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Article Series

Series: Suffrage in Sixty Seconds

When was the last time you voted? For the 100th anniversary of the ratification of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution enfranchising women, park rangers at the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument created these one-minute videos that highlight suffrage subjects and the heroes who made woman suffrage a reality—including those women who continued the fight for full enfranchisement beyond 1920.

  • Chapter 1: Suffrage in 60 Seconds Introduction

    Alice Paul in front of Ratification Banner. Suffrage in Sixty Seconds logo

    When was the last time you voted? Enjoy one-minute videos that highlight suffrage subjects and the heroes who made woman suffrage a reality—including those women who continued the fight for full enfranchisement beyond 1920. Read more

  • Chapter 2: Suffrage in 60 Seconds Woman Suffrage Procession

    Official Program Woman Suffrage Procession March 3 1913

    "We demand an amendment to the Constitution of the United States enfranchising the women of this country." Marching women, floats, equestrian units--and a surprising ally participate in the first event of its kind on March 3, 1913. Enjoy this one-minute video story with Ranger Mannie. Read more

  • Chapter 3: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Ida B. Wells

    Ida B. Wells-Barnett Suffrage in Sixty Seconds logo

    Ida B. Wells spent her life fiercely dedicated to truth and equality, including the rights of all to vote. In this Suffrage in 60 Seconds video, hear a story about the way that determination showed up during the 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession. Read more

  • Chapter 4: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: NAWSA Versus NWP

    Carrie Chapman Catt and Alice Paul. Suffrage in Sixty Seconds logo

    Carrie Chapman Catt led the National American Woman's Suffrage Association (NAWSA) which had more members, more power, and more money than the National Woman's Party. Although Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt were both fighting for woman suffrage, they often fought each other as they worked for passage of the 19th Amendment. Enjoy this one-minute video telling a story of the tension. Whose side are you on? Read more

  • Chapter 5: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Colors

    Alice Paul unfurling Ratification Banner. Suffrage in 60 Seconds logo

    Why did the National Woman's Party choose Gold, White, and Purple as their signature colors on sashes, flags, and banners in their fight for the 19th Amendment? In this episode of Suffrage in 60 Seconds, Ranger Lauren has the answer. Read more

  • Chapter 6: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Picketing the White House

    Women wearing sashes standing in front of White House with banners

    "Mr. President, How Long Must Women Wait for Liberty?" asked National Woman's Party picketers as they stood outside the White House gates in all kinds of weather. Ranger Mannie tells the story about the tactic of picketing in the fight for woman suffrage. Read more

  • Chapter 7: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Pockets

    Why We Oppose Pockets for Women poem with NPS logo

    In 1915, poet Alice Duer Miller published "Are Women People? A Book of Rhymes for Suffrage Times." Her poem titled "Why We Oppose Pockets for Women" is a satire about arguments against women voting. Read more

  • Chapter 8: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Inez Milholland

    Inez Milholland on horse in suffrage procession

    Who was the New Woman of the 20th Century, the Herald of the Future, who rode a white horse at the beginning of the 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession down Pennsylvania Avenue? Inez Milholland was a lawyer, an activist, and a powerful speaker who was also known as the "Most Beautiful Suffragist." Read more

  • Chapter 9: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Traitors or Patriots?

    Merged image of Woodrow Wilson and suffrage pickets

    When the United States entered World War I in April 1917, the National Woman's Party faced a decision. Should the NWP continue to pressure Woodrow Wilson to support woman suffrage? Or should they demonstrate their citizenship and patriotism by joining the war effort, hoping to win the vote that way? Ranger Lorne has the story. Read more

  • Chapter 10: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: The Night of Terror

    Lucy Burns in front of jail door

    The women of the National Woman's Party sentenced to prison in November 1917 for picketing the White House had no idea what awaited them when they arrived at the Occoquan Workhouse. They endured brutality and abuse from the prison guards, but remained committed to their cause. Ranger Susan provides an eyewitness account. Read more

  • Chapter 11: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Jail Door Pin

    Blended image of jail door and suffrage banner

    The women who faced arrest for protesting at the White House in support of women's right to vote were not ashamed that they had been to jail. In fact, they wore it as a badge of honor. Ranger Lauren tells the story of the Jail Door Pin, awarded to more than one hundred women by the National Woman's Party in appreciation for their sacrifice. Read more

  • Chapter 12: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Equali-Tea

    Ranger Lauren holding a tea cup that reads

    How did women who were excluded from the political process work for change? Before they marched in the streets and stood on soapboxes to get the word out, women encouraged each other and spread the radical message of women's equality in their parlors. Ranger Lauren spills the tea about equali-tea. Read more

  • Chapter 13: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: African American Women and the Vote

    Photo collage of several African American suffragists. Suffrage in 60 Seconds logo

    African American women often found themselves marginalized by both Black men and white women in the fight for equality. How did they ensure that their voices were heard? Ranger Titus has the story. Read more

  • Chapter 14: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Nina Allender

    Combined photo of park ranger and Nina Allender with Suffrage in 60 Seconds logo

    As the official cartoonist of the National Woman's Party, Nina Allender changed public perception about what feminists looked like. But her political cartoons, while witty and provocative, excluded many people who were fighting for the vote. Read more

  • Chapter 15: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: How Women Won the West

    Largo group of women wearing white carrying shields with names of western states

    Women in the western states and territories won the first victories in the fight for woman suffrage. But there were difficult battles marked by reversals, defeats, and questionable alliances. Read more

  • Chapter 16: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Deadly Political Index

    Painting and photo of Maud Younger with Suffrage in 60 Seconds Logo

    Maud Younger, chief lobbyist of the National Woman’s Party, greased the gears of democracy. While the unrelenting force of the National Woman's Party protests kept the momentum of the movement, would the 19th Amendment have gotten through Congress without suffragist lobbyists? Ranger Lorne has the details of the Deadly Political Index. Read more

  • Chapter 17: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Temperance

    Frances Willard and Frances Harper with WCTU and Suffrage in 60 Seconds logos

    What does woman suffrage have to do with alcohol? Woman's Christian Temperance Union leaders like Frances Willard and Frances Watkins Harper convinced WCTU members that they could accomplish social change if women won the vote. Read more

  • Chapter 18: Suffrage in 60 Seconds: Harry Burn

    Portrait of Harry Burn and picture of Alice Paul unfurling ratification banner over a balcony

    When the Tennessee state legislature opened a special session to consider ratification of the 19th Amendment in August 1920, no one knew whether woman suffrage was headed for victory or defeat. What--and who--made the difference? Ranger Chip has the story of the drama in Nashville. Read more

  • Chapter 19: Suffrage in 60 Seconds:Forward Into Light

    Black and white photo of Alice Paul with text

    If you could write a letter to the woman of the future, what would you say? Alice Paul did just that when she contributed to an article series in The Washington Times asking prominent women and men to offer their predictions for the future. Her answer: "Women Will Be Real Equals in 2023." Read more