The English crown transferred fiscal responsibility by granting royal charters to wealthy trading companies such as the Muscovy Company of 1555. These companies, in turn, pushed for legislation that ultimately led to the licensing of ship's masters and the founding of Trinity House at Deptford — the Tudor equivalent of a merchant marine academy.
With an increase in the knowledge of navigation and the availability of trained pilots and masters, an interest in overseas trade and expansion began to flourish. By the time of the first voyage to Roanoke in 1584, Drake had already circumnavigated the globe, Frobisher had explored the barren Arctic, and Queen Elizabeth's Sea Dogs roamed the shipping lanes with impunity. In this climate, Walter Ralegh petitioned the crown for the right to explore and claim lands in the New World not yet inhabited by any other Europeans. Upon receipt of the grant, Ralegh and his fellows sponsored seven voyages in 1584, 1585, 1586, and 1587 aimed more or less at eastern North Carolina; others backed voyages in 1587, 1588, and 1590.
The pilot on four of Ralegh's first five voyages was Simon Fernandez, a Portuguese pirate then in the service of Sir Francis Walsingham — a member of the Privy Council of England. Fernandez was one of the most highly regarded western navigators available, for he had crossed the Atlantic on several occasions to reconnoiter the North American coastline for Sir Humphry Gilbert and may have had earlier experiences on the high seas in the service of another country.
Fernandez' routes for the outward and return Atlantic crossings were largely determined by the characteristics of the typical sixteenth-century ship. Most of the ships used for transatlantic voyages were square-rigged. While able to sail to the windward, that is, as nearly as possible in the direction from which the wind was blowing, it was seldom desireable to make long passages to windward. The maneuver was very labor-intensive and subjected the rigging to great wear and tear. It was also slow. Consequently, Fernandez and other masters of square-rigged ships crossing the Atlantic usually kept close to the traditional routes established by Columbus and Verrazzano, and sailed with the prevailing winds and currents at their backs.
Following the clockwise flow of winds and currents, the expeditions sailed south from England, past Spain and Portugal, and stopped over at the Canaries, Madeiras, or Cape Verdes for food and water before attempting the long Atlantic crossing. In the absence of major obstacles, such as foul weather or pirates, this leg of the voyage usually took ten to fourteen days.
Then, with the northeasterly trade winds and the Equatorial Current at their backs, the voyagers made for the West Indies, sailing as a later generation of English square-rig sailors would say "south 'til the butter melts, then west." An uneventful crossing usually required four or five weeks.
After replenishing supplies once again, the fleet picked up the Florida Current (precursor of the Gulf Stream) and followed it northeast from around the Strait of Florida to the latitude of Roanoke-a trip of another ten days to two weeks.
For the return trip to England, ships usually took the Gulf Stream and its extension, the North Atlantic Drift, back to Europe, perhaps with a stop in the Azores for provisions and prize ships. Being more direct, the homeward voyage usually took much less time.
By the last half of the sixteenth century, English ships were crisscrossing the Atlantic with considerable frequency. Increased navigational skill and improved ship design had resulted in the emergence of English sea power and the end of Spanish monopoly of the sea lanes to the new world. The English, largely through their own initiative, had raised the art of navigation to a science. A new age of discovery, exploration and expansion-one that would change the world and man's understanding of the world-was about to begin. .
Text by Olivia Isil; edited and expanded by lebame houston and Wynne Dough
Illustrations by Vicki Wallace