National Monument Facts and Figures

The Antiquities Act of 1906 established the foundation for preserving and protecting the nation's archeological heritage. Presidents have used the authority of the Antiquities Act almost 300 times to protect archeological sites, historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest already on Federal lands. Congress has since enlarged the original boundaries of many presidentially-proclaimed national monuments or changed their park designation.

The National Park Service manages over 100 parks that got their start as a result of the Antiquities Act. All of them contain significant archeological resources that contribute to understanding our nation's cultural and scientific heritage.

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How to Use the Dataset

The dataset below draws from presidential proclamations that cite the authority of the Antiquities Act. Note, however, that:

  • In a few cases, Congress has passed legislation authorizing the President to proclaim national monuments. Because the proclamations cite the President’s authority as being Congressional action, rather than the Antiquities Act, these national monuments are not included in the dataset. The list at 54 U.S.C. §320301 includes these national monuments among those established by presidential proclamation. Examples include Ackia Battlefield, Colonial, Andrew Jackson, and Perry’s Victory. 
  • Presidents may also use the Act to enlarge national monuments established by Congress. To find the one known instance, seach for the term "Enlarged*" (Enlarged followed by an asterisk) in the search box.

Reorder the table by clicking on the labels along the top. Use the Search box for specific terms (such as "Taft," "1908," "Katmai," "NPS," or "1339" to further hone the results. Download the entire dataset by scrolling to "Download This Dataset" below the table. It can be opened and manipulated in spreadsheet software.

National Monuments created by presidential declaration under the Antiquities Act..
Date of Proclamation Action Current Name Name in Proclamation (#Proc.; size) Action (Bureau) President or Congress State Current Manager

Featured National Monuments

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    Last updated: May 13, 2024