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The Department of Everything Else






Getting Organized

Western Emphasis

Nationwide Concerns

Early Problems

The Conservation Movement

Parks and the Park Service

The Geological Survey

Managing the Public Domain

Fish and Wildlife

Indians and the BIA

Territorial Affairs

20th Century Highlights

An Imperfect Anthology

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1. For this background see Henry B. Learned, "The Establishment of the Secretaryship of the Interior," American Historical Review 16 (1911): 751-53.

2. Norman O. Forness, "The Origins and Early History of the United States Department of the Interior" (Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1964), p. 25.

3. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Treasury for 1848, House Ex. Docs., 30th Cong., 2d sess. (1848-49), Vol 2, No. 7, pp. 35-37.

4. Cong. Globe, 30th Cong., 2d sess., p. 543.

5. Ibid., p. 673 (March 3, 1849).

6. Ibid., p. 677.

7. Ibid., p. 680.

8. Dictionary of American Biography 6: 237-38; Forness, chap. 3; Eugene Trani, "The Secretaries and Under Secretaries of the Department of the Interior" (typescript, Department of the Interior Library, 1966), pp. 10-16.

9. Edna M. Colman, "History of the Interior Department and the Buildings It Has Occupied" (typescript, Department of the Interior Library, 1937); W. B. Acker, Memorandum History of the Department of the Interior (Washington, 1912), pp. 10-14.

10. Trani, pp. 17-22; Forness, pp. 122-31; quotation in Forness, p. 130.

11. Quoted in Learned, p. 768.

12. Quoted in Horace S. Merrill, William Freeman Vilas, Doctrinaire Democrat (Madison, Wisc., 1954), pp. 134,139.

13. All functions and organizations of the department from its inception are described in "Secretary of the Interior: Activities and Duties, 1849-1949," in the Department of the Interior Library. This consists of three loose-leaf binders containing the same data differently arranged: Vol. I chronologically, Vol. II by subject classification, and Vol. III alphabetically by original designation. The call number is J84/A44.

14. 1885 figures from Annual Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1885, pp. 314-34, 354.

15. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Public Land Statistics, 1970 (Washington, 1970), p. 6.

16. Quoted in Roy M. Robbins, "The Public Domain in the Era of Exploitation, 1862-1901," Agricultural History 13 (1939): 100. The standard history of the public domain is Roy M. Robbins, Our Landed Heritage: The Public Domain, 1776-1936 (Lincoln, Neb., 1962).

17. Harold Dunham, "Some Crucial Years of the General Land Office, 1875-1890," Agricultural History 11(1937): 123. Staffing statistics for all Interior bureaus, so far as the records reveal, are given year by year in Jeannette G. Wright, comp., "Numbers of Employees in the Department of the Interior, 1849-1949" (typescript, Department of the Interior Library, c. 1949); call number JK861/W95.

18. A. B. Hart, "The Disposition of Our Public Lands," Quarterly Journal of Economics 1 (1887): 183.

19. William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West (New York, 1966), p. 498.

20. Quoted in Elmo R. Richardson, The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1962), p. 5.

21. Quoted in Donald L. McMurry, "The Political Significance of the Pension Question, 1885-1896," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 9 (1922-23): 23.

22. Quoted in Leonard D. White, The Republican Era, 1869-1901: A Study in Administrative History (New York, 1963), p. 209.

23. U.S. General Services Administration, Historical Study No. 1: Pension Building (Washington, 1964).

24. Quoted in Donald L. McMurry, "The Bureau of Pensions in the Administration of President Harrison," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 13 (1926): 349'

25. White, p. 222.

26. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1929 (Washington, 1929), p. 42.

27. White, p. 180.

28. Trani, pp. 35-36.

29. Elmo R. Richardson and Alan W. Farley, John Palmer Usher, Lincoln's Secretary of the Interior (Lawrence, Kans., 1960), pp. 65, 71.

30. Ibid., p. 38.

31. Johnson Brigham, James Harlan (Iowa City, 1913), pp. 206, 208-10; Dictionary of American Biography 22: 149.

32. Trani, pp. 56-59.

33. Sept. 30, 1875, quoted in Trani, p. 63.

34. Claude M. Fuess, Carl Schurz, Reformer (1829-1906) (New York, 1932), pp. 237, 246.

35. Jan. 25, 1893.

36. Edward Mayes, Lucius Q. C. Lamar: His Life, Times, and Speeches (Nashville, 1896), p. 475.

37. The literature of the conservation movement is voluminous, but basic are Elmo R. Richardson, The Politics of Conservation: Crusades and Controversies, 1897-1913 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1962); and Samuel P. Hayes, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920 (Cambridge, Mass., 1959). See also Pinchot s auto biography, Breaking New Ground (New York, 1947).

38. Harold K. Steen, The U.S. Forest Service: A History (Seattle and London, 1976), p. 100.

39. Quoted in John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore, 1961), p. 88.

40. Ibid., p. 85.

41. Mary C. Rabbitt, A Brief History of the U.S. Geological Survey (Washington, 1986), p. 2. Rabbitt is the principle source for this section.

42. Jerry O'Callaghan, "The Question of the Grazing Lands" (typescript, 1980), p. 3.

43. S. Lyman Tyler, A History of Indian Policy (Washington, 1973), p. 97.

44. Ibid., p. 165.

45. Ibid., p. 186.

46. J. Leonard Bates, "Fulfilling American Democracy: The Conservation Movement, 1907-1921," Mississippi Valley Historical Review 44 (1957-58): 49.

47. Anne W. Lane and Louise H. Wall, eds., The Letters of Franklin K. Lane, Personal and Political (Boston, 1922), pp. 148-51.

48. Jeanette G. Wright, "Seals and Flags of the Department of the Interior" (typescript, Department of the Interior Library, 1950), p. 2; call number JC346/A2/1950.

49. David H. Stratton, ed., The Memoirs of Albert B. Fall (El Paso, 1966), pp. 5-7.

50. Trani, pp. 177-81.

51. Ibid., pp. 189-93.

52. Donald C. Swain, Wilderness Defender: Horace M. Albright and Conservation (Chicago, 1970), p. 218.

53. Ibid., pp. 218, 250. Horace M. Albright is quoted.

54. Richard Polenberg, "The Great Conservation Contest," Forest History 10, no. 4 (January 1967): 18.

55. Pp. viii, 172.

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