On-line Book
Book Cover to Mission 66 Visitor Centers. With image of Dinosaur NM Visitor Center, view from beneath ramp


Table of Contentss




Wright Brothers


Pertified Forest

Rocky Mountain

Cecil Doty



Appendix I

Appendix II

Appendix III

Appendix IV

Mission 66 Visitor Centers
Chapter 1
National Park Service Arrowhead


1 The Wilderness Society, the National Parks Association, the Sierra Club, the National Wildlife Federation, the Izaak Walton League, the American Planning and Civic Association, the Wildlife Management Institute, the Audubon Society, and the National Council of State Garden Clubs were among the approximately thirty conservation groups involved in the Echo Park issue.

2 Frederick Law Olmsted, "Statement of Frederick Law Olmsted at Hearings Held by the Department of the Interior, April 3, 1950, in the Matter of Dinosaur National Monument, Echo Park, and Split Mt. Dams," library, Dinosaur National Monument; Olmsted's testimony was based on fieldwork relating to the water project. See "Dinosaur National Monument Region, Report of Progress, May 13, 1943."

3 Vernal Express (February 15, 1951); "Dinosaur National Monument, Plan of Development as a National Monument by the National Park Service," n.d., "Dinosaur" clippings files, Western History Collection, Denver Public Library.

4Bernard DeVoto, "Shall We Let Them Ruin Our National Parks?" Saturday Evening Post (July 22, 1950).

5 Knopf had recently visited Dinosaur to show support for the endangered area. Wallace Stegner, ed., This is Dinosaur: Echo Park Country and its Magic Rivers (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1955).

6 Owen Stratton and Phillip Sirotkin, The Echo Park Controversy (Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1959), 95.

7 According to the Vernal Express, June 3, 1958, the structure came "partly as a result of increased national interest in the monument, growing from the publicity inherent to the Echo Park Controversy..." Historian Elmo Richardson provides evidence that once the Upper Colorado Basin bill passed, the Secretary of the Interior planned immediate Mission 66 improvements at Dinosaur. See Richardson, "Just a Tiny Dinosaur," in Dams, Parks and Politics (Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1973), 151.

8 Richard G. Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Museum—From Idea to Reality," in Administrative History Dinosaur National Monument, 1963, unpublished manuscript, library, Denver Service Center (DSC). The quotation was taken from Douglass' correspondence.

9 Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Museum," 9; "correspondence," Holland to Cammerer, November 8, 1921, National Archives, File 580, Dinosaur National Monument (DINO) archives.

10Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Museum," 9; "correspondence," Cammerer to Case, December 30, 1924, National Archives, File 580, DINO archives.

11 Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Museum."

12 Beidleman, "The Dinosaur Quarry and Federal Works Projects 1933-1938."

13 Ned J. Burns, "Comments on Proposed Museum at Dinosaur National Monument," in "Quarry Development 1936-1953," ca. 1936, DINO archives.

14 "Preliminary Drawing for Museum Building," January 24, 1937, DIN-3-A, microfiche, Technical Information Center (TIC), DSC.

15 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the proclamation enlarging the park boundaries on July 14, 1938.

16 H. E. Rothrock, "Report on Inspection of Dinosaur National Monument," June 1938, microfiche, TIC, DSC.

17 Preliminary Sketch, "Museum," February 7, 1944, DIN-3-B, microfiche, TIC, DSC. This drawing includes the following note: "This preliminary sketch is designed to the approximate dimensional specifications outlined in Associate Park Naturalist M.V. Walker's 'Report on Studies and Investigations at Dinosaur National Monument relative to an interpretive and museum development program,' dated May 2 to June 15, 1943."

18 The 1949 park brochure, "Dinosaur National Monument Past and Present," informed visitors of the Park Service's "high hopes and plans that this world-famous quarry may be protected from weathering and erosion by erecting a roof over it. Such a structure will make it possible to preserve bones now exposed in the quarry face and also house some dinosaur restorations. But above all it will make it possible to present to the public an active, working quarry where men are engaged in uncovering and preserving in place the fossil remains of these great prehistoric creatures." William Lee Stokes, Dinosaur National Monument: Past and Present (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1949).

19 Dinosaur National Monument files, memorandum, "Temporary Quarry Shelter," April 17, 1951.

20 Regional Director to Superintendent, memorandum, "Report on Conference, May 18, 19, 20, Dinosaur National Monument" [stamped date June 9, 1955], Box 7, Office Files of Director Conrad L. Wirth, 1946-1964, RG 79, National Archives.

21 "Dinosaur Improvement Fund Reaches $615,899," Vernal Express (March 1, 1956).

22 The eight projects included in the program were "the reliefing of fossils, construction of roads and parking lots for the visitor center, reconstruction of Split Mountain road, installation of utilities, roads and walks for utility buildings, signs and markers," and campground and comfort facilities along the Green and Yampa Rivers. "Dinosaur Monument Construction Draws Big Response at Bid Opening," Vernal Express (March 21, 1957), Dinosaur clippings file.

23 See photo collection, "Quarry," DINO archives.

24 "Dinosaur National Monument Quarry Development Now Open for Bidding," Vernal Express, July 12, 1956.

25 John Good, "73,000 Visit Dinosaur Monument During Past Year, Says Report," Vernal Express (December 20, 1956).

26 Daily Yellow Correspondence, Superintendent's report, May 9, 1957, DINO archives.

27 Jess H. Lombard, superintendent, to Mr. Martin Litton, travel editor, Sunset (October 3, 1956).

28 "Master Plan Development Outline," ca. December, 1956, filed in 1954-1957 Daily Yellow Correspondence, DINO archives.

29 "Visitor Center for Dinosaur National Monument," Architectural Record 121 (January 1957): 187.

30 After graduation, Anshen and Allen were awarded a traveling fellowship abroad and, several years later, arrived in San Francisco nearly penniless. The young architects heard that Ralph Davies, Director of the Standard Oil Company, was eager to have a European residence dismantled and brought back to California. They convinced Davies to abandon the European plan and hire them to design his home in Woodside, California. The Davies commission led to work on Standard Oil stations and ship interiors for an associated business, American President Lines. Telephone interview with Richard Hein by the author, April 1, 1999.

31 Marguerite Brunswig Staude (1899-1988), a sculptress, originally presented her idea for a 500-foot, block-wide cathedral to Lloyd Wright, Frank Lloyd Wright's son, in the 1930s. Although the design was finally accepted by nuns in Hungary, World War II prevented construction. In 1950, Staude contacted Wright again with plans for a much smaller chapel, but the architect refused to proceed with any but the original design. Kate Rutland Thorne, "Upon This Rock, Marguerite Brunswig Staude and her Sedona Chapel," (West Sedona, Arizona: Chapel of the Holy Cross, 1995).

32 About this time Anshen and Allen were planning a major housing development in Palo Alto, California. Although originally named the Fairmeadows Tract, the residences came to be known as "Eichler Houses" after their patron, Joseph Eichler.

33 According to "Upon this Rock," a brochure purchased at the chapel, the building appeared in Life Magazine, The New York Times (August 25, 1957) and The Washington Post. It received an A.I.A. award for religious structures in 1956 and was pictured in the September 1958 Architectural Record.

34 Architectural Record, vol. 120, no. 4 (October 1956), 182.

35 Richard Hein graduated from the University of Oregon with a bachelor's of architecture in 1953. After working for a private company in San Francisco for eighteen months, Hein joined the firm of Anshen and Allen. He specialized in passenger ship interiors for American President Lines, producing approximately twenty-six designs for marine projects during his career. Hein's early work also included designing the ramp for the Sedona chapel, the Quarry project, and the Food Machinery Corporation building in San Jose. After nine years with the firm, Hein left for eight years and then returned for another fifteen years. He retired in 1987. Telephone interview by the author, April 1, 1999.

36 Richard Hein, "Design: Anshen & Allen, San Francisco, California," AIA Journal (December 1960).

37 Hein, "Design," 1960.

38 See Harrison, "Interview with Cecil Doty," 17. Doty repeated his claims in an interview with Jonathan Searle Monroe, who paraphrased the architect's comments in his master's thesis: "A more dramatic change occurred at the Dinosaur Quarry Visitor Center at Dinosaur National Monument. This early Mission 66 building (1958) was well received by the architectural press and gave Anshen & Allen, the designers, good publicity. The design concept, the overall size and functional relationships, the siting, and even some of the construction details were done by Doty. Anshen & Allen made changes to the roofline and altered the shape of an office wing from rectangular to round, both of which significantly changed the final form of the building but not the basic concept. Doty's name was never mentioned in any of the numerous articles describing the building." See Monroe, "Architecture in the National Parks: Cecil Doty and Mission 66," 123-4.

39 "Recent Work of Anshen and Allen," Architectural Record 124 (September 1958): 165-180.

40 Acting Chief, Division of Design and Construction to Director, memorandum, "Monthly Narrative Report, July 1956," Box 7, Office Files of Director Conrad L. Wirth, National Archives.

41 According to Stephen Bruneel, senior associate of Anshen and Allen, "the shed is usually part of the sepia background with just the admin/service wing drawn in by hand." Stephen Bruneel to Christopher Jones, February 11, 1999. No dates or title blocks are included on the drawings, but one alternative (later rejected) is signed by Tom Vint.

42 Bruneel to Jones, February 11, 1999.

43 Hein, "Design," 1960.

44 Museum Specialist Robert L. Barrel to Chief, Museum Branch, memorandum, "Method of Displaying Quarry Face, Dinosaur NM," August 5, 1956, "Dinosaur" files, National Park Service History Collection, Harpers Ferry Center.

45 Although Anshen and Allen stipulated colored concrete for the exterior of the building, the Park Service used local aggregate without added coloring. According to Richard Hein, the color that naturally resulted from the native stone was exactly what the architects had chosen. Richard Hein, Interview by the author, April 1, 1999.

46 Anshen and Allen, "Finish and Color Schedule," ca. Nov., 1956, archives of Anshen and Allen, San Francisco.

47 See, for example, "3 Bedroom Residence, Quarry Area," Drawing #3116B, July 27, 1956, TIC, DSC.

48 "Utility Building, Quarry Site," drawing #3114A, November 21, 1956, and #3114B, April 29, 1957, TIC.

49 Hanson Construction Company of Altamont submitted the lowest bid of $224,000, but was allowed to withdraw after recognizing the insufficiency of its estimate.

50 R. Neil Grunigen, Project Supervisor, to Chief, WODC, "Weekly Construction Report," May 13, 1957.

51 Grunigen to Chief, WODC, "Weekly Construction Report," June 24, 1957.

52 "Rising Visitor Center Revives Dinosaur Era," Vernal Express, September 26, 1957.

53 Superintendent's monthly report, Jess H. Lombard, December 1957, DINO archives.

54 John K. Good to Dr. A. S. Coggeshall, December 6, 1957.

55 "Progress Report of Mission 66 at Dinosaur National Monument," National Park Service, March 7, 1958.

56 "Dinosaur and Sputnik," Vernal Express (November 23, 1957), DINO archives.

57 Jess H. Lombard to Director, Region Two, "Report on Operation of Visitor Center," October 8, 1958.

58 "Dinosaurs Meet the People," Geotimes, vol. 3, no. 1 (July-August 1958).

59 George E. Thomas, The Book of the School: 100 Years (Philadelphia: The Graduate School of Fine Arts of the University of Pennsylvania, 1990). Even before the construction of Quarry Visitor Center, some critics grouped Anshen and Allen among the significant firms of the future. Architectural Forum predicted that the "names of Charles Goodman and Anshen and Allen and Quincy Jones and Fred Emmons and Carl Koch and Keyes, Satterless and Smith may have a place in future history as pioneers only a little less revolutionary than Frank Lloyd Wright." See Architectural Forum, ed., Building U.S.A. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955), 8.

60 "Exhibit Plan—Dinosaur Nat'l Monument Visitor Center," May 3, 1957, microfiche drawings, TIC.

61 John W. Jenkins to Director, "Exhibit Plans, Dinosaur National Monument," May 6, 1958, in "Dinosaur Interpretive Plans," vol. 1, DINO archives.

62 Project Construction Proposal, Theodore E. White and Harold J. Broderick, April 1963, DINO archives.

63 William H. Clemons, supervisory park ranger, to Chief Ranger, "Structural Damage to Quarry Visitor Center Parking Area," November 27, 1957.

64 "Reconstruction Visitor Center Plaza," drawing #3149C, August 16, 1962, TIC.

65 "Repairs to Visitor Center," drawing #3330A (six sheets), September 1967, TIC.

66 "Report of Investigative Studies, Adverse Settlement, Visitor Center Building, Dinosaur National Monument, for National Park Service," Dames and Moore, July 14, 1966.

67 Gene Mott to Al Heubner, "Inspection of Headquarters Building at Dinosaur National Monument," May 9, 1968.

68 A. Sayre Hutchison, historical architect, "Dinosaur National Monument Site Visit, May 19-23, 1997," Rocky Mountain Region archives.

69 The name of the town has since been changed to Dinosaur, Colorado.

70 The masonry pattern featured in the visitor center appears on the facade of a commercial building at 92 West Main Street in downtown Vernal. The masonry front was applied to an older brick building.

71 After the untimely death of Bob Anshen in 1964, Allen expanded the firm with three partners. Allen retired in 1987 and died two years later. See "Bob Anshen Dies at 54," Architectural Forum 121 (July 1964): 11; Interview with Richard Hein.

72 "Development Concept," Dinosaur National Monument, ca. 1972; "Environmental Assessment, Proposed Comprehensive Design Plan," Dinosaur National Monument, Denver Service Center, May 1975.

73 National Register Nomination Form, "Dinosaur National Monument Multiple Resources," December 1986. This was the first National Register Nomination to include a substantial description of the significance of a Mission 66 building.

74 "Hearing Before National Park Service on Mission 66 Program for Dinosaur National Monument," Vernal, Utah, May 24, 1958; transcription in DINO archives.



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