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Ferris, Jeri
2003   Demanding Justice: A Story about Mary Ann Shadd Cary. Carolrhoda Books, Minneapolis.

Forten, Charlotte L.
2000   A Free Black Girl Before the Civil War: The Diary of Charlotte Forten, 1854. Edited by Christy Steele and Kerry Graves. Blue Earth Books, Mankato, Minnesota.

King, Wilma
2000   Children of the Emancipation. Carolrhoda Books, Minneapolis.

Loeper, John J.
1999   Meet the Webbers of Philadelphia. Benchmark Books, New York.

Lowery, Linda
2002   One More Valley, One More Hill: The Story of Aunt Clara Brown. Random House, New York.

Rappaport, Doreen
2000   Freedom River. Hyperion Books for Children, New York.


Barrigher, Clara Frances
1999   The Forgotten, Despised, and Chosen: The Free Black Class in the U.S.A. During the Slavery Period (1619-1865). C.F. Barrigher, Pleasantville, New Jersey.

Berlin, Ira and Leslie S. Rowland, Editors
1997   Families and Freedom: A Documentary History of African-American Kinship in the Civil War Era. New Press, New York.

Berlin, Ira
1974   Slaves without Masters: Tthe Free Negro in the Antebellum South. Pantheon Books, New York.

Bethel, Elizabeth Rauh
1997   The Roots of African-American Identity: Memory and History in Free Antebellum Communities. St. Martin's Press, New York.

Bogger, Tommy
1997   Free Blacks in Norfolk, Virginia, 1790-1860: The Darker Side of Freedom. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Bracey, John H., Jr., August Meier, and Elliott Rudwick
1971   Free Blacks in America, 1800-1860. Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, California.

Brown, Letitia Woods
1972   Free Negroes in the District of Columbia, 1790-1846. Oxford University Press, New York.

Bruce, Henry Clay
1996   The New Man; Twenty-nine Years a Slave; Twenty-nine Years a Freeman; Recollections. Introduction by William B. Gatewood. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Clamorgan, Cyprian
1999   The Colored Aristocracy of St. Louis by Cyprian Clamorgan. Edited with an introduction by Julie Winch. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Missouri.

Curry, Leonard P.
1981   The Free Black in Urban America, 1800-1850: The Shadow of the Dream. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Deetz, James
1993   Flowerdew Hundred: The Archaeology of a Virginia Plantation, 1619-1864. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Delaney, Ted, and Phillip Wayne Rhodes
2001   Free Blacks of Lynchburg, Virginia, 1805-1865. Warwick House, Lynchburg, Virginia.

DuBois, W.E.B.
1992   Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880. Introduction by David Levering Lewis. Atheneum, New York.

DuBois, W.E.B.
2003   The Souls of Black Folk. Fine Communications, New York.

Ferguson, Leland G.
1992   Uncommon Ground: Archaeology and Early African America, 1650-1800. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Fields, Barbara J.
1985   Slavery and Freedom on the Middle Ground: Maryland during the Nineteenth Century. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Finkelman, Paul (Editor)
1989   Free Blacks in a Slave Society (Articles on American Slavery, Volume 17). Garland, New York.

Franklin, John Hope
1969   The Free Negro in North Carolina, 1790-1860. Russell and Russell, New York.

Freeman, Rhoda Golden
1994   The Free Negro in New York City in the Era Before the Civil War. Studies in African American History and Culture. Garland, New York.

Gould, Virginia Meacham (Editor)
1998   Chained to the Rock of Adversity: To Be Free, Black & Female in the Old South. University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

Henry, Christopher E.
1995   Forever Free: From the Emancipation Proclamation to the Civil Rights Bill of 1875. Chelsea House, New York.

Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton
1997   In Hope of Liberty: Culture, Community and Protest among Northern Free Blacks, 1700-1860. Oxford University Press, New York.

Jackson, Luther Porter
1971   Free Negro Labor and Property Holding in Virginia, 1830-1860. Russell and Russell, New York.

Landers, Jane G.
1996   Against the Odds: Free Blacks in the Slave Societies of the Americas. Frank Cass, Portland, Oregon.

Lanusse, Armand
1945   Creole Voices; Poems in French by Free Men of Color. First published in 1845. Edited by Edward Maceo Coleman with introduction by H. Carrington Lancaster. The Associated Publishers, Washington, D.C.

Mandle, Jay R.
1992   Not Slave, Not Free: The African American Economic Experience since the Civil War. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina.

Mintz, Sidney, and Richard Price
1992   The Birth of African-American Culture: An Anthropological Perspective. Beacon Press, Boston.

Morgan, Phillip (Editor)
1986   Don't Grieve After Me: The Black Experience in Virginia, 1619-1986. Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia.

Orser, Charles E.
1988   The Material Basis of the Postbellum Tenant Plantation: Historical Archaeology in the South Carolina Piedmont. University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

Rael, Patrick
2002   Black Identity and Black Protest in the Antebellum North. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Russell, John H.
1969   The Free Negro in Virginia, 1619-1865. Dove, New York.

Savage, Beth L. (Editor)
1994   African American Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places. Preservation Press, Washington D.C.

Singleton, T.A. (Editor)
1999   “I, Too, Am America” Archaeological Studies of African-American Life. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Stevenson, Brenda
1996   Life in Black and White: Family and Community in the Slave South. Oxford University Press, New York.

Steward, Austin
2002   Twenty-two Years a Slave and Forty Years a Freeman. Introduction by Graham Russell Hodges. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse.

Walker, Juliet E.K.
1983   Free Frank : A Black Pioneer on the Antebellum Frontier. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.

Walker, Juliet E.K.
1998   The History of Black Business in America: Capitalism, Race, Entrepreneurship. MacMillan Library Reference USA, New York.

Wilkie, Laurie A.
2000   Creating Freedom: Material Culture and African American Identity at Oakley Plantation, 1840-1950. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.

Winch, Julie
2002   Gentleman of Color: The Life of James Forten. Oxford University Press, New York.

Wright, James M.
1971   The Free Negro in Maryland, 1634-1860. Octagon Books, New York.