Submerged Cultural Resources Study:
USS Arizona and Pearl Harbor National Historic Landmark
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Table of Contents








Daniel J. Lenihan
    Accomplishments by Year
    Research Design
    This Report


Daniel A. Martinez
    Pearl Harbor Attack
    Pearl Harbor Salvage
    Japanese Aircraft
    Japanese Submarines
    West Loch Disaster


Daniel J. Lenihan and Larry E. Murphy
        Site Description and Analysis
    Pearl Harbor Survey 1988 (Japanese Aircraft and Submarines)
        Instrumentation and Methodology


Scott Henderson
    Biofouling of Vertical Surfaces
    Sedimentation and Condition of Horizontal Surfaces
    Corrosion and Steel Fabric Thickness Study
    Water Quality and Biofouling in Interior Spaces
    Bathyocorrometer Measurements


Bill Dickinson and Gary Cummins
    Project Origins
    Management Implications
    Action Plan


James P. Delgado
    ARIZONA as Naval Memorial
    ARIZONA as War Memorial
    ARIZONA as War Grave
    Archeological and Anthropological Values
    Symbolic Values


List of Figures

1.1. Gary Cummins inspects embrasures of No. 1 turret
1.2. The USS ARIZONA from the air
1.3. NPS and Navy divers deploy from the tour boat dock
1.4. BBC camera team films the operation
1.5. BBC cameraman John Beck
1.6. NPS Diving Officer, Dave McLean and Scott Henderson
2.1. Japanese carriers readying for attack
2.2. Japanese torpedo plane takes off
2.3. Destroyer SHAW explodes
2.4. Launch speeds by during attack
2.5. Smoke from Wheeler Field
2.6. Photograph taken from Japanese planes
2.7. Oblique perspective of Battleship Row
2.8. Overhead perspective of Battleship Row
2.9. Attacking Japanese plane flies over sub-base
2.10. Arch of billowing smoke
2.11. Fireboat assists in fighting fires
2.12. 1010 dock during the attack
2.13. Seaplane base at Ford Island
2.14. Attack aftermath at Hickam Field
2.15. Launching of the USS ARIZONA
2.16. Tugs control the ARIZONA
2.17. The ARIZONA heads down the East River
2.18. The ARIZONA after major modifications
2.19. The ARIZONA before bird-cage masts were removed
2.20. The ARIZONA after major modifications
2.21. The ARIZONA at Puget Sound Navy Yard
2.22. Aftermath: The ARIZONA from port bow looking aft
2.23. Aftermath: The ARIZONA midships
2.24. The ARIZONA from port stern looking foward
2,25. The ARIZONA from starboard stern looking forward
2.26. Forward mast being removed from the ARIZONA
2.27. One of the 14-inch gun tubes being removed
2.28. Rotating portion of turret no. 3 being removed
2.29. View looking forward on deck
2.30. Salvage team removing air mask and safety belt
2.31. Team about to enter pressure lock
2.32. Salvaging powder bags from the ARIZONA
2.33. The USS UTAH as battleship before conversion
2.34. The UTAH in heavy seas
2.36. The UTAH underway as bombing target ship
2.37. The UTAH as target ship with timbers protecting deck
2.36. The UTAH receiving new coat of camouflage paint
2.38. The UTAH turned turtle after attack
2.39. The UTAH salvage: attempt to right the ship
2.40. The UTAH partially righted during salvage operations
2.41. "Val" dive bomber being removed from Pearl Harbor
2.42. "Val" that crashed during the attack
2.43. The Nine Young Gods
2.44. Midget sub being removed from the bottom
2.45. Japanese midget submarine beached at Bellows
2.46. Conning tower of Japanese midget submarine
2.47. LST exploding during West Loch disaster
2.48. Burning LSTs at West Loch
2.49. Fighting fires at West Loch
2.50. Aftermath of West Loch explosion
3.1. U.S. Navy divers add marked clips to survey line
3.2. Numbered clothespins mark a survey point
3.3. Feature is measured back to the baseline
3.4. Dan Lenihan records a jog in the survey baseline
3.5. Farley Watanabe and Mark Senning
3.6. Larry Nordby, NPS archeologist from Santa Fe
3.7. Artistic renderings by Jerry Livingston
3.8.A. Drawings developed from 1984 mapping session
3.8.B. Revision of the Planimetric view from 1986 field session
3.9. Scale model of the ARIZONA
3.10. Another view of the scale model
3.11. Jerry Livingston working at the 14-inch gun muzzles
3.12. Awning cover for a hatch on no. 1 turret
3.13. Air cylinder protrudes from debris
3.14. Intact teak decking is exposed on the ARIZONA
3.15. Entry way to galley and mess area in the ARIZONA
3.16. Artifacts in ship's galley area
3.17. Coupling of fire hose on deck of ship
3.18. Tile floor in galley area
3.19. Open hatch on the ARIZONA
3.20. Ventilator on deck of the ARIZONA
3.21. Air trapped between porthole cover and glass
3.22. Number 3 barbette
3.23. Jackstaff hole
3.24. EDM used on the UTAH
3.25. Pearl Harbor survivor
3.26. Reserve Navy divers from MDSU One (Det 319)
3.27. Perspective of the UTAH from bow
3.28. The UTAH looking forward from stern
3.29. The UTAH looking aft from bow
3.30. Chock on gunnel of the UTAH
3.31. Stairs lead down into interior of the UTAH
3.32. Oblique perspective of the UTAH remains
3.33. Two part drawings of remains of the UTAH
3.34. Larry Murphy and U.S. Navy personnel with side-scan
3.35. Monitor of Mesotech sonar
3.36. Chart of Pearl Harbor with sites
3.37. Outer harbor chart
3.38. Side-scan contact
4.1. Locations of vertical surface biofouling stations
4.2. Diagram of photo alignment bar
4.3. Diagram of bioscraping collecting funnel
4.4. Biofouling material being scraped into funnel
4.5. Corrosion and biofouling measured
4.6. Plot of water depth versus grams of corrosion
4.7. Locations of horizontal surface monitoring stations
4.7.A. Horizontal monitoring station cleared
4.7.B. Horizontal monitoring station marker
4.8. Locations of corrosion thickness measurements
4.9. Point of entry for water quality measurements
4.10. Water is drawn from interior spaces of the ARIZONA
4.11. Water analyzed for oxygen, temperature and pH levels
4.12. Location of bathycorrometer measurements
4.13. Scott Henderson with bathycorrometer
6.1. War poster shows Pearl Harbor as national symbol
6.2. Battleship MAINE disaster memorialized at Arlington
6.3. Survivors of the Little Big Horn
6.4. Modern view of Custer Battlefield

List of Tables

4.1. Common organisms observed on USS ARIZONA
4.2. Composition and thickness of fouling at stations
4.3. Depths, thickness and weights of corrosion
4.4. Descriptions of sediment, biota and underlying surfaces
4.5. Thickness of hard fouling
4.6. Oxygen, pH and temperature measurements made inside hull
4.7. Bathycorrometer measurements - the ARIZONA

Last Updated: 27-Apr-2001