unknown."
Narrative Statement of Significance
Explain how the property meets the National Historic Landmarks criteria by drawing on facts about the history of the property and the nationally historic trends that the property reflects. The goal of the statement is to make the case for the property's national historical significance and integrity. The statement should explain in narrative form the information which justifies the NHL criteria, the criteria exceptions, the NHL themes and historic context, the significant person(s), the period of significance, and the significant dates. This narrative should explain why the nominated property stands out among its peers. The statement should be concise, factual, well-organized, and in paragraph form. The information contained in the statement should be well-documented with proper footnotes. (Use a standard scholarly footnote style such as that found in The Chicago Manual of Style published by the University of Chicago Press or in A Manual of Style by Kate L. Turabian also published by the University of Chicago Press.) Include only information pertinent to the property and its eligibility.
The statement should begin with a summary statement of significance which states simply and clearly the reasons why the property meets the NHL criteria. Provide brief facts that explain the way in which the property was important to the history of the United States during the period of significance and mention the nationally significant themes and historic contexts to which the property relates.
Historic context is information about historic trends and properties grouped by an important theme in the history of the nation during a particular period of time. Because historic contexts are organized by theme, place, and time, they link historic properties to important historic trends. In this way, they provide a framework for determining the significance of a property and its eligibility for designation as a National Historic Landmark. A knowledge of historic contexts allows applicants to understand a historic property as a product of its time and as an illustration of aspects of heritage that may be unique, representative, or pivotal.
Identify specific associations or characteristics through which the property has acquired national significance, including historic events, activities, persons, physical features, artistic qualities, architectural styles, and archeological evidence that represent the historic contexts within which the property is important to the nation's history. Specifically state the ways the property meets the qualifying NHL criterion and any criteria exclusions.
Using the summary paragraph as an outline, make the case for national significance in the subsequent paragraphs. Begin by discussing the chronology and historic development of the property. Highlight and focus on the events, activities, associations, characteristics, and other facts that relate the property to its national historic contexts and are the basis for its meeting the NHL criteria.
For each NHL theme and historic context discuss the facts and circumstances in the property's history that led to its national significance. Make clear the connection between each theme, its corresponding criterion, and the period of significance. This discussion of the NHL themes and historic context should explain the role of the property in relationship to broad nationally historic trends, drawing on specific facts about the property. The history of the community where the property is located as it directly relates to the property should also be described in order to orient the reader to the property's surroundings and the kind of community or place where it functioned in the past. Highlight any notable events and patterns of development in the community that affected the property's national history, significance, and integrity. Describe how the property is unique, outstanding or exceptionally representative of a nationally significant historic context when compared with other properties of the same or similar period, characteristics, or associations.
The preparer should be selective about the facts presented considering whether they directly support the national significance of the property. Narrating the entire history of the property should be avoided. Rather, the statement should focus only on those events, activities, or characteristics that make the property nationally significant. Dates and proper names of owners, architects or builders, other people, and places should be given. The preparer should keep in mind the reader who will have little or no knowledge of the property and its historic context, or its location.
Values of state and local significance may be mentioned and discussed, but need to be clearly differentiated from those that contribute to the NHL themes and period of significance for which the NHL is being considered for designation. Resources that have national significance may also have state and locally significant values that may be documented in the nomination but these values also must be clearly differentiated from those for which the resource is being nominated for NHL designation.
Data Categories for Areas of Signficance
- Definition: The process and technology of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock and plants.
- Definition: The practical art of designing and constructing buildings and structures serve human needs.
- Definition: The process and technology of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock and plants.
- Prehistoric: Archeological study of aboriginal cultures before the advent of written records.
- Historic-Aboriginal: Archeological study of aboriginal cultures after the advent of written records.
- Historic-Non-Aboriginal: Archeological study of non-aboriginal cultures after the advent of written records.
- Definition: The creation of painting, printmaking, photography, sculpture, and decorative arts.
- Definition: The business of trading goods, services, and commodities.
- Definition: The technology and process of transmitting information.
Category: Community Planning and Development
- Definition: The design or development of the physical structure communities.
- Definition: The preservation, maintenance, and management of natural or manmade resources.
- Definition: The study of the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth; the management of monetary and other assets.
- Definition: The process of conveying or acquiring knowledge or skills through systematic instruction, training, or study.
- Definition: The practical application of scientific principles to design, construct, and operate equipment, machinery, and structures to serve human needs.
- Definition: The development and practice of leisure activities for refreshment, diversion, amusement, or sport.
Category: Ethnic Heritage
- Definition: The history of persons having a common ethnic or racial identity.
- Asian: The history of persons having origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
- Black: The history of persons having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.
- European: The history of persons having origins in Europe.
- Hispanic: The history of persons having origins in the Spanish-speaking areas of the Caribbean, Mexico, Central America, and South America.
- Native American: The history of persons having origins n any of the original peoples of North America, including American Indian and American Eskimo cultural groups.
- Pacific Islander: The history of persons having origins in the Pacific Islands, including Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia.
- Other: The history of persons having origins in other parts of the world, such as the Middle East or North Africa.
- Definition: The investigation of unknown or little known regions; establishment and earliest development of new settlements or communities.
- Definition: The care of the sick, disabled, and handicapped; the promotion of health and hygiene.
- Definition: The technology and process of managing materials, labor, and equipment to produce goods and services.
- Definition: The art of originating by experiment or ingenuity an object, system, or concept of practical value.
Category: Landscape Architecture
- Definition: The practical art of designing or arranging the land for human use and enjoyment.
- Definition: The interpretation and enforcement of society's legal code.
- Definition: The creation of prose and poetry.
Category: Maritime History
- Definition: The history of the exploration, fishing, navigation, and use of inland, coastal, and deep sea waters.
- Definition: The system of defending the territory and sovereignty of a people.
Category: Performing Arts
- Definition: The creation of drama, dance, and music.
- Definition: The theoretical study of thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe.
- Definition: The enactment and administration of laws by which a nation, State, or other political jurisdiction is governed; activities related to political process.
- Definition: The organized system of beliefs, practices, and traditions regarding mankind's relationship to perceived supernatural forces.
- Definition: The systematic study of natural law and phenomena.
Category: Social History
- Definition: The history of efforts to promote the welfare of society; the history of society and the life ways of its social groups.
- Definition: The process and technology of conveying passengers or materials.
- Definition: Any area not covered by the above categories.
Guidelines for Evaluating and Stating Significance
The following questions should be considered when evaluating the significance of a property and developing the statement of significance. Incorporate in the narrative the answers to the questions directly pertaining to the property's historic significance and integrity.
A. What events took place on the significant dates indicated on the form, and in what ways are they important to the property?
B. In what ways does the property physically reflect its period of significance, and in what ways does it reflect changes after the period of significance?
C. What is the period of significance based on? Be specific and refer to existing resources or features within the property or important events in the property's history.
Buildings, Structures, and Objects
A. If the property is significant for its association with historic events, what are the historically significant events or patterns of activity associated with the property? Does the existing building, object, or structure reflect in a tangible way the important historical associations? How have alterations or additions contributed to or detracted from the resource's ability to convey the feeling and association of the significant historic period?
B. If the property is significant because of its association with an individual, how long and when was the individual associated with the property and during what period in his or her life? What were the individual's significant contributions during the period of association? Are there other resources in the vicinity also having strong associations with the individual? If so, compare their significance and associations to that of the property being documented.
C. If the property is significant for architectural, landscape, aesthetic, or other physical qualities, what are those qualities and why are they significant? Does the property retain enough of its significant design to convey these qualities? If not, how have additions or alterations contributed to or detracted from the significance of the resource?
D. Does the property have possible archeological significance and to what extent has this significance been considered?
E. Does the property possess attributes that could be studied to extract important information? For example: does it contain tools, equipment, furniture, refuse, or other materials that could provide information about the social organization of its occupants, their relations with other persons and groups, or their daily lives? Has the resource been rebuilt or added to in ways that reveal changing concepts of style or beauty?
F. If the property is no longer at its original location, why did the move occur? How does the new location affect the historical and architectural integrity of the property?
A. How does the property relate to the significant event, occupation, or activity that took place there?
B. How have alterations such as the destruction of original buildings, changes in land use, and changes in foliage or topography affected the integrity of the site and its ability to convey its significant associations? For example, if the forested site of a treaty signing is now a park in a suburban development, the site may have lost much of its historic integrity and may not be eligible for the National Register.
C. In what ways does the event that occurred here reflect the broad patterns of American history and why is it significant?
A. What is the cultural context in which the property is considered significant? How does the site relate to what is currently known of the region's prehistory or history and similar known sites?
B. What kinds of information can the known data categories yield? What additional kinds of information are expected to be present on the basis of knowledge of similar sites? What similarities permit comparison with other known sites?
C. What is the property's potential for research? What research questions may be addressed at the site? How do these questions relate to the current understanding of the region's archeology? How does the property contribute or have the potential for contributing important information regarding human ecology, cultural history, or cultural process? What evidence, including scholarly investigations, supports the evaluation of significance?
D. How does the integrity of the property affect its significance and potential to yield important information?
E. If the site has been totally excavated, how has the information yielded contributed to the knowledge of American cultures or archeological techniques to the extent that the site is significant for the investigation that occurred there?
F. Does the property possess resources, such as buildings or structures, that in their own right are architecturally or historically significant? If so, how are they significant?
Architectural and Historic Districts
A. What are the physical features and characteristics that distinguish the district, including architectural styles, building materials, building types, street patterns, topography, functions and land uses, and spatial organization?
B. What are the origins and key events in the historical development of the district? Are any architects, builders, designers, or planners important to the district's development?
C. Does the district convey a sense of historic and architectural cohesiveness through its design, setting, materials, workmanship, or association?
D. How do the architectural styles or elements within the district contribute to the feeling of time and place? What period or periods of significance are reflected by the district?
E. How have significant individuals or events contributed to the development of the district?
F. How has the district affected the historical development of the community, region, or State? How does the district reflect the history of the community, region, or State?
G. How have intrusions and noncontributing structures and buildings affected the district's ability to convey a sense of significance?
H. What are the qualities that distinguish the district from its surroundings?
I. How does the district compare to other similar areas in the locality, region, or State?
J. If there are any preservation or restoration activities in the district, how do they affect the significance of the district?
K. Does the district contain any resources outside the period of significance that are contributing? If so, identify them and explain their importance.
L. If the district has industrial significance, how do the industrial functions or processes represented relate to the broader industrial or technological development of the locality, region, State or nation? How important were the entrepreneurs, engineers, designers, and planners who contributed to the development of the district? How do the remaining buildings, structures, sites, and objects within the district reflect industrial production or process?
M. If the district is rural, how are the natural and manmade elements of the district linked historically or architecturally, functionally, or by common ethnic or social background? How does the open space constitute or unite significant features of the district?
N. Does the district have any resources of possible archeological significance? If so, how are they likely to yield important information? How do they relate to the prehistory or history of the district?
A. What is the cultural context in which the district has been evaluated, including its relationship to what is currently known about the area's prehistory and history and the characteristics giving the district cohesion for study?
B. How do the resources making up the district as a group contribute to the significance of the district?
C. How do the resources making up the district individually or in the representative groupings identified in section 7 contribute to the significance of the district?
D. What is the district's potential for research? What research questions may be addressed at the district? How do these questions relate to the current understanding of the region's archeology? How does the property contribute or have the potential for contributing important information regarding human ecology, cultural history, or cultural process? What evidence, including scholarly investigations, supports the evaluation of significance? Given the existence of material remains with research potential, what is the context that establishes the importance of the recoverable data, taking into account the current state of knowledge in specified topical areas?
E. How does the integrity of the district affect its significance and potential to yield important information?
F. Does the district possess resources, such as buildings or structures, that in their own right are architecturally or historically significant? If so, how are they significant?
NHL Form Section 9.
Major Bibliographic References
Enter the primary and secondary sources used in documenting and evaluating the national significance of the property. These include books, journal or magazine articles, newspaper articles, interviews, planning documents, historic resource studies or survey reports, prepared NHL Theme Studies, census data, correspondence, deeds, wills, business records, diaries, and other sources.
Use a standard bibliographical style such as that found in The Chicago Manual of Style published by the University of Chicago Press or in A Manual of Style by Kate L. Turabian also published by the University of Chicago Press. For all printed materials list the author, full title, location and date of publication and publisher. For articles, also list the name, volume, and date of the journal or magazine. Indicate where copies are available of unpublished manuscripts. For a phone interview or personal correspondence, state the date of the interview or correspondence, name of the interviewer or recipient of the correspondence, name and title of person interviewed or originating the correspondence, and the location of the correspondence or tape of the interview. Any established nationally historic themes or contexts that have been used to evaluate the property should also be cited.
Previous Documentation on File (NPS)
Mark an "x" in the appropriate box for any other previous NPS action involving the property being nominated. This will most often include previous listing or determination of eligibility for listing in the National Register. If the property has been recorded by the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) or the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), enter the survey number.
Primary Location of Additional Data
Mark an "x" in the box to indicate where most of the additional documentation about the property is stored. List the specific name of any repository other than the State Historic Preservation Office.
NHL form Section 10.
This section defines the location and extent of the property being nominated. It also explains why the boundaries were selected.
For discontiguous districts, the preparer must provide a set of the following geographical dataCacreage, UTMs, boundary description and boundary justificationCfor each separate area of land.
Acreage of Property
Enter the number of acres comprising the property in the blank. (All discontiguous parcels should be added together.) Acreage should be accurate to the nearest whole acre. If known, record fractions of acres to the nearest tenth. If the property is substantially smaller than one acre, "less than one acre" may be used.
Enter one or more complete unabbreviated Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) grid references to identify the exact location of the property. (All discontiguous segments should have their own individual UTM references.) For properties of less than 10 acres, enter the UTM reference for the point corresponding to the center of the property as located on an accompanying United States Geological Survey (USGS) map.
For properties of 10 or more acres, enter three or more UTM references. These references should correspond to the vertices of a polygon drawn on an accompanying USGS map. The polygon must encompass the entire boundary of the property. If the UTM references definethe boundaries of the property, the polygon must correspond exactly with the property's boundaries. Label the vertices of the polygon alphabetically, beginning at the northwest corner and moving clockwise. Once the UTM reference has been determined for the point corresponding to each vertex, enter those references alphabetically on the form.
If the property is linear of 10 or more acres, such as a railroad, canal, highway, or trail, enter three or more UTM references which correspond to points along a line drawn on the accompanying USGS map indicating the course of the property. The points should be marked and labeled alphabetically along the line and should correspond to the beginning, each major shift in direction of the line, and the end. Once the UTM reference has been determined for each point, enter the references alphabetically on the form.
Guidelines for Selecting Boundaries
- Carefully select boundaries to encompass, but not to exceed, the full extent of the significant resources and land area making up the property.
- The area to be registered should be large enough to include all historic features of the property, but should not include "buffer zones" or acreage not directly contributing to the significance of the property.
- Leave out peripheral areas of the property that no longer retain integrity, due to subdivision, development, or other changes.
- "Donut holes" are not allowed. No area or resources within a set of boundaries may be excluded from listing in the National Register. Identify nonhistoric resources within the boundaries as noncontributing.
- Use the following features to mark the boundaries:
Legally recorded boundary lines.
Natural topographic features, such as ridges, valleys, rivers, and forests.
Manmade features, such as stone walls; hedgerows; the curblines of highways, streets, and roads; areas of new construction.
For large properties, topographic features, contour lines, and section lines marked on USGS maps.
Buildings, Structures, and Objects
- Select boundaries that encompass the entire resource, with historic and contemporary additions. Include any surrounding land historically associated with the resource that retains its historic integrity and contributes to the property's historic significance.
- For objects, such as sculpture, and structures, such as ships, boats, and railroad cars and locomotives, the boundaries may be the land or water occupied by the resource without any surroundings.
- For urban and suburban properties that retain their historic boundaries and integrity, use the legally recorded parcel number or lot lines.
- Boundaries for rural properties may be based on:
- A small parcel drawn to immediately encompass the significant resources, including outbuildings and associated setting, or
- Acreage, including fields, forests, and open range, that was associated with the property historically and conveys the property's historic setting. (This area must have historic integrity and contribute to the property's historic significance.)
- For historic sites, select boundaries that encompass the area where the historic events took place. Include only portions of the site retaining historic integrity and documented to have been directly associated with the event.
Historic and Architectural Districts
- Select boundaries to encompass the single area of land containing the significant concentration of buildings, sites, structures, or objects making up the district. The district's significance and historic integrity should help determine the boundaries. Consider the following factors:
- Visual barriers that mark a change in the historic character of the area or that break the continuity of the district, such as new construction, highways, or development of a different character.
- Visual changes in the character of the area due to different architectural styles, types or periods, or to a decline in the concentration of contributing resources.
- Boundaries at a specific time in history, such as the original city limits or the legally recorded boundaries of a housing subdivision, estate, or ranch.
- Clearly differentiated patterns of historical development, such as commercial versus residential or industrial.
- A historic district may contain discontiguous elements only under the following circumstances:
- When visual continuity is not a factor of historic significance, when resources are geographically separate, and when the intervening space lacks significance: for example, a cemetery located outside a rural village.
- When manmade resources are interconnected by natural features that are excluded from the National Register listing: for example, a canal system that incorporates natural waterways.
- When a portion of a district has been separated by intervening development or highway construction and when the separated portion has sufficient significance and integrity to meet the National Register criteria.
Archeological Sites and Districts
- The selection of boundaries for archeological sites and districts depends primarily on the scale and horizontal extent of the significant features. A regional pattern or assemblage of remains, a location of repeated habitation, a location or a single habitation, or some other distribution of archeological evidence, all imply different spatial scales. Although it is not always possible to determine the boundaries of a site conclusively, a knowledge of local cultural history and related features such as site type can help predict the extent of a site. Consider the property's setting and physical characteristics along with the results of archeological survey to determine the most suitable approach.
- Obtain evidence through one or several of the following techniques:
Subsurface testing, including test excavations, core and auger borings, and observation of cut banks.
Surface observation of site features and materials that have been uncovered by plowing or other disturbance or that have remained on the surface since deposition.
Observation of topographic or other natural features that may or may not have been present during the period of significance.
Observation of land alterations subsequent to site formation that may have affected the integrity of the site.
Study of historical or ethnographic documents, such as maps and journals.
- If the techniques listed above cannot be applied, set the boundaries by conservatively estimating the extent and location of the significant features. Thoroughly explain the basis for selecting the boundaries in the boundary justification.
- If a portion of a known site cannot be tested because access to the property has been denied by the owner, the boundaries may be drawn along the legal property lines of the portion that is accessible, provided that portion by itself has sufficient significance to meet the National Register criteria and the full extent of the site is unknown.
- Archeological districts may contain discontiguous elements under the following circumstances:
When one or several outlying sites has a direct relationship to the significance of the main portion of the district, through common cultural affiliation or as related elements of a pattern of land use, and
When the intervening space does not have known significant resources.
(Geographically separate sites not forming a discontiguous district may be nominated together as individual properties within a multiple property submission.)
Verbal Boundary Description
Describe accurately and precisely the boundaries of the property. (See Figure 13.) (Each discontiguous segment should have its own verbal boundary description.) The preparer may use a legal parcel number; a block and lot number; a sequence of metes and bounds; the dimensions of a parcel of land fixed upon a given point such as the intersection of two streets, a natural feature, or a manmade structure; or a narrative using street names, property lines, geographical features, and other lines of convenience. A map drawn to a scale of at least 1" = 200 feet may be used in place of a verbal boundary description. When using a map, note on the nomination form under this heading that the boundaries are indicated on the accompanying base map and give the title of the map. The map must clearly indicate the boundaries of the property in relationship to standing structures or natural or manmade features such as rivers, highways, or shorelines. The map must show the scale and a north arrow.
Provide a brief and concise explanation of the reasons for selecting the boundaries. (For discontiguous districts, explain how the property meets the conditions for a discontiguous district as well as how the boundaries were selected for each area.) The reasons should be based on the property's historical associations or attributes and high integrity. Carefully select the boundaries to encompass, but not to exceed, the full extent of the nationally significant resources and land area making up the property. The area should be large enough to include all historic features of the property, but should not include "buffer zones" or acreage not directly contributing to the national significance of the property. Leave out peripheral areas of the property that no longer retain integrity. Also, "donut holes" are not allowed. No area or resources within a set of boundaries may be excluded from the NHL designation. Identify nonhistoric resources within the boundaries as noncontributing. Properties of state or local significance may be incorporated into an NHL boundary, and listed as noncontributing for the NHL designation, only when they are located between components of the nationally significant resource and their exclusion would require an inappropriate use of a discontiguous landmark boundary.
The nature of the property, the irregularity of the boundaries, and the methods used to determine the boundaries will determine the complexity and length of the boundary justification. A paragraph or more may be needed where boundaries are very irregular, where large portions of historic acreage have been lost, or where a district's boundaries are ragged because of new construction. Properties with substantial acreage will require more explanation than those confined to small lots. Boundaries for archeological properties often call for longer justifications as they will refer to the kinds of methodology employed, the distribution of known sites, the reliability of survey-based predictions, and the amount of unsurveyed acreage.
Guidelines for Verbal Boundary Description
- A map drawn to a scale of at least 1" = 200 feet may be used in place of a verbal description. When using a map, note under the heading "verbal boundary description" that the boundaries are indicated on the accompanying base map. The map must clearly indicate the boundaries of the property in relationship to standing structures or natural or manmade features such as rivers, highways, or shorelines. Plat, local planning, or tax maps may be used. Maps must include the scale and a north arrow.
The boundary of Livermore Plantation is shown as the dotted line on the accompanying map entitled "Survey, Livermore Plantation, 1958."
- For large properties whose boundaries correspond to a polygon, section lines, or contour lines on the USGS map, the boundaries marked on the USGS map may be used in place of a verbal boundary description. In this case, simply note under the heading "verbal boundary description" that the boundary line is indicated on the USGS map. If USGS quadrangle maps are not available, provide a map of similar scale and a careful and accurate description including street names, property lines, or geographical features that delineate the perimeter of the boundary.
The boundary of the nominated property is delineated by the polygon whose vertices are marked by the following UTM reference points: A 18 313500 4136270, B 18 312770 4135940, C 18 313040 4136490.
- To describe only a portion of a city lot, use fractions, dimensions, or other means.
The south _ of Lot 36
The eastern 20 feet of Lot 57
If none of the options listed above are feasible, describe the boundaries in a narrative using street names, property lines, geographical features, and other lines of convenience. Begin by defining a fixed reference point and proceed by describing the perimeter in an orderly sequence, incorporating both dimensions and direction. Draw boundaries that correspond to rights-of-way to one side or the other but not along the centerline.
Beginning at a point on the east bank of the Lazy River and 60' south of the center of Maple Avenue, proceed east 150' along the rear property lines of 212-216 Maple Avenue to the west curbline of Main Street. Then proceed north 150' along the west curbline of Main Street, turning west for 50' along the rear property line of 217 Maple Avenue. Then proceed north 50' to the rear property line of 215 Maple Avenue, turning west for 100' to the east bank of the Lazy River. Then proceed south along the riverbank to the point of origin.
- For rural properties where it is difficult to establish fixed reference points such as highways, roads, legal parcels of land, or tax parcels, refer to the section grid appearing on the USGS map if it corresponds to the actual boundaries.
NW 1/4, SE 1/4, NE 1/4, SW 1/4, Section 28, Township 35, Range 17
- For rural properties less than one acre, the description may be based on the dimensions of the property fixed upon a single point of reference.
The property is a rectangular parcel measuring 50 x 100 feet, whose northwest corner is 15 feet directly northwest of the northwest corner of the foundation of the barn and whose southeast corner is 15 feet directly southeast of the southeast corner of the foundation of the farmhouse.
- For objects and structures, such as sculpture, ships and boats, railroad locomotives or rolling stock, and aircraft, the description may refer to the extent or dimensions of the property and give its location.
The ship at permanent berth at Pier 56. The statue whose boundaries form a circle with a radius of 17.5 feet centered on the statue located in Oak Hill Park.
NHL Form Section 11.
Form Prepared By
This section identifies the person who prepared the form and his/her affiliation. This person is responsible for the information contained in the form and may be contacted if a question arises about the form or if additional information is needed.
United States Geological Survey (USGS) Map
An original USGS map(s) must accompany every nomination. Use a 7.5 or 15 minute series USGS map. Do not submit fragments or copies of USGS maps because they cannot be checked for UTM references. On the map, in pencil only, locate either the single UTM reference point (for properties of less than 10 acres), the polygon and its vertices encompassing the boundaries (for properties of 10 or more acres), or the line and reference points indicating the course of the property (for linear properties). Also, identify the name of the property, the location of the property, and the UTM references entered in Section 10.
Submit at least one detailed map or sketch map for districts and for properties containing a substantial number of sites, structures, or buildings. Plat books, insurance maps, bird's-eye views, district highway maps, and hand-drawn maps may be used. Sketch maps need not be drawn to a precise scale, unless they are also used in place of a verbal boundary description.
The original maps should be folded to fit into a folder approximately 8 1/2 by 11 inches. If the original map(s) is larger than 8 1/2 by 11 inches, a copy must also be submitted that has been reduced to such size. This copy will be used for the photocopy reproduction of the map to accompany the nomination when it is sent out for comment and for review by the parties of notification and the various NPS review bodies. The information on the maps should be indicated by coding, crosshatching, numbering, or other graphic techniques. Do not use color because it is expensive to reproduce by photocopying.
The maps should display:
- the boundaries of the property, carefully delineated;
- the names of streets or highway numbers, including those bordering the property;
- a north arrow and approximate scale, if done to scale;
- names or numbers of parcels that correspond to the description of the resources in Section 7;
- contributing buildings, sites, structures, and objects, keyed to Section 7;
- noncontributing buildings, sites, structures, and objects keyed to Section 7; and
- other natural features or land uses covering substantial acreage or having historical significance such as forests, fields, rivers, lakes, etc.
Maps for archeological sites and districts should also include the location and extent of disturbances, including previous excavations; the location of specific significant features and artifact loci; and the distribution of sites if it is an archeological district.
If the resource is a single building, or a building or buildings are major contributing resources, floor plans of the major levels of the building may also be required. These need not be done to scale or by a professional architect; hand-drawn floor plans are acceptable. Floor plans not only assist in making sense of the Section 7 description of the building, but also aid in determining integrity. Therefore, the floor plans should show clearly any structural changes such as new or sealed door or window openings, and additions or removals such as porches, fireplaces, stairs, or interior partition walls.
Each nomination must be accompanied by clear and descriptive black and white photographs. The photographs should give an honest visual representation of the historic integrity and significant features of the property. They should illustrate the qualities discussed in the descriptive section and the statement of significance. Submit as many photographs as needed to depict the current condition and significant aspects of the property. Include representative views of both contributing and noncontributing resources. Prints of historic photographs may be particularly useful in illustrating the historic integrity of properties that have undergone alterations or changes.
For buildings, structures or objects submit views that show the principal facades and the environment or setting in which the property is located. Include views of major interior spaces, outbuildings, or landscaping features such as gardens. Additions, alterations, and intrusions should appear in the photographs.
For districts submit photographs representing the major building types and styles, any pivotal buildings and/or structures, representative noncontributing resources, and any important topographical or spatial elements which define the character of the district. Streetscapes, landscapes, or aerial views are recommended. If the streetscapes and other views clearly illustrate the significant historical and architectural qualities of the district, individual views of buildings are not necessary.
For sites submit photographs that depict the condition of the site and any above-ground or surface features and disturbances. At least one photograph should show the physical environment and configuration of the land taking up the site. For archeological sites, include drawings or photographs that illustrate artifacts that have been recovered from the site.
Photographs must be unmounted. (Do not affix the photographs to forms by staples, clips, glue or any other material.) They must be high in quality, especially for reproductive purposes. Photos of 8 x 10 inches are strongly preferred and photos smaller than 4 x 6 inches are not acceptable. The photographs should be labeled in pencil (preferably with soft lead) on the back side of the photograph. The information should include 1) the name of the property, or for districts, the name of the district followed by the name of the building or street address; 2) the city (or county) and state where the property is located; 3) a description of the view; 4) the name of the photographer; 5) the date of the photograph; and 6) the number of the photograph.
An alternative form of labeling is to use a separate sheet. Label the photographs by name of property, location and photograph number. List the remaining items above on a separate sheet, identifying the number of each photograph and each item. If there is information common to all of the photographs, such as the photographer's name or the date of the photographs, that may be listed once on the separate sheet with a statement that it applies to all photographs.
For a large or complicated property, the photographs may be keyed to a site map or floor plan to aid in identifying and orienting the photographic views. The map used to locate the photographs may be an exact copy of the site map or floor plan that is provided as outlined above, but this photographic locator map should be a separate document. This separate map requirement is to aid the NHL Survey in its preparation of the nomination for duplication for distribution to the NPS review bodies and the various parties who are provided notification of a pending nomination.
All photographs submitted to the NPS with a NHL nomination become a part of the public record and the photographer grants permission to the NPS to use the photograph for duplication, display, distribution, publicity, audio-visual presentations, and all forms of publication which may include publication on the Internet.
All NHL nominations must also be accompanied by color slides. These are to be used in the presentation of the property to the National Park System Advisory Board and will be retained by the NHL Survey to be used for publications, publicity, talks, and other audio-visual purposes. There should be at least 6 to 12 slides and they should show the same types of representative views as the black and white photographs including exterior and interior shots. There should be a list of the slides by number and a description of the view. The slides themselves should have the name of the property, location, date of the slide, and slide number written on the edge of the slide with permanent marker.
Slides submitted to the NPS with a NHL nomination become a part of the public record and the photographer grants permission to the NPS to use the slides for duplication, display, distribution, publicity, audio-visual presentations, and all forms of publication which may include publication on the Internet.
Property Owners and Other Parties of Notice
The NPS will also need the names and addresses of all property owners within the proposed NHL boundary. The list of owners shall be obtained from official land or tax records, whichever is most appropriate, within 90 days of the beginning of the notification period. (The notification period begins no less than 60 days prior to the Advisory Board meeting at which the property will be considered.) If in any state the land or tax record is not the appropriate list an alternative source of owners may be used. The name, title, and address of the highest elected local official of the jurisdiction in which the property is located, such as a mayor or the chairman of the board of county commissioners, must also be provided. This information is used to notify these parties of the proposed consideration for designation of the property as an NHL.
If the property has more than 50 property owners, individual names are not needed. The preparer will provide the NHL Survey with the name(s) of one or more local newspapers of general circulation in the area in which the potential NHL is located. The NHL Survey will then provide a general notice of the potential designation through a published advertisement in the legal notice section of the named newspaper(s). It would also be of help if the preparer would arrange for a public location (usually a library, historical society, or courthouse) where copies of the nomination could be placed for public review. This information would then be given in the general newspaper notification.
VI. NHL Nominations from Existing National Register Documentation
The process for listing a property in the National Register is different from that for NHL designation with different criteria and procedures used. Through the National Register nomination process described in 36 CFR Part 60, a property documented as having national importance can be listed in the National Register. After the property has been listed, the National Register staff may recommend it to the NHL Survey for consideration as an NHL. Some properties are recommended as nationally significant when they are nominated to the National Register. Some National Register properties are identified as nationally significant for the first time during an NHL theme study.
National Register documentation does not require a justification of national significance, a comparative national context, or high integrity. Therefore, to become a National Historic Landmark, whether recommended as potentially nationally significant by the National Register staff or by the State Historic Preservation Offices, a property will need to be evaluated by the NHL Survey, reviewed by the National Park System Advisory Board and recommended to the Secretary of the Interior as part of the regular NHL designation process.
If a property is already listed in the National Register, the documentation may be upgraded by providing any additional information that is necessary to justify national significance and to consider the property for NHL designation. In many cases, it may be necessary to prepare a new NHL nomination form unless the National Register documentation is thorough and well done. If the National Register nomination is adequate, the additional documentation for national significance may be submitted on continuation sheets. All continuation sheets documenting national significance, as well as the original National Register documentation, will become part of the official NHL file if the property is designated as a National Historic Landmark. Preparers should ask the NHL Survey to review the National Register nomination for a listed property and provide a recommendation concerning whether it would be necessary to complete a new NHL nomination or whether submitting additional documentation on continuation sheets is the most appropriate.
If the preparer is submitting additional documentation on continuation sheets, the following sections should be provided where appropriate.
NHL Form Section 2.
If the resource(s) having national significance is different from the resources having state or local importance, provide two sets of information for the location.
NHL Form Section 7.
Identify the resources contributing to national significance. This may be done by listing on a separate continuation sheet the names of the resources contributing to the national significance of the property and those resources should be identified on a separate sketch map. If those resources were not fully described in the National Register nomination, they should be described and their integrity evaluated on the continuation sheet.
NHL Form Section 8.
Statement of Significance
List on a continuation sheet which has been entitled, "National Significance" a) the applicable NHL criteria; b) any NHL criteria exceptions; c) periods of national significance and significant dates; and d) the applicable NHL theme(s) and historic context(s).
On the same continuation sheet, the preparer should summarize the case for national significance, developing the statement at the national level, and relating the property to the NHL criteria, theme(s), and historic context(s). Support this statement by the facts about the property, including scholarly citations and updated bibliography.
NHL Form Section 10.
If only a portion of a National Register property has national significance and is being recommended for NHL designation, explain the differences between the two sets of boundaries. The description should clearly describe what is within the nationally significant portion of the property and what is not. Provide the separate geographical data for the nationally significant property on a continuation sheet. This will include the acreage, UTM coordinates, verbal boundary description, and boundary justification.
If different boundaries are being proposed for the nationally significant property a separate USGS map with the boundary and UTM coordinates marked should be provided. A separate sketch map showing the nationally significant portion of the property should also be provided. On this map identify the boundaries of the nationally significant portion and the resources contributing to the national significance of the property. This should be done by coding or graphics as color will not reproduce in photocopying.
Include black and white representative views of the resources that contribute to the national significance. Follow the instructions for photographs outlined in Section V above.
Provide color slides of the resources that contribute to the national significance of the property. Follow the instructions for slides outlined in Section V above.
Property Owners and Other Parties of Notice
The NPS will need the same information for notification of the proposed consideration for designation of the property as an NHL as outlined in Section V above.
VII. How NHL Nominations are Processed
The regulations for processing a completed National Historic Landmark Nomination Form are outlined in 36 CFR Part 65. When the nomination form is completed and submitted, the NHL Survey reviews and may recommend revisions of the forms before they are considered final and able to be placed on the agenda of the next National Park System Advisory Board meeting. (The Advisory Board has traditionally met to conduct business at least twice a year.) In addition, properties being considered under Criterion 6 for archeology are reviewed by a committee of the Society for American Archeology (SAA). This professional substantive review for archeological NHL nominations is provided by the SAA through a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. If the NHL Survey receives a nomination for a property that does not qualify for NHL designation, but may be eligible for listing in the National Register, the appropriate State Historic Preservation Officer, Federal Preservation Officer, or Tribal Preservation Officer will be sent a copy of the documentation to consider for possible nomination to the National Register.
When the NHL Survey determines that the nomination for a property adequately documents the national significance, is substantially and technically complete, and may be placed on the agenda for the next Advisory Board meeting, the NPS is ready to notify the appropriate parties as outlined in the regulations. The NPS notifies the owner or owners of the property, the highest elected local official of the jurisdiction in which the property is located, the State Historic Preservation Officer, the two U.S. Senators, and the House of Representatives member from the district in which the property is located. These parties are provided with a copy of the nomination form and the date, time, and location of the Advisory Board's meeting. This notification must occur at least 60 days before the Advisory Board meeting so that those parties may have an opportunity to comment in writing on the nomination if they choose. Private property owners have the option to concur with or object to the proposed designation. If a private owner, or a majority of private owners, objects to designation, the Secretary of the Interior may not designate the property but may determine if the property is eligible for designation.
Any written comments received by the NPS will be included in the documentation reviewed by the Advisory Board. Interested parties also may attend the Advisory Board meeting, and upon request, may be given an opportunity to address the Advisory Board concerning the property's historical associations or attributes, integrity, and proposed boundaries. The NHL regulations, 36 CFR Part 65, outline this aspect of the procedure in more detail.
Made up of scholars and citizens interested in the conservation of natural and cultural resources, the National Park System Advisory Board reviews all of the documentation on proposed properties and makes a determination on whether a property meets the criteria for designation as a NHL. It can then recommend properties that should be designated as National Historic Landmarks to the Secretary of the Interior. Decisions about designation ultimately rest with the Secretary. The Advisory Board may also determine that a property does not meet the criteria and should not be forwarded to the Secretary; or it may determine that a property meets the criteria but because a private owner or majority of private owners objects to designation may only recommend that the Secretary determine the property eligible for designation.
After the Secretary of the Interior has designated a NHL, the NPS notifies the owner(s) (as well as the other original parties of notification) and invites the owner(s) to accept a bronze plaque, free of charge, bearing the name of the property, its year of designation, and attesting to its national significance. The plaque is presented to owners who display it publicly and appropriately. The plaque may be presented to the owner or owners at a public ceremony by a representative of the NPS or the Department of the Interior.
NHL designation implies no intention on the part of the federal government to acquire the property. Although some NHLs have later become units of the National Park System, most are not suitable for use as parks and are better cared for in the hands of other public or private owners.
VIII. NHL Boundary Studies, NHL Documentation Improvement Studies, & NHL Withdrawal
Boundary and Documentation Improvement Studies
The 1980 amendments to the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 directed that documentation and boundary studies be prepared by the Secretary of the Interior for all NHLs for which no specific boundary was identified at the time of designation.
The goals of the boundary study and documentation improvement project include:
providing clear and unambiguous boundaries which accurately reflect both the significance for which the NHL was designated and the extent to which the NHL has retained the integrity necessary to express that significance;
assuring that the documentation maintained in the NHL files meets NHL and National Register standards, providing all information necessary to identify those elements which must be protected in order for the property to continue to qualify for NHL status; and,
notifying all property owners, appropriate state officials, local governments, Members of Congress, and other interested parties of the proposed boundary and documentation file and giving them an opportunity to comment, as required by NHL regulations.
The National Register of Historic Places staff (National Register, History, and Education in Washington), and the regional and support offices of the NPS share responsibility for the administration of the boundary study and documentation improvement project. The regional and support offices have primary responsibility for conducting research, identifying and justifying boundaries, preparing documentation, and obtaining the names and addresses of property owners, appropriate state officials, and local governments. In some cases, the studies are completed on contract, in others by NPS staff. Both boundary studies and improved documentation should follow current guidelines for completing NHL nominations and should be prepared on NHL nomination forms.
Boundaries should be drawn based on the resources which contribute to the national significance of the NHL, which must all be clearly identified. When these boundaries include resources that do not contribute to the national significance of the property because they do not contribute to the NHL themes and periods of significance for which the NHL is designated they may be evaluated for their state or local significance although this is not required. When such evaluations are made the documentation must clearly distinguish which properties contribute to the national significance, and why, and which are significant at the state or local level. Properties of state and local significance need not be evaluated in detail, but they should be clearly identified as noncontributing to the national significance.
The National Register staff sets policy and provides general guidance, monitors the program, and receives, reviews, and processes the boundary and documentation improvement studies. They also notify owners, elected officials and others, giving them an opportunity to comment on the proposed boundaries and documentation, and notifies them again after the boundaries and documentation is approved by the Keeper of the National Register, who is also the Chief of the NHL Survey.
Where the proposed boundary reduces the property included in the NHL, the removal must be justified under the grounds for removal in 36 CFR Part 65. Where physical changes have resulted in a loss of integrity to the NHL, the new boundary study must specify these changes and the date the changes occurred. In cases where the removal of property from the boundary can be avoided, for example, where a small number of noncontributing properties are on the periphery but within the boundary of an NHL, these intrusions can be identified as noncontributing but left within the boundary.
When the studies are completed, they are submitted to the National Register. The submissions are reviewed for technical and substantive adequacy, following guidelines established for National Register and NHL nominations. If these guidelines are not met, the submissions are returned to the region with comments and recommendations for revision.
If the proposed boundary documentation involves a new area of significance, or an enlargement or reduction in area or if the property is found to have lost the significance for which it was originally designated, the NHL is referred to the NHL Survey for submission to the National Park System Advisory Board. In all other cases, the National Register staff notifies owners, State Historic Preservation Officer, Federal Preservation Officer (if appropriate), chief elected local officials, Members of Congress representing the district and state in which the NHL is located, and, if the NHL is located on an Indian reservation, the Tribal Preservation Officer and the chief executive officer of the Indian tribe, provides them with copies of the proposed boundary and documentation study, and gives them the opportunity to comment. If the NHL is a district, the proposed boundaries are also published in the Federal Register for comment. Following the end of the mandated comment period, the proposed document is revised to accommodate comments received or accepted without modification.
Documentation is formally adopted when it is signed by the Keeper of the National Register. Following final approval, copies of the approved documentation are sent to the same individuals and organizations that received copies of the draft.
Withdrawal of National Historic Landmark Designations
NPS regional and support offices in consultation with State Historic Preservation Offices, Federal agencies, Indian tribes, or other interested preservation organizations are responsible for identifying NHLs whose designation should be withdrawn. The regional and support offices will document why the NHL should have its designation withdrawn using the format shown in Appendix D. All such reports should identify the grounds in the NHL regulations which justify withdrawal of designation (See 36 CFR Part 65.9) and particularly if the "grandfathering" provision in the 1980 amendments to the National Historic Preservation Act applies. (Under this "grandfathering" provision, a NHL designated before December 13, 1980 cannot have its designation withdrawn unless the "qualities which caused it to be originally designated have been lost or destroyed" sometime after the date of the original designation.) The report must also specify the physical changes to the NHL, and the date of those changes, which resulted in a loss of significant qualities. There also must be thorough, well-done photographic documentation of the property to aid in justifying the loss of integrity which will lead to withdrawal of designation. (The actual process for withdrawing the designation of a NHL, including notification procedures and Advisory Board review and recommendation, may be found in the NHL regulations, 36 CFR Part 65.)
Section 65.9(f)(1) of the NHL regulations specifies that the property will remain listed in the National Register after it loses its NHL designation if the Keeper of the National Register determines that it meets the National Register criteria for evaluation in 36 CFR Part 60.4. Where a property still has enough significance and integrity to be listed in the National Register even after NHL designation has been withdrawn, the regional or support office should ensure that a fully documented National Register form (unless the property was listed in the National Register with adequate documentation prior to the original NHL designation) describing the current appearance and significance of the property is prepared and submitted to the National Register at the same time as the study for withdrawal of designation is presented to the NHL Survey. The new National Register nomination form (or the old form if it is adequate) will be the basis upon which the property remains listed in the National Register.
All NPS records on a NHL should be reviewed by the regional and support offices before a boundary study, updated documentation study, or withdrawal of a NHL designation study is prepared. Review of all documentation will ensure that the intent of the NHL designation is understood and will also provide other useful background information on the NHL. Regional and support offices should request copies of documentation not in their files from the NHL Survey. This documentation may consist of the original NHL file supplemented, as appropriate, by information from the minutes of the Advisory Board meeting where designation was recommended and appropriate theme studies, where this information is useful in defining the NHL.
State Historic Preservation Officers, Federal Preservation Officers, and Tribal Preservation Officers should be consulted in the preparation of these various studies to obtain any documentation they may have on the NHL and their recommendations. They should also be given the opportunity to review a completed study before it is submitted to the NHL Survey or the National Register.
IX. Using NHL Documentation
Once the Secretary of the Interior designates a property as a NHL, the nomination form and any accompanying information becomes a permanent public record. The NPS maintains these records in the National Historic Landmarks Survey located in the National Register, History and Education office, Washington, D.C. The property's file is available to researchers and members of the public.
Although the information in the NHL Survey files and the National Register of Historic Places are a part of the public record, Section 304 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended in 1992 and Section 9(a) of the Archeological Resources Protection Act provide the legal authority for restricting information about archeological and traditional cultural properties. In general, information can be restricted from public disclosure if its release is likely to cause a significant invasion of privacy, risk harm to the historic resource, or impede the use of a traditional religious site by practitioners.
Data on the property is entered into the National Historic Landmarks database and the National Register Information System (NRIS). Information on properties may be extracted from these databases.
Information on designated properties may form the basis for managing a historic property and assist in planning projects that may affect the property. The information also may be used for interpretive and other educational purposes, such as travel guides, brochures, lesson plans, videotapes, or publication on the Internet in order to inform the public why a property is nationally significant and why it merits stewardship and public interest. The text of the nomination form, photographs and other illustrations from the nomination, and theme studies also may be used in publications. Using nomination documentation in publications is a particularly effective way to educate the public on subjects that may not have been published or made available. In this way, the significance of the tangible evidence of national historical themes may be interpreted to the public.
X. Selected Bibliography
Grumet, Robert S. Archeology in the National Historic Landmarks Program. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service
Archeological Assistance Program, Technical Brief No. 3, December 1988.
Little, Barbara. Implementing the New Thematic Framework within the National Park Service. Washington, D.C.: National Park
Mackintosh, Barry. The Historic Sites Survey and National Historic Landmarks Program: A History. Washington, D.C.: National
Park Service, 1985.
"National Historic Landmarks Program." Code of Federal Regulations, Title 36, Part 65. 1983.
National Park Service. History and Prehistory in the National Park System and the National Historic Landmarks
Program. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1987.
National Park Service. The National Historic Landmarks Program: Common Questions and Answers. Washington, D.C.:
National Park Service, 1996.
National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places. National Register Bulletin: How to Apply the National Register
Criteria for Evaluation. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1990, revised, 1991, 1995, 1997.
National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places. National Register Bulletin: How to Complete the National
Register Registration Form. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1991.
National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places. National Register Bulletin: How to Complete the National
Register Multiple Property Documentation Form. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1991.
National Park Service, Revision of the National Park Service's Thematic Framework.Washington, D.C.: National Park Service,
The National Park Service's Thematic Framework
In the Working Group on the Revision of the National Park Service Thematic Framework
Dr. J. Barto Arnold III, Texas Historical Commission
Dr. Carol Berkin, History Department, Baruch College
Dr. Richard Betts, School of Architecture, University of Illinois
Dr. David S. Brose, Royal Ontario Museum
Prof. Michael Conzen, Geography Department, University of Chicago
Dr. Linda De Pauw, History Department, George Washington University
Dr. Leon Fink, History Department, University of North Carolina
Dr. Brent Glass, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission
Dr. Albert Hurtado, History Department, Arizona State University
Dr. Alan Kraut, History Department, American University
Dr. Earl Lewis, Center for Afroamerican and African Studies, University of Michigan
Mr. Hugh J. McCauley, Architect
Dr. Don Ritchie, Senate Historical Office
Dr. George Sanchez, History Department, University of CaliforniaCLos Angeles
Dr. Philip Scarpino, History Department, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis
National Park Service Staff:
Mr. Frederick Babb, Denver Service Center
Dr. Marty Blatt, Lowell National Historical Park
Mr. Warren Brown, Park Planning and Protection
Dr. Robert S. Grumet, Mid-Atlantic Regional Office
Ms. Patricia Henry, History Division
Dr. Antoinette Lee, National Register of Historic Places
Mr. Benjamin Levy, History Division
Mr. Barry Mackintosh, History Division
Mr. Cecil McKithan, Southeast Regional Office
Dr. Dwight T. Pitcaithley, National Capital Region
Dr. Michael Schene, Rocky Mountain Regional Office
Mr. Michael Spratt, Denver Service Center
Advisors to the Working Group:
Mr. Bruce Craig, National Parks and Conservation Association
Dr. Jim Gardner , American Historical Association
Dr. Heather Huyck, House Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests, and Public Lands
Dr. Page Miller, National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History
The National Park Service's Thematic Framework
Grounded in the latest scholarship in history and archeology, this revised thematic framework responds to a Congressional mandate to ensure that the full diversity of American history and prehistory is expressed in the National Park Service's identification and interpretation of historic properties. It resulted from a workshop held June 18-20, 1993, in Washington, DC, cosponsored by the Organization of American Historians and the National Coordinating Committee for the Promotion of History and supported by the American Historical Association. Participation was evenly divided between academic scholars and NPS professionals.
New scholarship has changed dramatically the way we look at the past. In the introduction to The New American History (1991), historian Eric Foner, a former president of the Organization of American Historians, describes this transformation: "In the course of the past twenty years, American history has been remade. Inspired initially by the social movements of the 1960s and 1970s which shattered the `consensus' vision that had dominated historical writing and influenced by new methods borrowed from other disciplines, American historians redefined the very nature of historical study." That remaking or redefining of the past has expanded the boundaries of inquiry to encompass not only great men and events but also ordinary people and everyday life.
So profound have been these changes that the group charged with infusing the new scholarship into the NPS thematic framework quickly concluded that an entirely new approach was needed. The first NPS framework, adopted in 1936, was conceived in terms of the "stages of American progress" and served to celebrate the achievements of the founding fathers and the inevitable march of democracy. Revisions in 1970 and 1987 substantially changed the framework's format and organization but not its basic conceptualization of the past. The present revision represents a clear break with that conceptualization.
The revised framework will guide the NPS, working independently and with its partners in the private and public sectors, in:
- evaluating the significance of resources for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, for designation as National Historic Landmarks, or for potential addition to the National Park System;
- assessing how well the themes are currently represented in existing units of the National Park System and in other protected areas; and,
- expanding and enhancing the interpretive programs at existing units of the National Park System to provide a fuller understanding of our nation's past.
The use of the framework need not be limited to the federal level, however, for the conceptualization it provides can equally inform preservation and interpretation at local, state, and regional levels.
The framework's themes are represented in the following diagram. They embrace prehistory to the modern period and a multiplicity of human experiences. The diagram reflects how scholarship is dramatically changing the way we look at the past, reconstructing it as an integrated, diverse, complex, human experience. Each segment in the diagram represents a significant aspect of the human experience. The reality of the interrelationships is reflected in the overlapping circles.
The framework draws upon the work of scholars across disciplines to provide a structure for both capturing the complexity and meaning of human experience and making that past a coherent, integrated whole. For purposes of organization, the following outline, like the diagram, provides eight seemingly discrete categories, but they are not meant to be mutually exclusive. Cutting across and connecting the eight categories are three historical building blocks: people, time, and place.
People: The centrality of people may seem obvious but should not be taken for granted. In their work, recent scholars have emphasized that people are the primary agents of change and must be the focus when we try to recapture the past. The framework also recognizes the variety of people who have populated our past. In every category of the outline, consideration of the variables of race, ethnicity, class, and gender will help us better grasp the full range of human experience. This approach does not mean forsaking the whole and breaking up our past into small unrelated pieces, but rather recognizing how the whole has been shaped by our varied histories.
Time: Time is central to both prehistory and history, not simply as a mechanism to locate or isolate events in history, but also as the focus of our concern with process and change over time. The emphasis is not on "what happened" but rather on "how and why," on the transformations that turn the past into the present. There is no assumption of progress or inevitability in interpreting these transformations. Instead, the emphasis is on the tension between change and continuity and on understanding why and how particular choices were made. There is no fixed periodization scheme in this new framework. While the committee of scholars who worked on this revision recognizes that there are moments of significant change in our past, it has not proved valuable to break the past up into rigid segments of time that often ignore or obscure the complexity of historical change.
Place: The outline that follows was developed to address issues of national significance, yet it recognizes that region, community, and other dimensions of place are relevant. This framework acknowledges the richness of local and regional experiences and recognizes difference in place particularly regional difference as an important factor in a fuller understanding of both the origins of national change and the impact of national trends and events. Because place is the concrete context in which our history unfolds, a richer reconstruction of the past must include local and regional experience to help build appreciation for our national experience.
People, time, and place reach across all eight themes and contribute to the interconnections among the themes. One example that can be used to illustrate this interconnectedness is a Southern plantation dating from the 1830s. A quick survey suggests that the significance of this site cuts across every category of the outline. The move of a planter, his family, and his sizable household of slaves from Tidewater Virginia to land purchased from the Choctaws in Alabama would fall obviously under "Peopling Places," but the economic imperatives and agricultural developments that triggered the move and the adaptation of the plantation system to the new environment would fit under "Developing the American Economy," "Expanding Science and Technology," and "Transforming the Environment." While the lives of the plantation's white and black, male and female inhabitants fall under "Peopling Places" and "Creating Social Institutions and Movements," the design and construction of the distinctive "big house" illustrates the theme of "Expressing Cultural Values." The transfer of the planter's political power from Virginia to Alabama and the role of the planter class in antebellum Alabama falls under "Shaping the Political Landscape." Finally, the planter's dependence on the cotton economy and his influential role in international trade on the eve of the Civil War tie directly into "Developing the American Economy" and "Changing Role of the U.S. in the World." The outline suggests that users think broadly, not narrowly, that they look beyond traditional categories of historical significance in an effort to recapture the larger meaning and depth of past experience.
The framework rests on the assumption that, just as our understanding of the past has been reshaped in recent decades, so it will continue to evolve in the future. It should not be viewed as a final document or definitive statement. It is a part of an ongoing effort to ensure that the preservation and interpretation of our nation's historic and prehistoric resources continue to be informed by the best scholarship available.
This new conceptualization will assist the National Park Service in deepening and broadening its identification and interpretation of sites. It suggests fresh opportunities to assess the significance of sites from new perspectives and at regional and local as well as national levels.
I. Peopling Places
This theme examines human population movement and change through prehistoric and historic times. It also looks at family formation, at different concepts of gender, family, and sexual division of labor, and at how they have been expressed in the American past. While patterns of daily life birth, marriage, childrearing care often taken for granted, they have a profound influence on public life.
Life in America began with migrations many thousands of years ago. Centuries of migrations and encounters have resulted in diverse forms of individual and group interaction, from peaceful accommodation to warfare and extermination through exposure to new diseases.
Communities, too, have evolved according to cultural norms, historical circumstances, and environmental contingencies. The nature of communities is varied, dynamic, and complex. Ethnic homelands are a special type of community that existed before incorporation into the political entity known as the United States. For example, many Indian sites, such as Canyon de Chelly National Monument in Arizona, are on tribal lands occupied by Indians for centuries. Similarly, Hispanic communities, such as those represented by San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, had their origins in Spanish and Mexican history. Distinctive and important regional patterns join together to create microcosms of America's history and to form the "national experience."
Topics that help define this theme include:
- family and the life cycle
- health, nutrition, and disease
- migration from outside and within
- community and neighborhood
- ethnic homelands
- encounters, conflicts, and colonization
II. Creating Social Institutions and Movements
This theme focuses upon the diverse formal and informal structures such as schools or voluntary associations through which people express values and live their lives. Americans generate temporary movements and create enduring institutions in order to define, sustain, or reform these values. Why people organize to transform their institutions is as important to understand as how they choose to do so. Thus, both the diverse motivations people act on and the strategies they employ are critical concerns of social history.
Sites such as Women's Rights National Historical Park in Seneca Falls, New York, and the Eugene V. Debs National Historic Landmark in Indiana illustrate the diversity and changeable nature of social institutions. Hancock Shaker Village, a National Historic Landmark, and Touro Synagogue, a National Historic Site, reflect religious diversity. This category will also encompass temporary movements that influenced American history but did not produce permanent institutions.
Topics that help define this theme include:
- clubs and organizations
- reform movements
- religious institutions
- recreational activities
III. Expressing Cultural Values
This theme covers expressions of culture people's beliefs about themselves and the world they inhabit. For example, Boston African American Historic Site reflects the role of ordinary Americans and the diversity of the American cultural landscape. Ivy Green, the birthplace of Helen Keller in Alabama, and the rural Kentucky Pine Mountain Settlement School illustrate educational currents. Walnut Street Theater in Pennsylvania, Louis Armstrong's house in New York City, the Chautauqua Historic District in New York, and the Cincinnati Music Hall all National Historic Landmarks reflect diverse aspects of the performing arts.
This theme also encompasses the ways that people communicate their moral and aesthetic values. The gardens and studio in New Hampshire of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, one of America's most eminent sculptors, and Connemara, the farm in North Carolina of the noted poet Carl Sandburg, both National Historic Sites, illustrate this theme.
Topics that help define this theme include:
- educational and intellectual currents
- visual and performing arts
- mass media
- architecture, landscape architecture, and urban design
- popular and traditional culture
IV. Shaping the Political Landscape
This theme encompasses tribal, local, state, and federal political and governmental institutions that create public policy and those groups that seek to shape both policies and institutions. Sites associated with political leaders, theorists, organizations, movements, campaigns, and grassroots political activities all illustrate aspects of the political environment. Independence Hall is an example of democratic aspirations and reflects political ideas.
Places associated with this theme include battlefields and forts, such as Saratoga National Historical Park in New York and Fort Sumter National Monument in South Carolina, as well as sites such as Appomattox Court House National Historical Park in Virginia that commemorate watershed events in the life of the nation.
The political landscape has been shaped by military events and decisions, by transitory movements and protests, as well as by political parties. Places associated with leaders in the development of the American constitutional system such as Abraham Lincoln's home in Illinois and the birthplace of Martin Luther King, Jr., in Atlanta both National Historic Sites embody key aspects of the political landscape.
Topics that help define this theme include:
- parties, protests, and movements
- governmental institutions
- military institutions and activities
- political ideas, cultures, and theories
V. Developing the American Economy
This theme reflects the ways Americans have worked, including slavery, servitude, and non-wage as well as paid labor. It also reflects the ways they have materially sustained themselves by the processes of extraction, agriculture, production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
Vital aspects of economic history are frequently manifested in regional centers, for example, ranching on the Great Plains illustrated by Grant-Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site in Montana. Individual economic sites, such as Lowell National Historical Park in Massachusetts, may be distinctive in representing both the lives of workers and technological innovations.
In examining the diverse working experiences of the American people, this theme encompasses the activities of farmers, workers, entrepreneurs, and managers, as well as the technology around them. It also takes into account the historical "layering" of economic society, including class formation and changing standards of living in diverse sectors of the nation. Knowledge of both the Irish laborer and the banker, for example, are important in understanding the economy of the 1840s.
Topics that help define this theme include:
extraction and production
distribution and consumption
transportation and communication
workers and work culture
labor organizations and protests
exchange and trade
governmental policies and practices
VI. Expanding Science and Technology
This theme focuses on science, which is modern civilization's way of organizing and conceptualizing knowledge about the world and the universe beyond. This is done through the physical sciences, the social sciences, and medicine. Technology is the application of human ingenuity to modification of the environment in both modern and traditional cultures. Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument in Texas reflects pre-Columbian innovations while Edison National Historic Site in New Jersey reflects technological advancement in historic times. Technologies can be particular to certain regions and cultures.
Topics that help define this theme include:
experimentation and invention
scientific thought and theory
effects on lifestyle and health
VII. Transforming the Environment
This theme examines the variable and changing relationships between people and their environment, which continuously interact. The environment is where people live, the place that supports and sustains life. The American environment today is largely a human artifact, so thoroughly has human occupation affected all its features. Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area, which includes portions of the Ohio and Erie Canal, for example, is a cultural landscape that links natural and human systems, including cities, suburbs, towns, countryside, forest, wilderness, and water bodies.
This theme acknowledges that the use and development of the physical setting is rooted in evolving perceptions and attitudes. Sites such as John Muir National Historic Site in California and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site in New York, the home of President Theodore Roosevelt, reflect the contributions of leading conservationists. While conservation represents a portion of this theme, the focus here is on recognizing the interplay between human activity and the environment as reflected in particular places, such as Hoover Dam, a National Historic Landmark.
Topics that help define this theme include:
- manipulating the environment and its resources
- adverse consequences and stresses on the environment
- protecting and preserving the environment
VIII: Changing Role of the United States in the World Community
This theme explores diplomacy, trade, cultural exchange, security and defense, expansionism and, at times, imperialism. The interactions among indigenous peoples, between this nation and native peoples, and this nation and the world have all contributed to American history. Additionally, this theme addresses regional variations, since, for example, in the eighteenth century, the Spanish southwest, French and Canadian middle west, and British eastern seaboard had different diplomatic histories.
America has never existed in isolation. While the United States, especially in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, has left an imprint on the world community, other nations and immigrants to the United States have had a profound influence on the course of American history.
The emphasis in this category is on people and institutions from the principals who define and formulate diplomatic policy, such as presidents, secretaries of state, and labor and immigrant leaders, to the private institutions, such as the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, that influence America's diplomatic, cultural, social, and economic affairs. Monticello, the Virginia home of Thomas Jefferson, a National Historic Landmark, reflects the diplomatic aspirations of the early nation.
Topics that help define this theme include:
- international relations
- expansionism and imperialism
- immigration and emigration policies
NHL Thematic Studies
Completed National Historic Landmark Theme Studies
Indigenous Peoples and Cultures (1963)
Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherers (1960)
Early Indian Farmers, Villages and Communities (1963)
Contact With the Indians
Spanish Exploration and Settlement (1959)
French Exploration and Settlement (1960)
English Exploration and Settlement (1960)
Dutch and Swedish Exploration and Settlement (1961)
Development of the English Colonies 1700-1775 (1960)
The American Revolution
Political and Military Affairs
after 1914 (1972)
The Civil War
Westward Expansion and Extension of National Boundaries to the Pacific
Great Explorers of the West (1960)
The Fur Trade (1960)
Military and Indian Affairs (1959)
The Santa Fe Trail (1963)
The Texas Revolution and Mexican War (1959)
Overland Migration West of the Mississippi (1959)
The Mining Frontier (1959)
The Farmer=s Frontier (1959)
The Cattleman=s Empire (1959)
The Advance of the Frontier: 1763-1830
The Lewis and Clark Expedition (1958)
Agriculture and the Farmer's Frontier (1963)
Travel and Communication (1963)
Conservation of Natural Resources (1963)
Commerce and Industry (1966)
Arts and Sciences
Literature, Drama and Music (1962)
Painting and Sculpture (1965)
Social and Humanitarian Movements (1965)
Sites Associated with the Signers of the Declaration of Independence (1971)
Sites Associated with American Authors (1971)
19th Century American Architecture, 1784-1880 (1971)
New England Architecture 1784-1880 (1970)
Sites in New England Associated with the War for Independence (1972)
Sites in the Middle Colonies Associated with the War for Independence (1972)
Signers of the Constitution-Middle Atlantic and New England States (1973)
Architecture in North Carolina (1973)
Sites in the Southern Colonies Associated with the War for Independence (1973)
Colonial Architecture of the Southern Colonies (1969)
19th Century Architecture-Georgia (1973)
Black Americans in United States History (1974)
The American Presidency (1977)
Man in Space (1984)
Warships Associated with World War II in the Pacific (1985)
Sites Associated with World War II in the Pacific
The U.S. Constitution (1986)
Architecture in the Parks
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Historic Contact in Northeastern North America
Landscape Architecture in National and State Parks
Theme Studies in Progress
(especially 20th century Architects and Architecture)
Racial Desegregation in Public Education
History of Geology
Large Federal Dams
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NHL Withdrawal Report
Designated: May 23, 1963
80 miles northeast of Phoenix
Gila and Maricopa Counties, Arizona
Bureau of Reclamation
1849 C Street, NW
Washington, DC 20240
Federal Preservation Officer:
Land, Recreation & Cultural Resources
Program Analysis Office, Bureau of Reclamation
P.O. Box 25007
Denver, Colorado 80225
Mr. James Garrison
Office of Historic Preservation
Arizona State Parks
1300 W. Washington
Phoenix, Arizona 85007
Ms. Reba Wells-Grandrud
National Register Coordinator
Office of Historic Preservation
Arizona State Parks
1300 W. Washington
Phoenix, Arizona 85007
Justification for Withdrawing Landmark Designation:
Roosevelt Dam has ceased to meet the criteria for designation because the qualities which caused it to be originally designated have been destroyed [36 CFR 65.9 (b)(1)]. As a result of work undertaken to improve the safety of the dam and increase its storage capacity, the historic masonry dam has been encapsulated in a new concrete structure. Therefore, the property no longer retains integrity of design, materials, workmanship, feeling, or association.
Significance of the Landmark:
One of the original five federal projects authorized on March 13, 1903, under the Reclamation or Newlands Act of 1902, Roosevelt Dam was the first major project to be completed under the new federal reclamation program. Started in 1906, the world=s highest masonry dam was completed in 1911. In addition, the beginning of federal production of electric power also occurred at Roosevelt Dam when Congress, in 1906, authorized the Reclamation Service to develop and sell hydroelectric power at the Salt River Project.
Condition of the Landmark:
In 1984, the Secretary of the Interior approved the modification of Roosevelt Dam as a part of the Central Arizona Project's Plan 6. Modifications were designed to meet Safety of Dams and flood control purposes. Engineers had determined that the dam could not safely release water during a maximum flood event. In addition, an event called a maximum credible earthquake occurring near the dam could potentially cause it to fail. Subsequent to the modifications begun in 1989 and completed in 1996, Roosevelt Dam has a completely altered appearance. The original rubble-masonry gravity arch dam is now encased in a new concrete block structure. The original dam had a structural height of 280 feet and measured 723 feet long at the crest; the dam now has a structural height of 357 feet and a crest length of 1,210 feet. The top width is 21.6 feet compared to the original 16 feet and the maximum base width is 196 feet compared to the original 184 feet. New spillways at each abutment replaced the original ones equipped with Tainter gates. The spillways now contain four 21-foot-wide by 30-foot-high top-seal radial gates. Massive concrete thrust blocks were placed on each abutment and around the new spillway openings.
The property no longer retains its historic integrity. National Historic Landmark designation of the Roosevelt Dam should be withdrawn. On March 16, 1998, the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places accepted a revised nomination for the Theodore Roosevelt Dam National Register District. This district is comprised of resources that are all associated with the initial construction of Roosevelt Dam and includes the dam as a noncontributing property as well as other resources.
NPS National Historic Landmarks Program Staff
National Register Bulletins
Last updated: June 28, 2023