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the archeological resources of the study area have been found to constitute
a significant material record of the indigenous Hawaiian occupation of the dry
southeastern coastal zone of the island of Maui. The several complexes of sites
and features found in the study area are the archeological expressions of the
traditional Hawaiian community activities and settlement patterns possible in
this type of climate and setting. The complexes in the study area compare favorably
with those of Maui and the other Hawaiian islands in the general state of their
preservation, and their potential for research and interpretation.
The archeological resources
of the study area have been found to be of significance at the state level.
However, they do not appear to meet criteria for nomination to national historic
study area contains no geological features of significance. The lava flows which
make up the entire study area represent only a very small segment of the Hana
volcanic series, which covers a sizable portion of East Maui. The significance
of the lava flows within the study area lies primarily on their young geologic
age. However, the lava flow of about 1790, the most recent on Maui, lies just
outside of the study area. The lower portions of this flow are within the already
protected Ahihi-Kinau NAR. The geological resources of the study area are judged
to be of local significance.
A single cave system
is known to exist within the study area. Such ecosystems are extremely rare
on Maui. Although not yet subject to any detailed study, biologists believe
this cave system may contain unique cave-adopted invertebrates. Biologists also
believe that more and similar cave systems exist within the study area. Based
on the possible existence of additional cave systems, the cave resources of
the study area may be of statewide significance.
The study area contains
a single site of the extremely rare `Akoko (Chamaesyce celastroides)
Coastal Dry Shrubland community. There is also a very small population of the
rare herb `ihi (Portuluca villosa) and a large population of the rare
mai`apilo shrub (Capparis sandwichiana). The mai`apilo is considered
to be rare on the other main Hawaiian islands. Both the native mai`opilo and
the native `ili are currently candidate species for endangered status. The presence
of rare native plants plus the presence of a very small population of `Akoko
may give certain portions of the study area significance in terms of native
vegetation at the state level.
Native wildlife species known within the study area are very limited and have
pools are an aquatic ecosystem found only in the Hawaiian Islands. They contain
an unusual and unique complement of aquatic plants and animals. On the island
of Hawaii, the majority of the anchialine pools are located along the west coast.
On Maui, anchialine ponds are found only along the southwest coast, both within
the study area and within the adjacent Ahihi-Kinau NAR. The anchialine pool
community identified within the study area provides habitat for the endemic
pool shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena, a candidate for endangered species status.
The anchialine pool within the study area is judged to be of island-wide significance.
There are likely additional as yet undiscovered anchialine pools located within
the study area which would increase its significance for this particular resource.
barren a`a lava flows of the study area provide suitable habitat for aeolian
insects. Similar aeolian ecosystems are common on the Big Island and not rare
on the island of Maui. Aeolian ecosystems occur on lava flows at both low and
high elevations. Another and perhaps better example of a low-altitude aeolian
ecosystem is found adjacent to the study area within the Ahihi-Kinau NAR. The
aeolian ecosystem of the study area is judged to be of regional significance.
prevent inadvertent damage to archeological features, camping in the study area
should be restricted to designated areas.
Reefs and Marine Resources
2002 survey of offshore waters found the study area's coral reef to be very
high in species richness and, except for one location, in pristine condition.
The widespread presence of coral-eating fishes and algal assemblages were judged
to be indicators of a diverse, healthy coral reef community. The coral reefs
compared favorably to those found elsewhere in the Hawaiian Islands. Consequently,
the coral reef resources of the study area have been found to be of state-wide
on the sensitivity and fragility of the cultural and marine resources present,
the study area and its adjacent offshore waters have only limited potential
for the outdoor recreation activities. Suitable outdoor recreation activities
could include hiking, cultural and nature walks, camping, kayaking, snorkeling
and fishing. Camping opportunities, however, should be restricted to those areas
where cultural resources would not be adversely affected. Fishing, snorkeling
and diving opportunities in the study area should be based on a scientifically
established ecological carrying capacity for the marine and coral reef resources.
Due to the presence of numerous and significant Hawaiian archeological sites
and features, access to the study area by motor vehicles should not be allowed.
The recreational resources of the study area appear to be at least of island-wide
Evaluation of Significance
on an evaluation of the resources present in the study area, the Hawaiian archeological
resources appear to be the most significant. The other known terrestrial resources
present within the study area--historical, geological and biological--appear
to be of lesser significance. The Hawaiian archeological sites and features
found within the study area are judged to be of statewide significance, but
not to be of national significance. The archeological resources of the study
area do not appear to represent an outstanding example of a particular type
of resource, nor do they appear to possess exceptional value in illustrating
the heritage of the nation in archeology.
Notwithstanding the ongoing
problem of visitors impacting archeological sites within the study area, these
resources still retain integrity as an example of traditional Hawaiian community
activities and settlement patterns. The study area continues to offer opportunities
for public enjoyment and scientific research. Public enjoyment in the form
of visitor use, however, needs to be managed and controlled for the protection
of the archeological and natural resources found within the study area. Moreover,
there are opportunities present in the study area for in-depth archeological
research concerning subjects such as traditional Hawaiian fishing techniques
and water use, patterns of domestic activity and variations and similarities
EVALUATION OF SUITABILITY AND FEASIBILITY
Rarity of This Type
of Resource (Suitability)
The types of geological
resources and nearly all of the types of biological resource values found
in the study are already more than adequately represented by existing units
of the national park system in Hawaii such as Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical
Park, Pu`uhonua o Honaunau National Historical Park, Pu`ukohola Heiau National
Historic Site, Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Hawaii Volcanoes National
Park and Haleakala National Park. Although significant at the state level,
the archeological features and complexes found in the study area, singly or
as a group, do not display the level of significance found at Pu`uhonua o
Honaunau National Historical Park or at Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic
Site. However, in comparison with most Hawaiian archeological sites, several
of the "villages" and several of their constituent house structures
are well suited for interpretation. The village clusters consist of small,
compact groups of clearly-defined, stone-walled enclosures, platforms and
The marine resources,
including coral reefs, found in the offshore waters within Kaloko-Honokohau
National Historical Park and Kalaupapa National Historical Park are likely
to be the equal of those known within the study area. The study area, therefore,
does not meet the test of suitability as an addition to the national park
for Addition to the National Park
The study area possesses
only limited feasibility as a unit of the national park system. Its location,
size and configuration would give a management entity the ability to control
access and protect resources. Land acquisition costs would not be prohibitive
since nearly all of the study area is already in public ownership. These factors
all contribute to a determination of feasibility. However, two conditions
are present which make the study area infeasible as an addition to the national
park system. First, more than 80 percent of the lands and all of the offshore
waters within study area are owned and under the jurisdiction of the State
of Hawaii and, second, the lands are all ceded lands.
The ownership of ceded
lands by the State of Hawaii is questioned by advocates for some form of Hawaiian
sovereignty who believe these lands belong to Native Hawaiians and should
be returned to them. Even if the State of Hawaii were willing to favorably
consider allowing NPS to manage and operate the study area for national park
purposes, the presence of ceded lands would make this problematic at best.
The ownership of nearly all of the study area lands by the State of Hawaii
and the controversy which continues to exist over who rightfully owns ceded
lands do not contribute to its feasibility for being established by Congress
as a unit of the national park system.
The term "ceded lands"
is applied to some 1.75 million acres of what originally were Government and
Crown lands under the Kingdom of Hawaii that the Republic of Hawaii ceded to
the United States when Hawaii was annexed in 1898. The Joint Resolution of Congress
annexing Hawaii "cede[d] and transfer[red] to the United States the absolute
fee and ownership of all public, Government and Crown lands.....belonging to
the Government of the Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance
thereto appertaining." When Hawaii was admitted to the Union in 1959, territorial
(ceded) lands were transferred to the State of Hawaii. Notwithstanding the above,
at the present time, advocates of Hawaiian sovereignty believe these "ceded"
lands were reserved by the sovereign and held for the benefit of all Hawaiian
people, and that these lands are unalienable. Their view is that ceded lands
should be returned to the Native Hawaiians.
of Resource Significance
As noted, five separate archeological investigations have been conducted within
the study area, going back to 1916. Consequently, the Hawaiian archeological
resources there have been well documented. About 34 individual sites containing
more than 1,000 features have been recorded. Even so, archeologists believe
there are as many as twice the known number of features within the study area
that remain unrecorded.
archeological sites and features within the study area have been found to constitute
a significant material record of the presence of early Hawaiians.