Excerpt from Barney G. Bartelle, et al. "Trauma and pathology of a buried dog from San Nicolas Island, California, USA." Journal of Archaeological Science 37, 11 (2010), 2722.
Situated on the north coast of the island, this site (Tule Creek Village) extends over 6 ha (15 ac) and is located 160 m (524 ft) above sea level overlooking Corral Harbor, one of the safest watercraft landings on the island. From this vantage point, the other Channel Islands and most of the southern California coast are visible on a clear day. Fresh water springs (Burham et al., 1963) and a variety of productive marine habitats are located in close proximity below the site (Vellanoweth et al., 2008). Archaeological investigations at the site have uncovered two cemeteries, numerous house depressions, communal structures, and other features (Reinman and Lauter, 1984; Rogers, 1930). Recent excavations have revealed compact living surfaces, storage and trash pits, and other features. Numerous artifacts were found, including shell fishhooks; beads and pendants; bone awls, whistles, and hairpins; stone pestles, bowls, and cooking plates; and projectile points and drills of imported and local toolstone (Cannon, 2006; Martz, 2005; Vellanoweth et al., 2002). Radiocarbon dates document the presence of humans at this site as early as 5,000 years ago, but the largest component dates to between A.D. 1200 and European contact (Martz, 2005; Vellanoweth et al., 2008).