Security has always been a concern for the U.S. Military. The army designed the second For Smith as part of a line of forts from Minnesota to Louisiana to separate the territory occupied by Native American tribes from that area settled by American citizens. To provide protection in the event of an attack on Fort Smith, military engineers called for an imposing wall with five bastions (gun emplacements). The massive stone structure, at 12 feet high and 2 feet thick, remained in place until 1897. Fort Smith represents the last of a dying breed; from the 1840’s on, virtually all frontier forts were built without walls. After Fort Smith was built, the cost of constructing a wall was considered too great in comparison to the benefit of a fortified defense. The location of the wall is now outlined by the continuous band of stone. The entry gates and corner bastions are also marked, making it possible to walk the perimeter of the second fort.