Capitol Reef
Administrative History
NPS Logo


CHAPTER 12:
GRAZING AND CAPITOL REEF NATIONAL PARK: A HISTORIC STUDY (continued)



REFERENCES


Published Books And Articles

Brown, Lenard. The Baker Ranch: A History. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Division of History, 1 January 1970.

Chapman, Keith J. "Effects of Land Use Change." Master's Thesis, Colorado State University, June 1970.

Flores, Dan L. "Agriculture, Mountain Ecology, and the Land Ethic: Phases of the Environmental History of Utah." In Working the Range: Essays on the History of Western Land Management and the Environment, edited by John R. Wunder. Contributions in Economics and Economic History, No. 61. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1985.

Foss, Phillip O. Politics and Grass: The Administration of the Public Domain. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1960.

Fowler, Don D., ed. "Photographed All the Best Scenery: Jack Hillers's Diary of the Powell Expeditions, 1871-1875. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1972.

Gates, Paul W. History of Public Land Law Development. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.

Gregory, Herbert C. and Moore, Raymond C. Kaiparowits Region: A Geographical and Geological Reconnaissance of Parts of Utah and Arizona. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 164. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1931.

Gregory, Herbert C., ed. "Diary of Almon Thompson." Utah Historical Quarterly, 7, No. 1-3 (1939).

Hibbard, Benjamin Horace. A History of Public Land Law Policies. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1965.

Hunt, Charles B. Geology and Geography of the Henry Mountains Region, Utah. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 228. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953.

Ise, John. Our National Park Policy: A Critical History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1961.

LeFevre, Lenora H. The Boulder Country and Its People. Springville, Utah: Art City Publishing, 1973.

Meyer, Susan B. Places in the Sun: Story of Capitol Reef Plants. Torrey: Capitol Reef Natural History Association, 1990.

Peffer, E. Louise. Closing of the Public Domain: Disposal and Reservation Policies, 1900-1950. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1951.

Peterson, Charles B. "Grazing in Utah: A Historical Perspective." Utah Historical Quarterly 57, No. 4 (Fall 1989):300-319.

Peterson, Levi S. "The Development of Utah Livestock Law, 1848-1896." Utah Historical Quarterly 32, No. 3 (Summer 1964):198-216.

Powell, John Wesley. Lands of the Arid Region, With More Detailed Account of the Lands of Utah. 1878. Reprint, edited by Wallace Stegner. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1962.

Roberts, N. Keith and Gardner, B. Delworth. "Livestock and the Public Lands," Utah Historical Quarterly 32, No. 3 (Summer 1964): 286-300.

Rowley, William D. U.S. Forest Service Grazing and Rangelands: A History. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1985.

Runte, Alfred. National Parks: The American Experience. 2nd ed., revised. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987.

Smith, Henry Nash. Virgin Lands: The American West as Symbol and Myth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978.

Snow, Anne, ed. Rainbow Views: A History of Wayne County. 4th ed. Springville Utah: Art City Publishing, 1985.

Stewart, George. "Historic Records Bearing on Agricultural and Grazing Ecology in Utah." Journal of Forestry 28, No. 13 (1930): 362-374.

Webb, Walter Prescott. The Great Plains. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1931.

Wilkinson, Charles F. Crossing the Next Meridian: Land, Water, and the Future of the West. Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1992.


Miscellaneous Manuscripts

Anonymous. "History of Grazing in Utah." Works Progress Administration Writers' Project, 1940. Manuscript #8, Special Collections, Utah State University Library, Logan, Utah.

Cottam, Walter P. "The Impact of Man on the Flora of the Bonneville Basin." Pamphlet A55. Special Collections, Utah State University Library, Logan, Utah.

Crampton, C. Gregory. "Mormon Colonization in Southern Utah and Adjacent Parts of Arizona and Nevada, 1851-1900." 1965. Unpublished manuscript in Capitol Reef National Park Unprocessed Archives.

Griffin, Nethella. "Life in Boulder." Undated typescript in Utah State Historical Society Archives, Salt Lake City.

Jessen, H. C. "Report of Utah Emergency Relief Administration: Range Improvement Program." 15 August 1936. Manuscript in Government Documents, Marriott Library, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.

National Park Service. Grazing Phaseout at Capitol Reef National Park: Phaseout I Final Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1984. Document D-34 in National Park Service, Technical Information Center, Denver, Colorado.


Newspapers

Deseret News. (Salt Lake City) January-February 1969, 10 August 1977, 28 July 1978, 5-6 August 1982.

The Salt Lake Tribune. January-February 1969, 6-9 November 1974, 1 May 1981.


Government Documents And Collections


Bureau Of Land Management

Bureau of Land Management. Records of the Cedar City District. Record Group 49, Accession 49-82-0187. Box 1-2. National Archives and Record Center, Denver, Colorado.

______. Allotment Files. Henry Mountain Resource Area Files, Hanksville, Utah.

______. "Wonderland Resource Area, Middle Desert Planning Unit: Hartnet Allotment Plan." 3 March 1966. Hartnet Allotment File. Henry Mountain Resource Area Files, Hanksville, Utah.

Hanson, Sheridan. "West Henry Mountain Range Survey: Narrative 1962-1963 Field Season." Waterpocket Allotment Files. Henry Mountain Resource Area Files, Hanksville, Utah.


United States Forest Service

Dixie National Forest. "Dixie National Forest Environmental Impact Statement." 1992. Teasdale District Office, Teasdale, Utah.

______. "History of Dixie National Forest." Various manuscripts. Dixie National Forest History Files. Utah State Historical Society Archives, Salt Lake City.

Fishlake National Forest. File G, "Cooperation." Loa District Office, Loa, Utah.


National Park Service

Arches National Park, Moab, Utah. Arches Administration Collection. Folder 33.

Capitol Reef National Park, Torrey. Active Superintendent's Files; Historical Superintendent's Files; Capitol Reef Resource Management Files; Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

National Park Service. Records Pertaining to the National Park Service, 1937-1838. OF 928, Box 1. Franklin Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York.

______. National Archives - Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Colorado. Records of the National Park Service. Record Group 79. Accessions: 79-67A-337; 79-60A-354; 79-66A-691; 79-76F-1229

Secretary of the Interior. Records of the Secretary of the Interior, Record Group 48. Box 1971. File 12-0, Grazing Records. National Archives, Washington, D.C.


Capitol Reef Planning Documents And Reports

"1953 Master Plan and Development Outline." Record Group 79. Accession 79-67A-337. Box 1, File D18. National Archives and Record Center, Denver, Colorado.

"1982 General Management Plan, Capitol Reef National Park." October 1992. Superintendent's Files, Capitol Reef National Park.

"Capitol Reef Reservoir Maintenance Environmental Assessment." UT-050-86-06. 22 May 1986. Capitol Reef Resource Management Files, Capitol Reef National Park.

Cole, Kenneth L. "A Survey of the Fossil Packrat Middens and Reconstruction of the Pregrazing Vegetation of Capitol Reef National Park." 9 October 1992. Final Report to Capitol Reef National Park. Resource Management Files, Capitol Reef National Park.

Dixon, Joseph S. "Special Report on Geology, Flora and Fauna of the Capitol Reef National Monument." 6 December 1939. Box 1, Folder 5. Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

Henderson, Norman. "Grazing Management, Capitol Reef National Park." October 1985. Capitol Reef Resource Management Files, Capitol Reef National Park.

______. "Final Resource Management Plan." June 1993. Capitol Reef Resource Management Files, Capitol Reef National Park.

Kelly, Charles. "Reminiscences of Howard Blackburn as told to Charles Kelly." 1 March 1946. Charles Kelly Unpublished Writings. Capitol Reef National Park Unprocessed Archives.

McDougall, W. B. "Special Report: Capitol Reef National Monument." May 1940. Box 1, Folder 5. Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

Patraw, Preston. "Proposed Wayne Wonderland (Capitol Reef) National Monument." August 1935. Box 1, Folder 2. Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

"Proposed Grazing Phase Out, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah." 12 August 1974. Environmental Assessment prepared for National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Colorado.

"Proposed Wilderness, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah." 27 June 1974. Draft Environmental Statement. National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Colorado.

Walsh, Stanley L. "Range Conditions Survey of Hartnet and Sandy III Allotments, Capitol Reef National Park." July 1982. Draft prepared for National Park Service, Capitol Reef National Park. Resource Management Files, Capitol Reef National Park.


United States Congress

Congressional Record. Washington, D.C. 1971 and 1981-82.

U.S. House Subcommittee on Public Lands and National Parks of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Public Land Management Policy, Part VII: Hearings on S. 1872. 97th Cong. 2nd sess., House Serial 97-8.

U.S. Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. Establishing the Capitol Reef National Park in the State of Utah. 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1971, S. Report 92-157.

U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Grazing Permit Adjustments For Capitol Reef National Park, Utah. 97th Cong., 2nd sess., 1982. S. Report 97-448.

U.S. Statutes at Large. 39 (1916): 535-536; 48 (1934):1269-1275; 64 (1950): 849-851; 85 (1971): 740-41; 95 (1981):1397; 96 (1982): 1639-1640; 102 (1988):1780-81.

United States Code. 1988 Edition. Title 16, Conservation and Title 43, Public Lands. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.


Interviews

Durfey, Golden. (Rancher, Notom) Interview with Bradford Frye. Tape recording and transcript, 5 February 1992. Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

Heyder, Robert. (Former Superintendent, Capitol Reef National Monument) Interview with Bradford Frye. Tape recording, 1 November 1993. Tape in Administrative History Files and Notes, Capitol Reef Unprocessed Archives.

Kelly, Charles. (Former Superintendent, Capitol Reef National Monument) Interview with Lenard Brown. Reel-to-reel tape and transcript, 26 May 1969. Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

Nolan, Richard. (Chief, Interpretation and Visitor Protection, Capitol Reef National Park) Interview with Bradford Frye. Notes only, 24 February 1994. Notes in Administrative History Files and Notes, Capitol Reef Unprocessed Archives.

Ott, Martin. (Former Superintendent, Capitol Reef National Park) Interview with Bradford Frye. Tape recording, 16 May 1994. Administrative History and Notes, Capitol Reef Unprocessed Archives.

Pace, Guy. (Rancher, Wayne County) Interview with Bradford Frye. Tape recording and transcript, 13 February 1991. Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

Smalley, Leroy. (Range Conservationist, Henry Mountain Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management) Interview with Bradford Frye. Tape recording, 20 May 1994. Tape in Administrative History Files and Notes, Capitol Reef Unprocessed Archives.


FOOTNOTES

1 General range condition surveys for Utah consulted for this study include George Stewart, "Historic Records Bearing on Agricultural and Grazing Ecology in Utah," Journal of Forestry 28, No. 13 (1930):362-374; John Wesley Powell, Land of the Arid Region, With More Detailed Account of the Lands of Utah (1878; reprint, edited by Wallace Stegner, Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1962), Chapters 1, 2, 6; "History of Grazing in Utah," Works Progress Administration Writers' Project study, 1940, Manuscript Collection #8, Box 4, Special Collections, Utah State University Library, Logan (hereafter referred to as WPA Grazing History); and Walter P. Cottam, "The Impact of Man on the Flora of the Bonneville Basin," pamphlet A55, Utah State University Special Collections, Utah State University Library.

Vegetation reports more specific to south-central Utah include Herbert C. Gregory, ed., "Diary of Almon Harris Thompson," Utah Historical Quarterly, 7, No. 1-3 (1939):80-89; Don D. Fowler, ed., "Photographed All the Best Scenery" Jack Hillers's Diary of the Powell Expeditions, 1871-1875 (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1972), 119-123; Herbert C. Gregory and R. C. Moore, Kaiparowits Region: A Geographical and Geologic Reconnaissance of Parts of Utah and Arizona, Geological Survey Professional Paper 164 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey, 1931), 24-35; Charles B. Hunt, Geology and Geography of the Henry Mountains Region, Utah, Geological Survey Professional Paper 228 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Geological Survey, 1953), 27-36; U.S. Forest Service, "History of Dixie National Forest" and "Dixie Range Prior to 1945," Dixie National Forest History Files, Utah State Historical Society Archives; Charles Kelly, "Reminiscences of Howard Blackburn as Told to Charles Kelly," 1 March 1946, Charles Kelly Unpublished Writings, Capitol Reef National Park Unprocessed Archives; Kenneth L. Cole, "A Survey of the Fossil Packrat Middens and Reconstruction of the Pregrazing Vegetation of Capitol Reef National Park," Final Report to Capitol Reef National Park, 9 October 1992, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files.

2 Stewart, "Historic Records of Ecology in Utah," 364.

3 Ibid., 369. Walter Cottam, "The Impact of Man on the Flora," has an excellent summary of the effect of fires started by American Indians on Utah's pre-settlement vegetation.

4 Gregory, ed., "Diary of Almon Harris Thompson," 83.

5 Don D. Fowler, ed. Photographed All the Best Scenery, 121.

6 William Hurst, "Range Conditions at Time of Settlement," 14 October 1935, File 1680, Dixie National Forest History Files, Utah State Historical Society Archives, 1-2.

7 Charles Kelly, interview with Lenard Brown, 26 May 1969, reel-to-reel tape and transcript, Capitol Reef National Park Archives, 29.

8 Kelly, "Reminiscences of Howard Blackburn," 1 March 1946, Charles Kelly Unpublished Writings, Capitol Reef Unprocessed Archives, 2-3.

9 Stanley L. Welsh, "Range Conditions Survey of Hartnet and Sandy III Allotments, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah," July 1982, prepared for National Park Service, Capitol Reef National Park, Resource Management Files, 2-6; Cole, "A Survey of Fossil Packrat Middens," 23. For more detailed accounts of the present vegetative cover at Capitol Reef see Susan E. Meyer, Places in the Sun: Story of Capitol Reef Plants (Capitol Reef Natural History Association, 1990) and the numerous studies coordinated by the Division of Resource Management & Science, Capitol Reef National Park.

10 Cole, 24-25.

11 The best accounts of early Mormon grazing practices are found in the WPA Grazing History, Chapters 1 and 4, Charles Peterson, "Grazing in Utah: A Historical Perspective," Utah Historical Quarterly 57, No. 4 (Fall 1989): 300-319; Dan L. Flores, "Agriculture, Mountain Ecology, and the Land Ethic: Phases of the Environmental History of Utah," in John R. Wunder, ed., Working the Range: Essays on the History of Western Land Management and the Environment, Contributions in Economics and Economic History No. 61 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1985).

12 Peterson, "Grazing in Utah," 301. The rise and spread of the cattle industry after the Civil War is best told in Walter Prescott Webb, The Great Plains (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1931), 205-244.

13 Stewart, "Historic Records of Ecology in Utah," 362-364.

14 Charles S. Peterson, "Grazing in Utah," 301.

15 WPA Grazing History, Chapter 1, 9.

16 Isaiah 2:2, Holy Bible [King James version]. Interpretation of this and other verses is offered by the author in consultation with Mormon friends and co-workers.

17 Doctrine and Covenants 59: 16-18, 20.

18 Flores, "Phases of the Environmental History of Utah," 164.

19 Book Of Mormon, 2 Nephi 1:7-9.

20 Ibid., 2 Nephi 1:11.

21 Orson Hyde, "Instructions," Journal of Discourses (Liverpool, England, 1867), quoted in Peterson, "Grazing in Utah," 316-317; Flores, 167-168.

22 Flores, 167.

23 WPA Grazing History, Chapter 4, Box 4, Folder 12, Utah State University Special Collections, 4.

24 Ibid., Chapter 1, 23.

25 Ibid., Chapter 4, 24.

26 WPA Grazing History, Chapter 1, 24.

27 Ibid. These small- to middle-sized operations predominate in Utah grazing at the end of the 20th century.

28 Flores, 167.

29 Ibid., 310; Charles Hunt, Geology of the Henry Mountains, 16-17; Golden Durfey, interview with Bradford Frye, 5 February 1992, Capitol Reef National Park Archives, 19.

30 WPA Grazing History, Chapter 1, 25.

31 Guy Pace, interview with Bradford Frye, 13 February 1991, Capitol Reef National Park Archives, 24.

32 WPA Grazing History, Chapter 4, 24.

33 Peterson, "Grazing in Utah," 312.

34 Peterson, 315.

35 WPA Grazing History, Chapter 1, 36.

36 Ibid., 23.

37 "Some Highlights on Grazing History of the Intermountain Region of the Forest Service," part of WPA Grazing History, Works Progress Administration Writers' Project, 1940, Manuscript 8, Box 4, Folder 1, Utah State University Archives, 1.

38 Glynn Bennion, 1932 paper in Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). Historian's Office, Salt Lake City, quoted in WPA Grazing History, Chapter 1, 39.

39 Ibid. Also see Cottam, "Effects of Man on the Flora," for a detailed description of altered vegetation in the heavily grazed areas of western Utah.

40 Gregory and Moore, The Kaiparowits Region, 35.

41 Webb, The Great Plains, 234.

42 Ibid., 237.

43 Ibid., 237-238; Wilkinson, Crossing the Next Meridian, 90.

44 Four useful, but somewhat dated, works on public land policy are Phillip O. Foss, Politics and Grass: The Administration of the Public Domain (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1960); Paul Gates, History of Public Land Law Development (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968); Benjamin Horace Hibbard, A History of the Public Land Policies (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1965); and E. Louise Peffer, The Closing of the Public Domain: Disposal and Reservation Policies, 1900-1950 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1951). An excellent and recent review of the "lords of yesterday," the laws and attitudes which have shaped western land use policy, is found throughout Wilkinson, Crossing the Next Meridian.

45 Foss, Politics and Grass, 196.

46 Flores, "Phases of the Environmental History of Utah," 171.

47 C. Gregory Crampton, "Mormon Colonization in Southern Utah and Adjacent Parts of Arizona and Nevada, 1851-1900," 1965, unpublished manuscript in Capitol Reef Unprocessed Archives; also see Charles Hunt, Geology of the Henry Mountains, 19, for details on the 1897 flood that devastated lower Wayne County, east of Capitol Reef.

48 Powell, Report on the Arid Lands, edited by Stegner, 1962, 35-36.

49 William D. Rowley, U.S. Forest Service Grazing and Rangelands: A History (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1985), 22-40.

50 Ibid., 40-45.

51 Ibid., 46.

52 Ibid., 46-47. At this time, cattle were not seen as controversial users of the reserves and were therefore not subject to this permit system.

53 WPA Grazing History, "Forest Service," 3.

54 Ibid., 6.

55 Ibid.; Rowley, U.S. Forest Service and Grazing, 80-81.

56 Dixie National Forest, "History of Areas known as the Dixie National Forest from 1902 to 1960," File 1680, Dixie National Forest Papers, Utah State Historical Society Archives, 10.

57 William M. Hurst, Special Range Study, 14 October 1935, Ibid., 5.

58 Foss, Politics and Grass, 39-48. For an excellent examination of the homestead myth and its misapplication in much of the West, see Henry Nash Smith, Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978, ed.), 165-173.

59 See Wilkinson, Crossing the Next Meridian, 91-92, for a discussion of the Light v. U.S. court case that upheld the right to issue and charge for permits; 1906 fees were 20 to 35 cents per head for cattle and horses for the summer season or 50 cents a head for the entire year. Sheep ranchers were charged five to eight cents a head for the summer and goats eight to 10 cents a head, according to WPA Grazing History, "Forest Service," 7. There was also a special reduction for homebuilders near the forest, and for small stock owners. The reduction was intended to attract new settlers, according to Rowley, U.S. Forest Service Grazing and Rangelands, 60-61.

60 WPA Grazing History, "Forest Service," 7.

61 Foss, Politics and Grass, 46.

62 Ibid., 47.

63 See "History of Dixie National Forests," 10-11, for an account of how ranchers in southern Utah, and particularly the Escalante area resisted any further range restrictions during the 1930s.

64 An example is provided by Kelly, "Reminiscences of Howard Blackburn."

65 Bennion, 1932, quoted in WPA Grazing History, Chapter 1, 39; see Hunt, Geology of Henry Mountains, 24-27, and Gregory and Moore, Kaiparowits Region, for early 20th century yearly rainfall totals for areas close to Capitol Reef.

66 WPA Grazing History, Chapter 1, 40.

67 Foss, Politics and Grass, 56-57.

68 Dern, 1932, quoted in Peffer, The Closing of the Public Domain, 208.

69 Foss, 57.

70 Ibid., 58; The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 is found in U.S. Statutes at Large, 48 (1934): 1269.

71 Congressman Edward Taylor, quoted in Foss, 59.

72 Ibid., 59, 74; Peffer, 222.

73 U.S. Statutes at Large, 48 (1934):1269.

74 Ibid., 1270.

75 Foss, Politics and Grass, 59-60; Peffer, The Closing of the Public Domain, 221-222.

76 U.S. Statutes, 1273.

77 Ibid., 1271.

78 Foss, 62-64; Peffer, note 36, 221.

79 Foss, 60.

80 See Foss, 60-98, for an examination of the evolution of grazing management policy on the public domain.

81 Ibid., 80-81.

82 Ibid., 81.

83 Ibid., 64.

84 U.S. Senate, 1936, The Western Range, 74th Cong., 2nd sess., S. Doc 109, quoted in Peffer, 223.

85 It is beyond the scope of this study to go into further detail on the history of Grazing Service and BLM management history. See Foss, Politics and Grass, for history up through the 1950s; for more recent accounts see Wilkinson, Crossing the Next Meridian, 93-101; and notes, 320-323.

86 The most specific early grazing histories are found in the local histories, heavily reliant on personal memories and interviews. See Anne Snow, ed., Rainbow Views: A History of Wayne County, 4th ed. (Springville, Utah: Art City Publishing, 1985), 19-26, 54-60; Lenora H. LeFevre, The Boulder Country and Its People (Springville, Utah: Art City Publishing, 1973), 6, 246; Nethella Griffin, "Life in Boulder," unpublished typescript in Utah State Historical Society Archives, 8-12. Charles B. Hunt, Geology and Geography of the Henry Mountains Region, Utah," Geological Survey Professional Paper 228 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953), 16-19 gives a detailed account of the early settlement and first ranchers in the Henry Mountains area, but Hunt's sources are unknown.

87 Nethella Griffin, "Life in Boulder," 10-11; Hunt, Henry Mountains Region, 31 also mentions increasing numbers of poisonous plants on the Henry Mountains.

88 "Dixie National Forest History," File 1680. After 1919, the records of the various areas of the national forest were combined, making the later figures less meaningful.

89 "History of Areas Known as the Dixie National Forest from 1902 to 1960," Ibid., 10.

90 Gregory and Moore, The Kaiparowits Region, 34-35.

91 Sheridan Hanson, "West Henry Mountain Range Survey: Narrative 1962-1963 Field Season," Waterpocket Allotment Files, Bureau of Land Management, Henry Mountain Resource Area, Hanksville, Utah (hereafter referred to as Henry Mountain Resource Area Files).

92 Ibid; also see Hunt, Henry Mountains Region, 20.

93 Snow, Rainbow Views, 58.

94 George Durfey was the father of Golden Durfey, who worked as a laborer at Capitol Reef in the 1960s. Golden is the father of Keith Durfey, who has worked in Capitol Reef's maintenance division and currently is the park's range technician. Both Golden and Keith, who still live part time at their Notom ranch, have been invaluable sources of information for this history. See Golden Durfey, interview with Bradford Frye, tape and transcript, 5 February 1992, Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

95 "West Henry Mountain Range Survey," 11. Also see Hunt, Geology and Geography of the Henry Mountains Region, 19, 205-209 for a detailed examination of erosion east of the Waterpocket Fold to Hanksville. Hunt attributes some of the increased erosion to overgrazing but believes that the largest factor was climatic changes.

96 Golden Durfey, interview, 14.

97 Ibid., 16-17.

98 "West Henry Mountain Range Survey," 11.

99 "Wonderland Resource Area, Middle Desert Planning Unit: Hartnet Allotment Plan," 3 March 1966, Hartnet Allotment File, Hanksville BLM files.

100 Guy Pace, interview with Bradford Frye, tape and transcript, 13 February 1991, Capitol Reef National Park Archives, 24-25.

101 Foss, Politics and Grass, 78-83; N. Keith Roberts and B. Delworth Gardner, "Livestock and the Public Lands," Utah Historical Quarterly, 32, No. 3, (Summer 1964): 295-296. Eight grazing districts were established in 1935 the number was expanded to 11 with the addition of the Monticello office in 1939 and the Fillmore and Kanab offices in 1944.

102 "Summary of Data, Grazing District 5," Folder 16, Accession 49-82-0187, Records of Cedar City District of BLM, Container 722364, Box 2, Records of the Bureau of Land Management, Record Group 49 (RG 49), National Archives - Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Colorado (hereafter referred to as NA-Denver). A small section in the extreme northeast corner of Capitol Reef National Park began as part of Grazing District 7 but was transferred to District 5 during the 1940s.

103 Foss, 73-98, discusses the complete role of the advisory boards on a general level; also see Grazing District Advisory Board minutes and allotment descriptions and plans in Accession 49-82-0187, RG 49, NA-Denver for the early years, and the Cedar City and Richfield offices for more current years. The old advisory board system was eliminated in the 1970s and in 1994 is being re-instituted with a broader scope of participation.

Specific allotment information will not be discussed here, as many of the allotment boundaries and users have changed over the years. Allotment status pertaining to the Capitol Reef National Monument expansion in 1969 will be examined later in this document.

104 Roberts and Gardner, "Livestock and the Public Lands," 296-297; Foss, 83.

105 Foss, 83. Calculating AUM foliage has become quite complex and requires a great deal of expertise.

106 Ibid., 62, 83.

107 H. C. Jessen, "Report of Utah Emergency Relief Administration: Range Improvement Program," 15 August 1936, Marriott Library, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 3-4.

108 Ibid., 4.

109 Ibid., 12, 16. These numbers were taken from a list of projects and their costs for each county in Utah. There is also a map of District 5 but, unfortunately, only a very few of the range improvement projects are indicated there.

110 John King, testimony, 1938 Richfield Grazing Hearing, Folder 17, 49-82-0187, Container #722364, Box 2, RG 49, NA-Denver, 21-22; also see LeFevre, 250, and Griffin, 12.

111 Snow, ed., Rainbow Views, 58-59. Golden Durfey, interview, 19, observes that the inability to get sheep herders after the war was a major factor in the decline of sheep.

112 "History of Areas Known as the Dixie National Forest from 1902 to 1960," 10-11.

113 Golden Durfey, interview, 22-23.

114 Guy Pace, interview with Bradford Frye, 13 February 1991, 23.

115 U.S. Statutes at Large, 39 (1916): 535-536.

116 Ray Wilbur, Secretary of the Interior, to Representative Vincent Carter, 6 May 1932, File 12-0, Box 1971, Records of the Department of the Interior (RG 48), National Archives, Washington, D.C. (NA) contains a list of grazing permits issued in all National Park Service areas from 1916 to 1932. Also see John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1961), 302-303.

117 Vogelsang to California State Forester G. M. Homans, 14 June 1918, File 12-0, Box 1971, RG 48, NA.

118 See Chapter 8 for a detailed examination of the role grazing interests played in defeating the Escalante National Monument proposal and limiting the size of Capitol Reef National Monument.

119 Preston Patraw, "Proposed Wayne Wonderland (Capitol Reef) National Monument," August 1935, Box 1, Folder 2, Capitol Reef National Park Archives, 4.

120 Presidential Proclamation, "Establishment of Capitol Reef National Monument," Proclamation 2246, Federal Register, 2, No. 151, 2 August 1937, 137.

121 Acting Secretary of Interior Charles West to President Franklin Roosevelt, 26 July 1937, National Park Service 1937-1938, OF 928, Box 1, Franklin Roosevelt Library, Hyde Park, New York.

122 Patraw to Kittredge, 12 August 1937, File 201, 79-60A-354, Box 1, Records of the National Park Service (RG 79), NA-Denver. This is the same Patraw who, in 1935, believed that grazing was insignificant.

123 Ibid.

124 Kittredge to Patraw, 28 September 1937, Ibid.

125 See Chapter 5 for details of Capitol Reef National Monument from 1937 to 1950.

126 Davis to Superintendent Paul Franke, 19 April 1939, File L3019b, 79-66A-691, Box 1, RG 79, NA-Denver.

127 Ibid.

128 Ibid.

129 Davis to Franke, 1 May 1939, Ibid.

130 See Chapter 8.

131 Davis to Franke, 1 May 1939.

132 Joseph S. Dixon, "Special Report on Geology, Flora and Fauna of the Capitol Reef National Monument," 6 December 1939, Box 1, Folder 5, Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

133 W. B. McDougall, "Special Report: Capitol Reef National Monument," May, 1940, Ibid.

134 Ibid.

135 Victor Cahalane, Department of Interior, Section on National Park Wildlife, to Franke, 2 June 1941, File L3019b, 79-66A-691, RG 79, NA-Denver.

136 Franke to National Park Service Director, 1 July 1941, Ibid.

137 Ibid.

138 Ibid.

139 Ibid.

140 Ibid. While few of the master plans and development outlines for the 1940s mention grazing, the ones in 1946 and 1949 reiterate the same figures and policy statement.

141 Kelly to Zion Superintendent Charles Smith, 15 August 1948, File L3019b, 79-66A-691, RG 79, NA-Denver.

142 Smith to George Clark, 8 September 1948, Ibid.

143 Kelly to Zion Assistant Superintendent Chester Thomas, 21 November 1949, Ibid.

144 Smith to Kelly, 12 December 1949, Ibid.

145 Ibid.

146 Ibid.

147 Ibid.

148 W. G. Barnes, Acting Chief of Planning and Construction,to Regional Director, 27 March 1950, File 700, Part II, Accession 79-60A-354, Container 63181, Box 3, RG 79, NA-Denver; Paul Balch, Soil Conservationist to Regional Engineer, 11 September 1950, File 732, Ibid.

149 Balch to Regional Engineer. For a more complete listing of vegetation in 1953 see the "1953 Master Plan and Development Outline," File D18, Forestry Section, 79-67A-337, Container 919498, Box 1, RG 79, NA-Denver.

150 "1953 Master Plan and Development Outline," Operations Prospectus, 1.

151 Kelly to Regional Director, 4 May 1954, Sydney Whetstone, Range Manager, BLM to Kelly, 7 July 1954, File L3019a, 79-66A-691, RG 79, NA-Denver. At this time Capitol Reef National Monument was under direct regional jurisdiction.

152 Assistant Regional Director to Kelly, 7 June, 28 July, 1954, Ibid.

153 Kelly to Regional Director, 3 August 1954, Ibid.

154 Ibid.

155 Tillotson to Kelly, 9 August 1954, Kelly to "the Stockmen of Wayne County," 18 August 1954, Ibid.

156 Kelly to Stockmen.

157 Kelly to Zion Superintendent, 9 June 1957, Ibid. Capitol Reef National Monument was once again under Zion National Park's jurisdiction.

158 Summary of Use by Domestic Animals under Permit in the Areas Administered by the National Park Service, Calendar Year 1957, File L3019, 79-67A-337, Box 1, RG 79, NA-Denver.

159 See Chapter 7 for details on Mission 66 program that significantly changed Capitol Reef National Monument. Boundary fence was constructed during 1963, according to Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Reports, 1962-3, Box 4, Folder 5, Capitol Reef National Park Archives. In November 1962, Superintendent Krueger issued 33 special-use permits to trail 2,364 cattle and 2,498 sheep through the monument. In June, 1963, Krueger reported that of the 33 previous permittees, 14 were trailing and 19 were using trucks to haul their livestock "on a trial basis." Trucking would later become the preferred method of transporting livestock from range to range. The special-use permits are found in the superintendent's grazing files, Capitol Reef National Park.

160 The best way to examine the interaction among the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and livestock owners is to read the minutes of the advisory board meetings. These are located in the Richfield, Cedar City, and Loa area offices of the two agencies.

161 Dixie National Forest, "History of the Areas Known as the Dixie National Forest from 1902 to 1960," File 1680, U.S. Forest Service, Dixie National Forest Historic Files, Utah State Historical Society Archives, Salt Lake City, 12.

162 U.S. Forest Service, "Dixie National Forest Environmental Impact Statement," 1992, Teasdale District Office, Teasdale, Utah, Appendix B, 18.

163 Ibid.

164 Ibid., Appendix B, 19.

165 Allotment field maps obtained from Fishlake National Forest, Loa District Office, Loa, Utah.

166 See various correspondence and advisory board meeting minutes in File G, "Cooperation," Fishlake National Forest, Loa District Office, Loa, Utah.

167 Lenard Brown, The Baker Ranch: A History (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Division of History, 1 January 1970), 24. This account of the Baker Ranch is well written and very detailed. It is "must" reading for anyone interested in the history of southern Utah.

168 Ibid., 25-26 gives an excellent account of the yearly ranching routine at the Baker Ranch.

169 Ibid., 28-29.

170 Ibid., 29-31. The allotment was by then known as the Waterpocket Allotment. It was used by the Halls Creek Cattle Company and later by the Blind Bridle Cattle Association, consisting of Don E. and Afton Taylor, Kay Taft, Ernest Peterson, Talmage Bagley, and John Brinkerhoff. This allotment's carrying capacity was established in the mid-1960s and a three- year, 50 percent phase-down was completed, with some adjustments, by 1968-1969, according to Waterpocket Allotment File, Henry Mountain Resource Area Files.

171 A detailed evolution of BLM grazing management in the areas later incorporated in Capitol Reef National Park is beyond the scope of this study. If there is any further need for information about specific grazing use for the years 1944 to 1969, the BLM allotment records at Hanksville, Richfield, or in some cases, Cedar City, should be examined.

172 Sheridan Hanson, Bureau of Land Management Range Conservationist, "West Henry Mountain Range Survey, Narrative 1962-1963 Field Season," Henry Mountain Resource Area Files.

173 Ibid., 12

174 Ibid.

175 Ibid., 13.

176 Ibid., 10.

177 Ibid., 14.

178 District Manger Caudill to Files, 28 September 1964, Henry Mountain Resource Area Files.

179 Caudill to Files, 30 September 1964, Ibid.

180 Bureau of Land Management, Richfield District Manager Decision, 15 January 1965, Ibid.

181 Ibid., 3.

182 Ibid., 4.

183 Ibid., 4.

184 Ken Drew, Henry Mountain Area Manager to Files, 18 September 1967, Ibid.

185 Hartnet Allotment Plan, 3 March 1966, Allotment Files, Ibid.; also see Guy Pace, interview, and other testimony of overuse prior to the 1930s cited above.

186 Taylor v. Pace, BLM Hearings Office Decision, 8 December 1953, Ibid, 2.

187 Ibid., 4, 6, 8.

188 Hartnet Allotment Plan, 3 March 1966, 2; also see BLM District Manager to Files, 13 March 1963, Ibid., for seasonal restrictions and maximum periods of use for all BLM allotments in the area.

189 Ibid, 3; Guy Pace, interview, 25.

190 Notice of final Advisory Board Recommendation and Decision of District Manager, 21 September 1966, Ibid.

191 See Chapter 11 for more information about newspaper accounts and the first round of congressional hearings.

192 Robert Heyder, interview with Bradford Frye, tape recording, 1 November 1993, Administrative History files and notes.

193 R. D. Nielson to Regional Director, 20 February 1969, Box 2, Folder 5, Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

194 Nielson to Regional Director, 15 April 1969, Ibid. The difference in the number of permittees is most likely due to the fact that several people had more than one permit.

195 Hummel to the Under Secretary, 26 February 1969, File L3019-Stock Driveways, Capitol Reef Historical Superintendent's Files.

196 Ibid.

197 Nielsen to District Managers, 17 July 1969, Folder 33, Arches Administration Collection, Arches National Park Archives.

198 See Chapter 11 for a more detailed legislative history for Capitol Reef National Park.

199 Capitol Reef National Park Bill, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., S.29, section 3.

200 Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Establishing the Capitol Reef National Park in the State of Utah, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1971, S. Report 92-157, 2.

201 U.S. Statutes at Large 64 (1950): 851.

202 See Alfred Runte, National Parks: The American Experience, 2nd ed. revised (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1987), 118-128.

203 P.L. 92-207, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., (18 December 1971), 1.

204 Joint Statement of the Committee of Conference, 92nd Cong., 1st sess., 1971, S.29, Congressional Record, 117, part 33 (30 November 1971): 43360.

205 P.L. 92-207, U.S. Statutes at Large, 85 (1971):740.

206 Superintendent William Wallace to Regional Director, 2 July, 1970, L3019-Stock Driveways, Capitol Reef Historical Superintendent's Files.

207 See Chapter 10 for details on the 1967 wilderness hearings and the decisions regarding the stock driveways as exclusive from wilderness designation.

208 Larry Weeks, Fishlake National Forest District Ranger, to Superintendent Wallace, 11 August 1970, L3019-Stock Driveways, Capitol Reef Historical Superintendent's Files.

209 Robert C. Krumm, BLM District Manager, to Permittee, 13 April 1959, Allotment Files, Henry Mountain Resource Area Files. There were some slight additions to these driveways listed in the 1974 Wilderness Proposal for Capitol Reef. This report established that there were 86 miles of stock driveways in the park. These were broken down into 12 separate trails. The only differences to ones listed above are a breakdown of the headquarters trails, the seldom-used Dry Bench just south of the Coleman Canyons, and what was called the South Waterpocket Lateral Access. It is not known exactly how extensively these additional trails were being used by the 1970s. See National Park Service, Denver Service Center, "Proposed Wilderness, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah," Draft Environmental Statement, 27 June 1974, 74. (This draft EIS was withdrawn in 1983).

210 See correspondence between Frank Kowski, Southwest Regional Director, and Assistant Director Hummel, 3 August 1970, File L3019-Stock Driveways, Accession #79-76F-1229, Box 10, RG 79, NA-Denver and 18 September 1970, File L3019-Stock Driveways, Capitol Reef Historical Superintendent's Files, for information on how stock driveways were administered during the 1970s.

211 The Deseret News, 10 August 1977.

212 Ibid., The Deseret News, 28 July 1978.

213 Norman Henderson, "Grazing Management, Capitol Reef National Park," October 1985, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files, 3. This is a comprehensive examination of the grazing policy and studies involving Capitol Reef during the early 1980s.

214 The positive working relationship between agencies and the likelihood of continued cooperation were mentioned in an informal interview with Capitol Reef National Park Chief Ranger Rick Nolan on 2 February 1994, and in a 16 May 1994 telephone interview with Martin C. Ott, who served as superintendent at Capitol Reef from 1987 to 1990; tape in Administrative History files and notes.

215 "Proposed Grazing Phase Out, Capitol Reef National Park, Utah," Environmental Assessment prepared for National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region, 12 August 1974, 15.

216 Ibid.; "Proposed Wilderness," Draft, June 1974.

217 "Proposed Wilderness," 110-112.

218 Ibid.

219 This document is believed to have been written by Gerald Hoddenbach, who as Capitol Reef National Park's biologist at the time. While this document's planning aspects are now dated, it should still be required reading for anyone involved with natural resource management at Capitol Reef.

220 "Proposed Grazing Phase Out," 12-13.

221 Ibid., 10-18.

222 Ibid., 17.

223 Ibid., 22-38.

224 "Proposed Wilderness," Draft, 111.

225 Salt Lake Tribune, 6 November 1974.

226 Salt Lake Tribune, 9 November 1974.

227 Director Dickenson to Secretary of Interior, 20 June 1975, Box 3, Folder 7, Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

228 Ibid. The grazing phaseout also went more smoothly at Arches and Canyonlands because there were fewer livestock operators and because economic impacts were less significant than at Capitol Reef. Insight on this issue was provided in a phone interview with Martin Ott, 16 May 1994.

229 Dickenson to Secretary of Interior, 20 June 1975. See other correspondence and grazing phaseout briefing statement in Box 3, Folder 7, Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

230 Milo A. Barney, BLM Resources Coordinator, to Temple A. Reynolds, BLM State Deputy Director, 5 June 1981, Box 3, Folder 7, Capitol Reef National Park Archives. This document includes a complete itemization of the three proposals. The National Park Service proposals are also listed in the "General Management Plan, Capitol Reef National Park," October 1982, 56.

231 Salt Lake Tribune, 1 May 1981.

232 Westward, 29 October 1981, photocopy in Grazing Articles Folder, Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

233 Donald Pendleton, BLM District Manager, to Superintendent Hambly, 15 September 1981, File L3019, Capitol Reef Historical Superintendent's Files.

234 C. Booth Wallentine, Executive Vice President, Utah Farm Bureau, to Governor Scott Matheson, Ibid.

235 P.L. 97-100, U.S. Statutes at Large, 95 (1981): 1392.

236 Congressional Record, 97th Cong., 1st sess., 1981, 124:13781-13782.

237 House, Representative Hansen of Utah speaking for H.5892, 97th Cong., 2nd sess., Congressional Record (18 March 1982), 128, pt 4: 4791-4792.

238 Hambly to Regional Director, 25 March 1982, File Phase Out #1, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files.

239 Mintzmyer to National Park Service Director, Draft Memorandum, 6 April 1982, Ibid.

240 Donald Paul Hodel, Under Secretary of Interior, to Senator James McClure, Chairman, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, 10 May 1982, in Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, Grazing Permit Adjustments For Capitol Reef National Park, Utah, 97th Cong., 2nd sess., 1982, S. Rept. 97-448, 5-7.

241 Both the Senate and House Committee hearings had a great deal of similar testimony. Since a copy of the House Subcommittee on Public Lands and National Parks of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs report, Public Land Management Policy Part VII: Hearings on S.1872, 97th Cong., 2nd sess., 10 August 1982, is in the possession of Capitol Reef National Park, those hearings were used for the bulk of this discussion.

242 House Committee, S.1872 Hearings, 10 August 1982, 106.

243 Ibid., 283.

244 Grazing Phaseout at Capitol Reef National Park: Phase I Final Report (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1984), National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Technical Information Center, Document D-34, 12-14.

245 A complete list of permittees and the number of AUMs per year is provided in the Annual Summaries of Livestock Grazing for Capitol Reef National Park, found in the Capitol Reef Resource Management and Superintendent's Files.

246 House Committee, S. 1872 hearings, 244.

247 Ibid., 278-284.

248 Ibid., 285-287.

249 Congressional Record, 97th Cong., 2nd sess., 1982, 128, pt. 18:24273.

250 House Committee, S. 1872 Hearings, 128-136.

251 Stanley L. Welsh, "Range Condition Survey of Hartnet and Sandy III Allotments, Capitol Reef National Park," prepared for the National Park Service, Capitol Reef National Park, July 1992. This study is included in the House Hearings Appendix. It is referred to by all those testifying on August 10.

252 House Committee, S. 1872 Hearings, 87-88; The Deseret News, August 5-6, 1982.

253 House Committee, S. 1872 Hearings, 87-103.

254 Congressional Record, 24273.

255 Ibid.

256 Congressional Record, 26458-59; P.L. 97-341, U.S. Statutes, 96 (1982):1639-1640.

257 See Chapter 15 on Mining and Encroachments.

258 Henderson, "Grazing Management," 6.

259 Congressional Record, 24273; House Committee, S. 1872 Hearings.

260 Superintendent's Annual Report, 1983, File A2621, Capitol Reef Superintendent's Files, 7. The National Resource Council is the principle coordinating body for the National Academy of Sciences.

261 Ibid.

262 Ibid.; Acting Superintendent Richard Newgren to Regional Director, 3 October 1983, Box 3, Folder 8, Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

263 Phase I Final Report, 23.

264 Henderson, 6.

265 Director Dickenson to Rep. Hansen, draft dated 11 February 1985, and Charles Benbook, Executive Director, National Research Council, to Dickenson, 5 February 1985, Box 3, Folder 8, Capitol Reef National Park Archives.

266 Problems with the reports are discussed in Henderson, 7. The perceived lack of objectivity is brought up by former Superintendent Martin Ott, in a phone interview with the author, 16 May 1984. It is beyond the scope of this study to examine each of the studies completed relating to grazing from 1984 to 1994. These reports are listed Henderson, "Final Resource Management Plan, Capitol Reef National Park," June 1993, Capitol Reef Resource Management and Superintendent Files.

267 Henderson to Culpin, 13 December 1994, administrative history review comments, Administrative History files and notes.

268 All related correspondence is found in "Capitol Reef Reservoir Maintenance Environmental Assessment, UT-050-86-06," 22 May 1986, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files. Reynolds to Marcy Culpin, 10 August 1994, draft review notes, Administrative History Notes and Files.

269 Wallace to General Superintendent, Southern Utah Group, 25 August 1969, L3019-Stock Driveways, Capitol Reef Historical Superintendent's Files.

270 Kowski to General Superintendent, Southern Utah Group, 29 August 1969, Ibid.

271 A Master's thesis by Keith J. Chapman, formerly with the Utah State University Extension Services in Wayne County, studied the effects of the monument expansion on local ranchers. While his survey was incomplete and conclusions vague, it is clear that several ranchers were resigned to the fact that the phaseout would be completed by 1982, and that they were beginning to make alternate plans. See Chapman, "Effects of Land Use Change" (Master's Thesis, Colorado State University, June 1970).

272 Phase I Final Report, 23.

273 Mintzmyer to NPS Director, 8 November 1985, File Phase Out #2, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files. Reynolds to Culpin, 10 August 1994.

274 Ibid.

275 Reynolds to Culpin, 10 August 1994. National Park Service (unknown author) to Solicitor, Draft 20 January 1987 and Interior Department, Rocky Mountain Region, Solicitor to NPS Director, 15 July 1987, Ibid.

276 Regional Solicitor to Director, 15 July 1987.

277 Superintendent Ott to Files, 25 February 1988, File L3019, Capitol Reef Superintendent's Files.

278 Martin C. Ott, telephone interview with Bradford Frye, 16 May 1994, tape in Administrative History files and notes.

279 Ott to Files, 25 February 1988.

280 Ott interview.

281 Ibid.

282 Ibid; Ott to Files, 25 February 1988.

283 Ott to Files.

284 Ott interview.

285 Ibid.

286 P.L. 100-446, U.S. Statutes at Large, 102 (1988): 1780-81.

287 "Capitol Reef National Park, Livestock Grazing," Draft Briefing Statement, February 1989, Briefing Statement File, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files; NPS Allotment Status, 1 January 1991, Ibid.

288 Ott, phone interview, 16 May 1994.

289 Ibid.; "Livestock Grazing in Capitol Reef National Park," National Park Service Briefing Statement, February 1988, Briefing Statement File, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files.

290 Richard Nolan, Chief of Interpretation and Visitor Protection, Capitol Reef National Park, interview with Bradford Frye, 24 February 1994.

291 Stan Adams, Acting BLM Area Manager to File, 19 January 1990, File Phase Out #2, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files.

292 Karl Don and Sharron Taylor to Senator Garn, 2 March 1990, File Articles and Comment Letters, Capitol Reef Resource Management Files.


<<< Previous <<< Contents >>> Next >>>


https://www.nps.gov/care/adhi/adhi12e.htm
Last Updated: 10-Dec-2002