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1 Statement of Colville and Okanogan chiefs to President Calvin Coolidge in November 1925, in Maria Ilma Raufer, Black Robes and Indians on the Last Frontier: A Story of Heroism (Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 1966), 428.

2 David H. Chance, People of the Falls (Colville: Don's Printery for Kettle Falls Historical Center, Inc., 1986), 10-32. This book provides excellent summaries of the significance of the various periods, written by the archaeologist who did most of the work at Kettle Falls.

3 Lillian A. Ackerman, Ethnographic Overview and Assessment of Federal and Tribal Lands in the Lake Roosevelt Area Concerning the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation, Project Report No. 30 (Pullman: Center for Northwest Anthropology, WSU, 1996), 111; Jerry R. Galm, ed., A Design for Management of Cultural Resources in the Lake Roosevelt Basin of Northeastern Washington, EWU Reports in Archaeology and History 100-83 (Cheney: Archaeological and Historical Services, 1994), 6.2; Verne F. Ray, "Salmon Fishing by the Colville Tribes," in The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, et al. v. The United States of America, Indian Claims Commission, Docket No. 181-C, n.d., 11.

4 Jack Nisbet, Sources of the River (Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 1994), 144-145, 149-151, 159.

5 Richard Glover, ed., David Thompson's Narrative (Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1962), 335, 385.

6 Chance, People of the Falls, 35-42.

7 Craig E. Holstine, Forgotten Corner: A History of the Colville National Forest, Washington (Colville, Wash.: Colville Statesman-Examiner, Inc., 1987), 6; Washington Historical Records Survey, Inventory of the County Archives of Washington. No. 33. Stevens County (Colville) (Seattle: Washington Historical Records Survey, 1942), 7-8.

8 David H. Chance, Fort Colvile: The Structure of a Hudson's Bay Company Post, 1825 to 1871 and After (Moscow, Idaho: Department of Sociology/Anthropology, UI, 1972), 4; R. Bouchard and D. Kennedy, Indian Land Use and Occupancy in the Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake Area of Washington, unpublished report prepared for CCT and USBR, June 1984, 58; William S. Lewis, "Information Concerning the Establishment of Fort Colville," Washington Historical Quarterly 16 (April 1925): 103, as quoted in Galm, Design for Management, 6.7.

9 Sir George Simpson, Narrative of a Journey Round the World, During the Years 1841 and 1842, vol. 1 (London: Henry Colburn, 1847), 150. The Hudson's Bay Co. post was named for Andrew Wedderburn Colvile, who later became governor of the HBC. The spelling is frequently confused with the later U.S. Army post, Fort Colville.

10 Chance, Fort Colvile, 8; O. B. Sperlin, ed., "Our First Horticulturalist," Washington Historical Quarterly 22 (January 1931): 48.

11 Charles Dryden, Up the Columbia for Furs (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Press, 1949), 43, quoted in Deward E. Walker, Jr., with Sylvester L. Lahren, Anthropological Guide for the Coulee Dam National Recreation Area, UI Anthropological Research Manuscript Series, No. 33 (Moscow: Laboratory of Anthropology, UI, 1977), 44.

12 Walker, Anthropological Guide, 46; Bouchard and Kennedy, Indian Land Use, 60-64.

13 Walker, Anthropological Guide, 47-48.

14 Galm, Design for Management, 6.15; David C. Wynecoop, Children of the Sun: A History of the Spokane Indians (Wellpinit, Wash.: privately printed, 1969), 21.

15 Galm, Design for Management, 6.15; Wynecoop, Children of the Sun, 22-24.

16 Walker, Anthropological Guide, 49; Ackerman, Ethnographic Overview, 114.

17 Robert Clark, River of the West: Stories from the Columbia (New York: Harper Collins West, 1995), 145-149; Bouchard and Kennedy, Indian Land Use, 75-76. Although the Yakama Tribe's name was spelled "Yakima" for many years, the treaty spelling was Yakama; the tribe officially returned to this earlier spelling in 1992.

18 [Angus McDonald], "A Few Items of the West," typed manuscript, n.d.: 11-12, Angus McDonald Papers, SC 427, file 3/3, Montana Historical Society Archives, Helena; Fred C. Bohm and Craig E. Holstine, The People's History of Stevens County (Colville, Wash.: Stevens County Historical Society, 1983), 12-13; Walker, Anthropological Guide, 51; Wynecoop, Children of the Sun, 25-27.

19 Bohm and Holstine, People's History, 12-13; Walker, Anthropological Guide, 51; Wynecoop, Children of the Sun, 25-27.

20 Bohm and Holstine, People's History, 13-17; Richard F. Steele, An Illustrated History of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan and Chelan Counties, State of Washington (Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Co., 1904), 71-72; Washington Historical Records Survey, Inventory of County Archives, 40.

21 Notes from interview with Henry Covington, in Ruth S. Strock, LARO Administrative Assistant, to Henry Covington, 28 Aug. 1960, file H14 Fort Spokane Research, Rehab., LARO.HQ.ADM; Galm, Design for Management, 5.3, 8.2, 8.8.

22 Galm, Design for Management, 5.3; Bouchard and Kennedy, Indian Land Use, 81-84; Raufer, Black Robes and Indians, 128 [quote].

23 Galm, Design for Management, 6.27-6.28; Bouchard and Kennedy, Indian Land Use, 82.

24 Bouchard and Kennedy, Indian Land Use, 82, 84; Robert D. Dellwo, "The Spokane ‘Reservations' — 1872 to 1881," Rawhide Press (Jan. 1981), 27.

25 Raufer, Black Robes and Indians, 138; J. W. Powell, Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-97, Part 2, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899), 858.

26 Raufer, Black Robes and Indians, 138-139.

27 Ibid., 140-141; John Alan Ross, "Political Conflict on the Colville Reservation," Northwest Anthropological Association Research Notes 2 (1968): 61.

28 Deward E. Walker, Jr., "Plateau," in Handbook of North American Indians, v. 12, ed. by William C. Sturtevant (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1998), 492-493; Ross, "Political Conflict," 61-62.

29 Dellwo, "Spokane ‘Reservations'," 27; Powell, Eighteenth Annual Report, 857; Wynecoop, Children of the Sun, 31-33.

30 John D. Combes, "A Preliminary Investigation at Old Military Fort Spokane, Washington," Report of Investigations No. 30, (Pullman: Laboratory of Anthropology, WSU, 1965), 2-3; Cathy A. Gilbert and Renata Niedzwiecka, "The Historic Landscape of Fort Spokane: A Design Proposal" (Seattle: NPS, 1985), 5, 9-11; John A. Hussey, "Fort Spokane, Washington: A History of the United States Army Post and of the Fort Spokane Military Reservation" (San Francisco: NPS, Region Four, [1958]), 2-3.

31 G. D. Meiklejohn, Acting Secretary of War, 28 Aug. 1899, file W30 Jurisdiction, LARO.HQ.ADM; Mary B. Davis, ed., Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1994), 84-85.

32 Gilbert and Niedzwiecka, "Historic Landscape of Fort Spokane," 17-22; Frances LaBret, [untitled ms.], n.d., History — Fort Spokane box, LARO.HQ.LIB.

33 Raufer, Black Robes and Indians, 147-148; Galm, Design for Management, 5.8, 5.11, 6.30; Davis, Native America, 27; "Making Ready to Open South Half of Colville Reserve," unidentified newspaper, 20 Nov. 1914, clipping file, Northwest Room, Spokane Public Library; Wynecoop, Children of the Sun, 35-36; Robert H. Ruby and John A. Brown, A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986), 42.

34 Galm, Design for Management, 5.4-5.5, 7.8, 7.17.

35 USBR, Project History 1933, 13-73.

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Last Updated: 22-Apr-2003