Ice Age Mammal Bones of Northwest Alaska (#3)

November 19, 2013 Posted by: Jon Hardes

"Ice Age Mammal Bones of northwest Alaska" is a new series of blog posts written by NPS archaeologist Jon Hardes.  Each post will highlight bones that have been found in the region, often by local residents.  If you have found an interesting bone, stop in to share it with Jon at our office in Kotzebue's Northwest Arctic Heritage Center. 

See also:  
Prehistoric Horse (Equus sp.) maxilla
Short-faced bear (Arctodus simus) mandible

Title

Woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) tibia

Mammoth tibia
Photo by J. Hardes

Mammoth tibia (lower rear leg bone) discovered near Kotzebue, Alaska.  This specimen resides in the collections of LaVonne's Fish Camp.  Beyond physical features present on the bone, the sheer size and general shape of the bone helps to identify it as being from a mammoth, as no other terrestrial (land) mammal other than Asian and African Elephants was/is as large.

Identifying Features:  The overall length of the tibia measures approximately 80cm (more than 30 inches).   The tuberosity is an attachment point for the patella (kneecap).  The anterior crest (shin bone) provides an attachment point for the deep connective tissues of the leg.  The medial malleolus is a prominence on the medial (outer) side of the ankle that provides  attachment points for ligaments.

Mammoth skeleton illustration
Illustration of a woolly mammoth skeleton with the right tibia highlighted  

A very brief description of the mammoth:

Mammoths first entered North America from Asian and Europe some 1.7 – 1.2 million years ago, after they, along with Asian elephants diverged from African elephants about 4 million years ago.   Ultimately, they evolved into about 10 distinct species worldwide, the first of which were described by German scientist Johann Blumenback in 1799.

Though the woolly mammoth has garnered the most attention from popular media in large part due to its size, it was not the largest of the various mammoth species.   That distinction goes to the Imperial mammoth (M. imperator) which  grew to about 13 feet (a bit taller than the largest male African elephant).  The smallest of the mammoths were the Pygmy or Dwarf mammoths (M. exilis) who often only reached 5-6 feet in height.  These diminutive mammoths were found isolated on the Channel Islands of California and thought to be descendants of the Columbian mammoth (M. columbi).

woolly mammoths
Illustration of a woolly mammoth herd by Mauricio Anton

The woolly variety was unique however, with its long, heavily insulated fur (12-35 inches in length) covering its body and its home range in the extreme northern latitudes of the globe.  Its habitat also helped with its popularity due to the number of intact frozen specimens discovered which have allowed for accurate reconstructions of its appearance in life.  The animal was also commonly featured in prehistoric art.

Woolly mammoths were known to live beyond 60 years of age.  They had six sets of molar teeth (each set consisting of 2 on top and 2 on bottom) throughout a lifetime which were replaced five times, with the final set emerging at approximately 30 years of age.  Calves developed small "milk tusks" a few centimeters long at six months old, which were replaced by permanent tusks a year later.  Tusks (actually elongated incisors) grew at a rate of approximately 2.5-15 cm (1-6 inches) per year.  Tusks are comprised of growth rings, that much like tree rings, can be counted in order to determine the age of an individual.  Unfused limb bones show that males grew until they reached the age of 40, and females grew until they were 25.

Mammoths were grazers of plant food, focusing primarily on grasses and sedges.  An adult would consume nearly 400lbs of vegetation daily. 

Woolly mammoths disappeared from mainland North America approximately 10,000 years ago.  However, isolated populations survived on Wrangel Island in the Arctic Ocean until less than 4,000 years ago!  

Further Information:
National Park Service Paleontology Program
Mammoths and Mastodons:  Titans of the Ice Age travelling exhibit

Further Reading:
Ice Age Mammals of North America.  Ian Lange.  2002
Mammoths:  Giants of the Ice Age.  Adrian Lister, et al.  2007
Mammoths, Mastodonts, and Elephants:  Biology, Behavior and the Fossil Record.  Gary Haynes.  1993
Osteology for the Archaeologist:  The American Mastodon and the Woolly Mammoth.  Stanley J. Olson.  1979    


If you enjoy this blog series on Ice Age Mammal Bones of Northwest Alaska, please leave a comment or question below.  We appreciate your feedback.

Were these bones collected within the Western Arctic National Parklands?

No.  Removing a mammoth tibia or any other artifacts and palentological resources from federal lands (such as those managed by the National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, etc) is not permitted:

The Paleontological Resources Preservation Act (enacted in July 2002)

As these resources are non-renewable, the purpose of this Act is "to establish a comprehensive national policy for preserving and managing paleontological resources on Federal Lands."

"A paleontological resource may NOT be collected from Federal lands without a permit issued under this Act by the Secretary" and resources "collected form Federal lands under the permit will remain the property of the United States."

Damage to paleontological resources can lead to conviction and a class E felony.  

Protect Our Nation's Cultural and Natural Resources

1.      Please do not touch, move, collect or otherwise disturb artifacts, cultural features, or paleontological resources.

2.      Record the site location with a GPS unit or by marking it on a topographic map with compass bearings to prominent landmarks.

3.      Provide a detailed description of approximate size, numbers, and position of materials.

4.      If you have a camera, please take photographs of the site area and surrounding landscape.  If possible, include a scale in photos of individual items or specimens.

5.      Report information to:
Park Superintendent or Park Archaeologist/Cultural Resources Manager 
PO Box 1029, Kotzebue, AK  99752 Phone:  (907) 442-3890


36 Comments Comments icon

  1. mauro
    January 14, 2019 at 01:56
     

    loan offer in 48 hours. Hi Do you have financial problems? And those who have problems getting capital loans from local banks and other financial institutions. Please refer to this e-mail address: maurogiovanni00@gmail.com whatsapp: +55 11 976 158 603

     
  2. mauro
    January 14, 2019 at 01:56
     

    loan offer in 48 hours. Hi Do you have financial problems? And those who have problems getting capital loans from local banks and other financial institutions. Please refer to this e-mail address: maurogiovanni00@gmail.com whatsapp: +55 11 976 158 603

     
  3. Norisa Waye
    January 04, 2019 at 07:36
     

    My name is Mrs. Norina Way, I am the managing director of SOUTH EAST CONSULTANT FINANCIAL GROUPS LLC | Lending, Leasing & Treasury Management Services. We are located in United States of America. We provide all types of loans at an interest rate of 3%. for more information contact us with the below email: (southeastfinancialconsultant@zoho.com) or (southeastfinancialconsultant@aol.com) Website: https://southeastfinancial.wixsite.com/sefc Call: (1)614-362-5627 //Whatsapp (1)614-362-5627 provide us with this info below. How do I apply? Please complete the application form below: LOAN APPLICATION FORM Full name:.................... Country:..................... Federal state:.............. City:.............. Sex:......................... Phone: ........... Loan amount: ........... Monthly income:.......... Occupation: ................... .... Loan period: ................ ....................... The reason for the credit: ......................... ........... Email-address:...................... ................ Do you plan applied for? ..................... I await for your swift response Asap.You are required to fill the above Form now and return so that we send to your the Loan terms and Conditions of our Services You must get the above information's filled otherwise your loan will not be processed You shall be treated with the best of our resources until you get this funds transferred into your account, and your quick and fast respond determines how fast you shall be receiving your loan Do get back to me soonest.

     
  4. micheal paker
    January 02, 2019 at 05:58
     

    We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable of taking up time bound transactions. BANK INSTRUMENT PARTICULARS Instruments :Fully Cash Backed, Fresh Cut Bank Guarantee(Standard ICC format) Age :One (1) years and One (1) day Rate :Leasing: 3+2, Purchase: 32+2 Currency :USD/Euro Bank :Top A Rated banks Amount :As Advised by Beneficiary Intermediary Fees : Two Percent (2%) of Face Value payable by Beneficiary Tranches : As per agreed tranches schedule Delivery : Swift MT799/MT760 Payment : Swift MT103 (Wire Transfer) Contact Name: Michael paker Email:bramblesfinanceplc@gmail.com Skype ID:bramblesfinanceplc

     
  5. Muhammed Emir Harun
    December 19, 2018 at 04:13
     

    We Facilitate Bank instruments SBLC for Lease and Purchase. Whether you are a new startup, medium or large establishment that needs a financial solution to fund/get your project off the ground or business looking for extra capital to expand your operation,our company renders credible and trusted bank guarantee provider who are willing to fund and give financing solutions that suits your specific business needs. We help you secure and issue sblc and bank guarantee for your trade, projects and investment from top AA rated world Banks like HSBC, Barclays, Dutch Ing Bank, Llyods e.t.c because that’s the best and safest strategy for our clients.e.t.c DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS 1. Instrument: Funds backed Bank Guarantee(BG) ICC-600 2. Currency : USD/EURO 3. Age of Issue: Fresh Cut 4. Term: One year and One day 5. Contract Amount: United State Dollars/Euros (Buyers Face Value) 6. Price : Buy:32%+1, Lease: 4%+2 7. Subsequent tranches: To be mutually agreed between both parties 8. Issuing Bank: Top RATED world banks like HSBC, Barclays, ING Dutch Bank, Llyods e.t.c 9. Delivery Term: Pre advise MT199 or MT799 first. Followed By SWIFT MT760 10. Payment Term: MT799 & Settlement via MT103 11. Hard Copy: By Bank Bonded Courier Interested Agents,Brokers, Investors and Individual proposing international project funding should contact us for directives.We will be glad to share our working procedures with you upon request. Name: Muhammed Emir Harun Contact Mail :info.financewizardltd@gmail.com Skype: info.financewizardltd@gmail.com

     
  6. johnny cross
    December 01, 2018 at 09:39
     

    We can deliver financial services instrument(BG/SBLC/MTN/DLC/LC) at affordable price to our customers in other to derive maximum utility. We understand that finding the right company to provide financial instrument is not easy. We are certified financial company that delivers banking instrument for lease which we adhere to our terms and condition. Over 96% of our clients are satisfied with our work whether it is business or financial service. Once transaction is in progress, we ensure we keep you posted on the progress of your paper. We also get you connected to the provider for personalized service. Instead of stressing yourself out looking for financial instrument or company why not let professional like us deliver financial instrument to you within the time frame required by you. For further details contact us with the below information.... Contact Email: info.amicusfinance@gmail.com skype;info.amicusfinance

     
  7. Roy Baase
    October 18, 2018 at 07:58
     

    I got my loan from Anthony Edward email him if you need a loan at clmloans9@gmail.com

     
  8. fuffunduplida
    September 08, 2018 at 04:36
     

    casino play virgin online casino tropicana online casino casino games | https://onlinecasinodd.com/ - online gambling https://onlinecasinodd.com/ - online casino slots

     
  9. Payday Express
    August 29, 2018 at 12:08
     

    bad credit quick loans alabama payday loans pool loans fast loans

     
  10. Payday Express
    August 29, 2018 at 12:07
     

    bad credit quick loans alabama payday loans pool loans fast loans

     
  11. Payday Express
    August 29, 2018 at 12:07
     

    bad credit quick loans alabama payday loans pool loans fast loans

     
  12. Lavington
    August 16, 2018 at 07:25
     

    I AM MR LAVINGTON AND I BELIEVE IN ACTIONS THAN WORDS, IF YOU NEED ANY TYPE OF LOAN, CONTACT ME AND I WILL GIVE YOU MY TERMS : lavingtonfinance@gmail.com or text/call +18288270635 EVEN IF YOU HAVE A BAD CREDIT OR LOW INCOME YOU CAN GET THIS LOAN . Regards

     
  13. Lavington
    August 16, 2018 at 07:25
     

    I AM MR LAVINGTON AND I BELIEVE IN ACTIONS THAN WORDS, IF YOU NEED ANY TYPE OF LOAN, CONTACT ME AND I WILL GIVE YOU MY TERMS : lavingtonfinance@gmail.com or text/call +18288270635 EVEN IF YOU HAVE A BAD CREDIT OR LOW INCOME YOU CAN GET THIS LOAN . Regards

     
  14. Lavington
    August 16, 2018 at 07:24
     

    I AM MR LAVINGTON AND I BELIEVE IN ACTIONS THAN WORDS, IF YOU NEED ANY TYPE OF LOAN, CONTACT ME AND I WILL GIVE YOU MY TERMS : lavingtonfinance@gmail.com or text/call +18288270635 EVEN IF YOU HAVE A BAD CREDIT OR LOW INCOME YOU CAN GET THIS LOAN . Regards

     
  15. Lavington
    August 16, 2018 at 07:24
     

    I AM MR LAVINGTON AND I BELIEVE IN ACTIONS THAN WORDS, IF YOU NEED ANY TYPE OF LOAN, CONTACT ME AND I WILL GIVE YOU MY TERMS : lavingtonfinance@gmail.com or text/call +18288270635 EVEN IF YOU HAVE A BAD CREDIT OR LOW INCOME YOU CAN GET THIS LOAN . Regards

     
  16. Lavington
    August 16, 2018 at 07:24
     

    I AM MR LAVINGTON AND I BELIEVE IN ACTIONS THAN WORDS, IF YOU NEED ANY TYPE OF LOAN, CONTACT ME AND I WILL GIVE YOU MY TERMS : lavingtonfinance@gmail.com or text/call +18288270635 EVEN IF YOU HAVE A BAD CREDIT OR LOW INCOME YOU CAN GET THIS LOAN . Regards

     
  17. Lavington
    August 16, 2018 at 07:23
     

    I AM MR LAVINGTON AND I BELIEVE IN ACTIONS THAN WORDS, IF YOU NEED ANY TYPE OF LOAN, CONTACT ME AND I WILL GIVE YOU MY TERMS : lavingtonfinance@gmail.com or text/call +18288270635 EVEN IF YOU HAVE A BAD CREDIT OR LOW INCOME YOU CAN GET THIS LOAN . Regards

     
  18. buy kamagra 100 mg oral jelly
    March 29, 2018 at 05:11
     

    kamagra 100mg oral jelly kako se uzima kamagra 100mg side effects of kamagra oral jelly kamagra oral jelly kaufen amazon kamagra 100mg oral jelly how to use http://kamagradxt.com/ kamagra oral jelly sildenafil citrate

     
  19. Jamespoete
    January 18, 2018 at 07:55
     

    a payday loan a payday loan payday loan easy payday loan direct loan lenders fastest payday loan online pay day loans best payday loan instant payday loans payday advance loan instant payday loans instant online loans vikings homework help graduate school application essay paper writing service dissertation writing the best online payday loans payday loans bad credit loans online bad credit loans online bad credit webcam sex show girls girl webcam show girls online payday loans direct lenders no credit check lenders only direct payday lenders online payday loans direct lenders online payday loans direct lenders short term loans direct lenders online payday loans direct lenders short term loans direct lenders online payday loans direct lenders best cash loans online no credit check payday loans instant approval online payday loan application free web cam porn live porn cam live porn cam chat room

     
  20. Online Loan
    January 08, 2018 at 10:45
     

    payday loan payday cash loan payday fast payday loan

     
  21. Jamespoete
    October 31, 2017 at 08:26
     

    source pay day loans online payday loans https://paydayloans.us.org/ - payday loans online for bad credit

     
  22. Jamespoete
    September 18, 2017 at 03:48
     

    pay day loans

     
  23. CharlesCandy
    September 04, 2017 at 01:48
     

    wh0cd2269028 generic tretinoin gel

     
  24. Aaronnex
    August 30, 2017 at 07:10
     

    wh0cd35881 celexa zyban

     
  25. KennethGaw
    August 03, 2017 at 06:26
     

    wh0cd55945 fluconazole cheapest prilosec

     
  26. TracyCHEDS
    August 01, 2017 at 04:54
     

    wh0cd865047 femara flonase nasonex ranitidine liquid otc

     
  27. AlfredSex
    July 22, 2017 at 05:52
     

    wh0cd852653 buy phenergan plavix generic

     
  28. CharlesCandy
    July 20, 2017 at 12:55
     

    wh0cd513903 buy flagyl citalopram tablets

     
  29. CharlesCandy
    July 20, 2017 at 12:55
     

    wh0cd513903 buy flagyl citalopram tablets

     
  30. CharlesCandy
    July 18, 2017 at 04:36
     

    wh0cd130300 buy triamterene online buy celexa online buy azithromycin

     
  31. KennethGaw
    July 17, 2017 at 03:27
     

    wh0cd56827 order metformin medicine purchase erythromycin Acyclovir 800mg

     
  32. Http://Journals.Fotki.Com/Clavepaper24/The-Most-Overlooked-Fact/
    June 18, 2017 at 10:30
     

    Like all of the LG mobile phones, this handset too has some connectivity-centric specs. While on one hand, it supports GPRS, on the opposite hand can bring you happiness along v2.0 USB and v2.0 Bluetooth, both of which facilitate bandwith. http://journals.fotki.com/clavepaper24/The-Most-Overlooked-Fact/

     
  33. Http://Journals.Fotki.Com/Clavepaper24/The-Most-Overlooked-Fact/
    June 18, 2017 at 10:30
     

    Like all of the LG mobile phones, this handset too has some connectivity-centric specs. While on one hand, it supports GPRS, on the opposite hand can bring you happiness along v2.0 USB and v2.0 Bluetooth, both of which facilitate bandwith. http://journals.fotki.com/clavepaper24/The-Most-Overlooked-Fact/

     
  34. Michaelcig
    June 09, 2017 at 10:26
     

    wh0cd122718 amitriptyline prozac generic

     
  35. September 30, 2016 at 12:33
     

    whoah this blog is magnificent i really like reading your posts. Stay up the good work! You recognize, many persons are hunting round for this info, you can help them greatly. Nike Air Max 90 Herr Running Skor Vit Bl氓 Svart Apelsin http://www.dekko.se/web/hem/whole.asp?ko=Nike-Air-Max-90-Herr-Running-Skor-Vit-Bla-Svart-Apelsin

     
  36. June 17, 2016 at 12:45
     

    Very descriptive blog, I liked that a lot. Will there be a part 2? air max outlet http://www.newcachambi.com.br/baamb.php?es=air-max-outlet

     
 
Leave this field empty
Required information

Post A Comment

Last updated: April 14, 2015

Contact the Park

Mailing Address:

PO Box 1029
Kotzebue, AK 99752

Phone:

(907) 442-3890

Contact Us