Building in an Ashen Land: Historic Resource Study
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List of Maps

List of Photographs

Purpose and Summary

Research Methodology and Acknowledgements

Chapter 1: A Park Overview

Biotic Resources
Climate and Weather
Cultural Diversity
Katmai Properties Listed on the National Register of Historic Places

Chapter 2: Early Katmai People

Savonoski People
The Coastal Sugpiat/Alutiiq
Prehistoric Properties Listed on the National Register

Chapter 3: Russian and Early American Influence

Russian Period (1760-1867)
     Russian Expansion into the Katmai Region
     The Katmai Artel
     Other Settlements and Places
     Changes Brought to the Katmai Settlements
     The Russian-American Company's First Katmai Chapel
Early American Influence (1867-1912)
     Main Settlements
     Alaska Commercial Company Establishes Trading Stores
     Several Chapels Are Built
     Population Ties and Movement
     Seasonal Camps
     Hunting Parties and the Declining Fur Trade
     Population Gravitates to the Commercial Fishing Industry
     Novarupta Erupts and Forces Katmai Residents to Leave

Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 4: Scientific Expeditions and Research

National Geographic Society Expeditions
Later Research Efforts
Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 5: Transportation Links

Water Transportation
Air Transportation
Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 6: Mineral Exploration and Mining

Early Prospecting Activity
The Monument Proclamation and Its Impacts
Pumice Extraction
Recent Mineral Development
Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 7: Clam and Salmon Canning

Early Fisheries Activity
Clam and Salmon Canneries on Shelikof Strait, 1921-1951
Shelikof Strait Clam Harvesting Activity, 1951-present
Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 8: Trapping and Other Subsistence Lifeways

Historical Trapping Patterns
Trappers Leave the Monument
Trapping Along the Shelikof Strait Coastline
Trapping in the Naknek River Drainage
Trapping in the Alagnak River Drainage
Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 9: Reindeer Herding and Fox Farming

Reindeer Herding
Fox Farming
Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 10: Fisheries Research and Management

Initial Management Activities
Construction of Management Facilities
Diversification of Fisheries Research
Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Chapter 11: Tourism and Early Park Management

Early Tourism Patterns
Establishing the Concession Camps
Facilities Development During the 1950s
Expansion of Improvements Since 1960
Historic Property Summary and Recommendations

Selected Bibliography

Index (omitted from the on-line edition)


Map: Historic resources in the vicinity of Brooks River

Map: Historic resources in Katmai National Park and Preserve

Map: Norman Dawn sketch of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, 1925

Map: Trapping cabins in Katmai National Park, Katmai National Preserve, and Alagnak Wild River

Map: Stephen Scott's map of the Naknek Lake country, drawn in the late 1930s


Front Cover Graphics Credits:

Katmai Villiage building. Photo courtesy of University of Alaska Anchorage, Archives and Manuscripts Department, National Geographic Society Katmai Expedition Collection, Box I, 3944.

Roy Fure, a longtime trapper, fisherman, and prospector, is shown with several traps hanging on the cabin wall behind him. NPS-LACL Photo Collection.

Katmai barabaras covered with volcanic ash, 1915. Photo courtesy of University of Alaska Anchorage, Archives and Manuscripts Department, National Geographic Society Katmai Expedition Collection, Box I, 3946.

Map used on the front and back covers is adapted from the "Katmai National Monument, Alaska, Surveyed by the Katmai Expedition of the National Geographic Society, 1917-1919," Griggs, The Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.

Back Cover Graphics Credits:

Roy Fures cabin at Bay of Islands, Photo courtesy of Alvin Aspelund, Sr. NPS-AKSO.

Purpose and Summary:

Figure: Mrs. Palakia Melgenak, a former Savonoski resident, 1961
Figure: Savonoski

Chapter 1:

Figure: National Geographic Society members in Katmai Crater, 1919

Chapter 2:

Figure: The Brooks River barabara
Figure: Katmai Village Natives in their Kayaks or Bidarkas

Chapter 3:

Figure: Sketch of shoreline with sea otters by Georg Langsdorff, ca. 1805
Figure: Alaska Commercial Company, Kukak Station ledger, 1888
Figure: Modern semi-subterranean house structure, Savonoski
Figure: The last church built at Savonoski, 1918
Figure: Katmai's last chapel, built prior to 1912 volcanic eruption
Figure: Agreement between the ACC and the Douglas chief, 1901
Figure: Katmai Village log and frame buildings, 1915
Figure: Katmai barabaras covered with volcanic ash, 1915
Figure: Fish racks and caches at Old Savonoski, 1918
Figure: New Savonoski settlement in 1918
Figure: Interior of the Katmai chapel after the flood, 1915
Figure: The waterfront at Old Savonoski, showing the main line of barabaras
Figure: Paul L. Hagelbarger photographing a fumarole, 1918.

Chapter 4:

Figure: The NGS party at Katmai Village
Figure: Fumarole at north angle of Baked Mountain, 1917
Figure: "Chemical laboratory" near Trident Volcano, 1917
Figure: Rock cairn atop Dumpling Mountain, 1918
Figure: Savonoski Camp, 1919
Figure: Building the cabin at Savonoski Camp, 1919
Figure: Party preparing to leave Lagoon Camp, 1919
Figure: Climbing up the moraine on the way to Katmai Pass, 1919
Figure: Baked Mountain Camp with Mount Martin in the background, 1919
Figure: Strong man stunts, 1919
Figure: "Bread-crust bomb" on the crater rim of Novarupta, 1917
Figure: The completed Savonoski camp cabin, 1919

Chapter 5:

Figure: A 1917 photo of Charlie Carter, who crossed Katmai Pass on a dog sled
Figure: Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes road corridor
Figure: Locals repairing the Pilgrim at Katmai Bay in 1898
Figure: The Pilgrim and several other Moran Fleet steamers at Katmai Bay in 1898

Chapter 6:

Figure: Prospectors weighing out gold dust near Katmai Village, 1917
Figure: Halferty's Cabin with Paul Hagelbarger, 1919
Figure: Prospectors' hut at Kashvik Bay, 1917
Figure: Copper mine in upper Amalik Bay, 1919
Figure: Kuliak Bay panorama with Halferty's cabin, 1917

Chapter 7:

Figure: Swikshak Bay salmon harvesting operations
Figure: Overview of Kukak Bay clam and salmon cannery
Figure: The Surf Canneries wharf at Kukak Bay
Figure: Kukak Bay cannery buildings, 1953
Figure: Remains of the collapsed Quonset hut at Kukak Bay cannery, 1996

Chapter 8:

Figure: Cache in the Naknek Lake country, circa 1940
Figure: Barabara and cache at "Tom's Bay" (Lake Brooks), 1918
Figure: John "Frenchy" Fournier, 1923
Figure: Hammersly's cabin complex at west end of Nonvianuk Lake, 1973
Figure: Johnny Monsen's Reindeer Point cabin, circa 1940
Figure: Harry Featherstone and Roy Fure, 1923
Figure: Katmai-area trapper Paul Chukan
Figure: Scott's cabin complex, 1962
Figure: Scott's cabin as it appeared in 1998
Figure: Sig Lundgren, along with 42 foxes and two otters, in a 1939 photo
Figure: Remains of the Paul Chukan cabin complex, 1993
Figure: Mike Shapsnikoff cabin complex, 1975
Figure: Paul "Telly" Monsen and Gunnar Berggren at Berggren's cabin, circa 1940
Figure: Fure's Bay of Islands Cabin with adjoining windmill, taken in late 1980s
Figure: Buckley's cabin on "Island Bay," 1919
Figure: Cache near Agate Point, 1993
Figure: Sam and Annie Murray on their wedding day
Figure: Bill Hammersly's cabin, 1993
Figure: Guide camp cabin on Peterson allotment, 1984
Figure: Estrada cabin complex, Alagnak River, 1984
Figure: Wassillie Andrew cabin, along the Alagnak River

Chapter 9:

Figure: Fox farm on Kiukpalik Island, 1953
Figure: Ruins of Kiukpalik Island fox farm, 1996

Chapter 10:

Figure: Salmon ascending Brooks Falls
Figure: Lake Brooks Field Laboratory, 1957
Figure: Modern (1998) photograph of the field laboratory
Figure: Fireplace and chimney in the field laboratory, 1998
Figure: Brooks River fish ladder, 1954

Chapter 11:

Figure: Fishing at Katmai
Figure: Kulik Lodge, taken during the late 1950s
Figure: Brooks River Ranger Station, 1993
Figure: Brooks River boat storage house, 1993
Figure: A 1971 view of the Panabode guest cabins at Brooks Camp
Figure: Overview of Kulik Camp, taken in the late 1950s

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Last Updated: 22-Oct-2002