[NPS Arrowhead] U.S. Dept. of Interior National Park Service Archeology Program
Quick Menu Features
* Sitemap * Home
Technical Brief 3 Achaeology in the National Historic Landmarks Program

Published by the DOI Departmental Consulting Archeologist/NPS Archeology Program, National Park Service, Washington, DC, December, 1988.

The National Park Service's National Historic Landmarks (NHL) Program plays a major role in preserving America's nationally significant cultural resources. National Historic Landmark designation increases public awareness of archeology by highlighting the importance of our most significant prehistoric and historic archeological resources. By disseminating information on threats to archeological NHLs, the Program draws attention to the worse problems confronting our finest sites. By sponsoring study of nationally significant archeological resources, the NHL Program helps us to better understand our past. And by increasing the number of archeological NHLs, the Program publicizes the benefits and limitations of current laws and statutes meant to protect our archeological heritage.

Following the introduction, this publication explains what the NHL Program is; describes the process by which NHLs are identified, nominated, and designated; defines the major issues involving NHL prehistoric and historic archeological resources, and shows how the NHL Program can help to meet the challenge confronting our national archeological heritage.

Support Office contact information was updated September 1999.


What Are Archeological Resources?

Archeological resources are the material remains of human life or activities that are capable of providing scientific or humanistic understandings of past human behavior, cultural adaptation, and related topics. Archeologists apply scientific or scholarly techniques such as controlled observation, contextual measurement, controlled collection, analysis, interpretation, and explanation to collect and analyze those resources. Material remains of particular interest to archeologists include physical evidence of human habitation, occupation, use, or activity within sites, locations, or contexts.

Because of their nature, archeological resources are particularly vulnerable to three types of destruction. They are: (1) severe physical deterioration in the form of erosion and other natural processes, (2) inappropriate construction, alteration, or demolition caused by project designs that do not fully consider impacts upon archeological resources, and (3) looting and vandalism.

The Special Characteristics of Archeological Resources

Archeological monuments, ruins, and objects were among the first cultural resources to be recognized and protected under Federal law. Public concern about threats to prehistoric ruins on Federal land in the Southwest rallied political support for the protective Antiquities Act of 1906. Indeed, it has generally been relatively easy to identify, evaluate, and designate such spectacular sites as the pueblo ruins in New Mexico's Chaco Culture National Historical Park and the mound complexes at Cahokia, Illinois, or Moundville, Alabama.

Most archeological resources, however, are far less conspicuous. Many deposits are deeply buried. Others are little more than stained soil or a scattering of broken rock. Once found, it is frequently difficult to determine the original form or function of an archeological resource.

Archeological resources are not only elusive, they are also among our nation's most numerous class of cultural resources. Two basic facts account for this situation. First, people have been living in North America for at least 12,000 years. During that time they have left numerous remains. Second, most things built by the earliest European settlers (and many built by their descendants), have left little more than archeological evidence of their existence.

Tens of thousands of sites have been found since Europeans first came to American shores. Many hundreds have been scientifically studied since Thomas Jefferson conducted the first modern systematic excavation of an Indian mound in Virginia in 1792. Untold thousands of sites, known and unknown, have been destroyed. Most archeologists agree, however, that other thousands await discovery and scientific study.

Moccasin Bend Archeological District NHL
Moccasin Bend Archeological District NHL, TN, (NHL criterion 5). Archeological resources located within this district possess national significance under the "Original Inhabitants" and "Major American Wars" themes. Moccasin Bend contains the best preserved and most diverse assemblage of prehistoric archeological resources in the Tennessee River Valley. It also contains sites associated early Spanish exploration and is the locale of several sites associated with Civil War military operations in and around the strategic town of Chattanooga.

Once found, archeological deposits must be carefully examined and meticulously recorded. As already mentioned, their form, content, and function may be difficult to interpret. Precise determinations of site boundaries, artifact type and style, feature function, and site condition almost always require extensive testing and verification. Historic archeological resources, such as building foundations or associated features of standing structures such as cisterns, mill races, or garden paths, moreover, are not always recognized or adequately treated. Methods used by archeologists to collect and analyze data further contribute to the special status of archeological resources. In order to accurately analyze archeological data, archeologists must carefully record the positions of all artifacts and deposits encountered during excavations. This physical relationship between excavated materials and their exact location is called "archeological context." Artifacts and other deposits located within their archeological context are said to have "integrity." Integrity is lost when archeological resources are disturbed or removed without careful context documentation.

Excavation is the primary method archeologists use to recover information. Although some excavations only uncover, sample, and re-bury archeological deposits, all excavations permanently alter the context of archeological resources to some degree. This places archeologists in a unique position-the excavations necessary to recover archeological resources always affect the data they collect.

Archeologists have responded to this paradox by working to preserve archeological resources in place whenever possible. When excavation is necessary, extraordinarily rigorous methods are used to recover, record, and analyze data within the context of their discovery. In order to preserve as much of the context as possible, archeologists generally strive to collect relatively small samples from sites that can be preserved. Total recovery of archeological resources from a locale usually occurs only when all other alternatives for preservation are exhausted.

Such practices preserve the all-important contextual record and permit future study. This is important because archeological resources are significant not just for what they have already revealed, but for what they can tell us about past lifeways at some later date when more sophisticated techniques and analytic methods are available. By preserving archeological resources in place and keeping careful records of what has been recovered, archeologists work to assure that our past indeed has a future.

This combination of factors presents a considerable challenge to those identifying and designating nationally significant archeological resources as NHLs. They also explain why archeological resources are susceptible to many threats. Through its use as a planning tool, through identification of potential NHLs, and by evaluating threats to existing ones, the NHL Program can provide an extra degree of protection to nationally significant archeological resources. NHL designation heightens awareness of archeology nationwide through attracting publicity to sites. In these ways, the NHL Program can help meet the challenge faced by America's threatened archeological resources (36 CFR 65.2).


What Are National Historic Landmarks?

National Historic Landmarks are historic and archeological properties found to be nationally significant and designated as Landmarks by the Secretary of the Interior. They are acknowledged as our Nation's most important historic and archeological resources. They consist of buildings, structures, districts, objects, and sites commemorating historical events and cultural patterns that changed the course of history. They illustrate architectural, artistic, humanistic, social, political, educational, and cultural achievements. They include primary sites associated with Native American and ethnographic history.

Role and Function of the NHL Program

What the Program Is:
The National Park Service conducts the National Historic Landmarks Program to identify, designate, and encourage protection of buildings, structures, sites, and objects of national significance. Its mission is to preserve "historic sites, buildings, and objects of national significance for the inspiration and benefit of the people of the United States" (Historic Sites Act of 1935).

What It Does:
NHL designation by the Secretary of the Interior aids planning by government agencies. private organizations, and individuals by identifying properties of national significance. Designation is also one of the major tools for scrutinizing areas proposed for addition to the National Park System and for nomination to the World Heritage List. An example is Cahokia Mounds, which is an archeological NHL that has been designated a World Heritage site.

There are several other parts of the NHL Program managed by the National Park Service besides designation of properties as NHLs. For example, the condition of threatened and endangered NHLs is monitored through periodic inspections, and an annual report to Congress is compiled by the Preservation Assistance Division. The division encourages protection of endangered NHLs through improving public awareness about the threats. "Landmarks at Risk" bulletins detail the threats to specific NHLs as well as precisely what can be done to remedy those conditions.

Enabling Legislation:
A substantial body of Federal legislation has been enacted over the last eighty years to preserve and protect America's cultural resources. Major milestones in this legislative history and the development of the NHL Program within these laws are summarized below.


Historic Sites Act of 1935 (Pub. L. 74-292; 49 Stat. 666; 16 U.S.C. 461 et seq): The first Federal law to establish historic preservation as a policy of the Federal government. To implement this policy, the Act established a survey of historic and archeological sites, buildings, and objects. Provisions in the Act authorized a register of nationally significant properties and provided for use of this list to identify properties for entry into the National Park System. It gave the Secretary of the Interior general authority to take steps to preserve NHLs, through National Park Service management, if necessary. Regulations for the NHL Program are contained in 36 CFR 65.

National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended (Pub. L. 89-665, Pub. L 96-515; 80 Stat. 915; 16 U.S.C. 470 et seq): This Act expanded the register authorized in the Historic Sites Act of 1935 to include properties of State and local significance. Renamed the National Register of Historic Places, it includes NHLs. The act provides specific protections for NHLs under Section 110(f). Regulations which implement this provision are contained in 36 CFR Part 800.10.

General Authorities Act of 1970 (90 Stat. 40; 16 U.S.C. 1-5): This Act directs the Secretary of the Interior to prepare an annual report to Congress (known as the Section 8 Report) identifying NHLs exhibiting known or potential damage or threats to the integrity of their resources. The Act further authorizes National Park Service studies of NHLs for possible recommendation to Congress for inclusion in the National Park System.

Mining In the National Parks Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1342; 16 U.S.C. 1908): Section 9 of this Act directs the Secretary of the Interior to request advice from the Advisory Council for Historic Preservation to protect NHLs threatened with destruction by surface mining activities.

The National Historic Landmarks Survey

Identification and evaluation of potential NHL properties are coordinated through the National Historic Landmarks Survey. The History Division administers the NHL Survey. Several methods may be used to determine NHL candidacy. History Division historians ordinarily identify potential NHLs in theme studies based upon the NHL outline of U.S. history and archeology. Individual site studies can be undertaken by other bureau professionals, professionals in other Federal agencies, State Historic Preservation Officers, and others. Whatever their source, all studies must be reviewed in the History Division for technical accuracy. Nominations successfully passing this review are then considered for presentation to the National Park System Advisory Board.

Identifying Potential NHLs:
Any public agency and all private groups and individuals can recommend potential NHLs. These include, but are not limited to:

  • Federal Agencies : Many Federal agencies actively work to preserve and protect archeological resources. Among these are the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management, the Department of Agriculture's Forest Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Archeologists and others employed by these and other Federal agencies play a major role in identifying archeological resources of potential national significance.
  • The States : State Historic Preservation Officers (SHPOs), play a major role in identifying potential archeological NHLs. Several states have increased the effectiveness of their participation in this process by incorporating NHL identification into their statewide comprehensive plans by reviewing potential NHLs within their borders, and by initiating State NHL nomination programs.
  • Professional Organizations : Professional archeological organizations can play a major role in identifying potential archeological NHLs. The NHL Committee of the Society for American Archaeology, the largest organization representing American archeologists, has participated in the NHL Program by reviewing some NHL nominations through a Memorandum of Understanding with the National Park Service.
  • State Archeological Societies: Organized in every State and in most territories, State archeological societies draw their membership from the professional and avocational archeological communities.
  • Advocacy Groups: Regional, State and local historical societies, environmental groups, and other organizations can play a major role in identifying potential NHLs.
  • Individuals: Individual professional and avocational archeologists, as well as any other private party, can also participate in identifying properties of potential national significance.

NHL Designation--the Process

Preparing the Nomination:
Once identified, NHL candidates enter the nomination phase. All nominations are prepared on standard National Register forms; there is no special NHL nomination form. Although anyone can prepare an archeological NHL nomination, it is recommended that individuals preparing the forms meet the Secretary of the Interior's Professional Qualification Standards for Archeology. Fully set forth in the Secretary of the Interior's Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation, they include: (1) a graduate degree in a relevant discipline, (2) one year of full-time professional experience or its equivalent, (3) four months supervised field and analytic experience, and (4) demonstrated ability to carry research to completion. At least one year of experience at the supervisory level is also required in the study of prehistoric or historic archeological resources.

Prospective preparers should contact the nearest NPS Regional Office at the earliest stage of work in order to receive guidance and technical assistance in preparing the draft nomination. Requests for technical assistance should be addressed to the NHL Coordinator, National Park Service, in the appropriate region. These are:

Mailing Address
(updated 9/99)
Service Area
Philadelphia Support Office
200 Chestnut Street
Philadelphia, PA 19106
(215) 597-1578
Boston Support Office
15 State Street, 6th floor
Boston, MA 02109
(617) 223-5224
Southeast Regional Office
Atlanta Federal Center
1924 Building
100 Alabama Street, S.W.
Atlanta, GA 30303
(404) 562-3171
AL, FL, GA, KY, LA, MS, NC, SC, TN, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands
Midwest Support Office
1709 Jackson Street
Omaha, NE 68102
(402) 221-3426
Intermountain Support Office--Denver
P.O. Box 25287
Denver, CO 80225-0287
(303) 969-2842
Intermountain Support Office--Santa Fe
P.O. Box 728
Santa Fe, NM 87504
(505) 988-6788
Columbia Cascades Support Office
National Park Service
909 First Avenue
Seattle, WA 98104-1060
(206) 220-4138
Pacific Great Basin Support Office
Suite 600
600 Harrison Street
San Francisco, CA 94107-1372
(415) 427-1398
CA, HI, NV, American Samoa, Guam, Northern Marianas Islands, Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands
Alaska Support Office
2525 Gambell Street, Room 107
Anchorage, AK 99503
(907) 257-2668

Initial drafts of NHL nomination studies should be submitted no later than 120 days prior to National Park System Advisory Board meetings at which they are to be considered. Following consultation with the appropriate NHL Coordinator in the NPS Regional Office, preparers will be advised about additional consultation with NHL Survey staff in the NPS Washington Office before beginning work on a nomination. NHL Survey staff members will examine the survey record to determine if the site in question has already been studied and reviewed by the Advisory Board. Survey staff may also provide technical assistance to those preparing nominations.

Criteria of Significance:

Franklin Court, Independence National Historical Park, PA
Franklin Court, Independence National Historical Park, PA. Many nationally significant archeological sites and districts within the National Park Service system are NHLs. One that is not is Franklin Court, the site of Benjamin Franklin's residence in Philadelphia, though it may be eligible under criterion 2. The painted steel frame in the foreground is the site of his "good house," demolished in 1812. Concrete-covered viewing ports allow visitors to see surviving portions of the foundation.

Preparation of NHL nominations largely follows procedures set forth in National Register Bulletin 16, Guidelines for Completing National Register of Historic Places Forms. NHL nominations, however, must address more rigorous criteria for the designation (36 CFR Part 65A). Unlike the National Register, which uses four criteria of significance, potential NHL properties are evaluated according to six criteria of national significance. Properties eligible for NHL status are those:

  1. that are associated with events that have made a significant contribution to, and are identified with, or that outstandingly represent, the broad national patterns of United States history and from which an understanding and appreciation of those patterns may be gained; or
  2. that are associated importantly with the lives of persons nationally significant in the history of the United States; or
  3. that represent some great idea or ideal of the American people; or
  4. that embody the distinguishing characteristics of an architectural type specimen exceptionally valuable for a study of a period, style or method of construction, or that represent a significant, distinctive and exceptional entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or
  5. that are composed of integral parts of the environment not sufficiently significant by reason of historical association or artistic merit to warrant individual recognition but collectively compose an entity of exceptionally historical or artistic significance, or outstandingly commemorate or illustrate a way of life or culture; or
  6. that have yielded or may be likely to yield information of major scientific importance by revealing new cultures, or by shedding light upon periods of occupation over large areas of the United States. Such sites are those which have yielded, or which may reasonably be expected to yield data affecting theories, concepts and ideas to a major degree. (emphasis added)

The specific criterion addressed should be cited in the statement of significance

Pecos Pueblo NHL
Pecos Pueblo NHL, NM (NHL criterion 6). Pecos was an important Pueblo community strategically located along trade routes connecting the Great Plains with the Rio Grande Valley. A series of Spanish Missions occupied the site between the early 1600s and the time of the site's final abandonment in 1838. Today, Pecos Pueblo is part of the National Park System and known as Pecos National Monument.

on the nomination form. Unlike other NHL nominations, archeological candidates must always address Criterion 6 in addition to others cited.

Application of Criterion 6 is at once the most critical and the most challenging component of an archeological NHL nomination. Nominations made under Criterion 6 must address two questions:

  1. What information is the site likely to yield?
  2. Is the information nationally important?

Answers to both questions must be well documented and logically organized. In order to establish the national significance of an archeological resource, preparers must show how the data make a major contribution to the existing corpus of information. This standard requires that potentially recoverable data are likely to revolutionize or substantially modify a major prehistoric or historic concept, resolve a substantial historical or anthropological debate, or close a serious gap in a major theme of United States prehistory or history.


Nauvoo Historic District NHL
Nauvoo Historic District NHL, IL, (NHL criterion 3). Established by Mormon leader Joseph Smith in 1839, Nauvoo was occupied by Icarians, another religious denomination, after the Mormons left. The site is significant as a locale associated with major 19th century revitalization religious movements.

Both the National Register and the NHL Survey require site integrity. NHL candidates, however, must possess a substantially higher degree of integrity than that required for National Register designation. This higher measure of integrity may include, but is not limited to, unusually intact or undisturbed deposits or features and archeological resources exhibiting a demonstrably high degree of preservation.

The extent of the differences in this standard of integrity is illustrated in Exception (3) of the NHL criteria. A property may be eligible for designation if, according to Exception (3), there are archeological resources related to "a building or structure no longer standing [and] the person or event associated with it is of transcendent importance in the nation's history and the associations consequential" (36 CFR Part 65.4[b][3]).

Themes, Subthemes, and Facets:

NHL nominations must cite relevant themes, subthemes, and facets. The NHL Survey utilizes a thematic framework to classify cultural resources. This framework classifies the nation's history and prehistory into 34 themes. Each of these, in turn, is divided into subthemes and facets expressing more precise topical and chronological Categories. The "Cultural Developments: Indigenous American Populations" theme, for example, consists of the following subthemes:

  1. The Earliest Inhabitants
  2. Post-Archaic and Pre-Contact Developments
  3. Prehistoric Archeology: Topical Facets
  4. Ethnohistory of Indigenous American Populations
Puukohola Heiau NHL
Puukohola Heiau NHL, HI (NHL criterion 4). "Temple of the Hill of the Whale" is one of Hawaii's most famous temple sites. The site was built or rebuilt by Kamehameha the Great in 1791. From this site Kamehameha extended his authority over the Hawaiian Islands and founded the Hawaiian kingdom.

Each subtheme is divided into a number of facets. Those associated with "The Earliest Inhabitants" subtheme, for example, include "Early Peopling of the New World," "Archaic Adaptations of the Caribbean," and "Domestication of the Dog." A listing of these may be found in the publication, History and Prehistory in the National Park System and the National Historic Landmarks Program (for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402: Order Number 024-0050121-1, $3.75).

Nomination Review:
Archeological nomination forms are sent to the appropriate NPS Regional Office for initial review and approval. Approved nominations are then sent to the Chief Historian, History Division Washington Office (WASO), NPS. Those passing review are then presented by the Chief Historian to an ad hoc review panel of professionals from relevant disciplines. Nominations may be referred back for revision at any stage of this process. Nominations supported by the ad hoc panel are reviewed by the Associate Director, Cultural Resources, WASO, for final approval. The study becomes a formal NHL nomination of the NPS upon approval by the Associate Director.

The National Park System Advisory Board ordinarily reviews NHL nominations and makes recommendations for designation to the Secretary of the Interior. Nominations are presented by NPS twice a year to the Advisory Board. In accordance with law and NHL regulations, public notice of Advisory Board review of NHL nomination studies must be made at least 60 days prior to each Board meeting. National Park Service administrative requirements make it necessary for nominations to be complete in all respects no later than 90 days before the Advisory Board meets.

At its meetings, the Advisory Board weighs the advice of the NPS and considers the findings of the ad hoc panel. Following this, the Advisory Board makes its recommendation to the Secretary of the Interior. Properties are designated as NHLs when approved by the Secretary. If not already listed, newly designated NHLs are also automatically placed in the National Register.


The Need to Reach Representative Levels In the Overall Number of Archeological NHLs

Only about 180, approximately ten percent of all NHLs nationwide, have been recognized based upon their archeological significance. Archeologists agree that there are large numbers of presently unrecognized nationally significant archeological resources worthy of NHL designation. If we are to bring the number of archeological NHLs up to representative levels, we must intensively examine those kinds of properties as well as identify new ones. The extent of this need can be seen in a recent study conducted by the ten NPS regional offices of cultural resources in the National Park System. Approximately 36,700 archeological sites were identified in a 20 percent sample of NPS park lands. Of these, 38 percent, or 13,946 sites, have been identified as possessing potential national significance or being likely to contribute to the national significance of areas or districts in which they are located (NPS 1987b).

The Need to Recognize the Full Range of Nationally Significant Archeological Resources Associated With or Located Within the Boundaries of Existing NHL Properties

Archeological resources are associated with virtually every NHL. As noted above, the presence of many of these resources is not easily recognized. Standing structures designated as NHLs frequently have not had their archeological components identified or evaluated. Many subthemes and facets in the NHL thematic framework (see above), moreover, are entirely absent or seriously underrepresented. In order to more fully understand and preserve our archeological heritage, these gaps must be filled by identifying unrepresented and underrepresented archeological themes and designating properties associated with them.

Existing NHL procedures should more effectively be used to identify and evaluate larger numbers of archeological resources of all types associated with or located within the boundaries of existing NHLs.

Destroyed or irrevocably altered buildings considered for NHL de-designation pose a special challenge. Special NHL criteria considerations outlined above are used to assess archeological remains of destroyed buildings or associated archeological features. This is done because the definition of their integrity must differ from that used for intact buildings. These criteria for archeological resources should be evaluated when the NHL designation of standing structures judged to have lost their integrity is considered for removal. Loss of integrity of above-ground resources might not affect the integrity of significant archeological resources. Although this varies from case to case, loss of structural integrity of above-ground resources can result in increased emphasis on the significance of remaining archeological resources by providing new information in the form of undiscovered features or deposits.


Improving Representation

It was noted above that only 10 percent of the more than 1,840 NHLs are recognized for their archeological significance. Many more must be identified, evaluated, and designated if we are to preserve our nation's most significant prehistoric and historic archeological resources.

NHL surveys, studies, nominations, and boundary and condition assessments are powerful preservation tools for archeological resources. Planning is the necessary first step in this process. Comprehensive planning in the NHL Program is centered around the thematic framework organizing information about cultural resources by theme, subtheme, and facet. Once established, thematic contexts provide the framework of site significance which is the basis for the systematic identification, evaluation, registration, and preservation of prehistoric and historic archeological resources. Together, these planning processes help identify preservation goals and objectives, set preservation priorities, and guide all other decisions involving the effective management of our nation's most significant archeological resources.

The magnitude of the threat confronting our nation's most significant archeological resources is reflected in the latest report on threatened and damaged NHLs. Although archeological NHLs make up only 10 percent of all NHL properties, nearly 33 percent of the 79 most endangered NHLs are primarily recognized for their archeological resources. Thus, archeological resources are not only underrepresented in NHL listings, they are also among the most threatened of NHL resources.

NHL designation provides nationally significant archeological resources with preservation protections in accordance with Section 106 and Section 110(f) of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, Section 8 of the National Park System General Authorities Act of 1970, and Section 9 of the Mining in the National Parks Act of 1976.

Archeological NHLs on Federal lands are further protected by the Archaeological Resource Protection Act of 1979.

Registration, legislative remedies, and legal protections alone cannot preserve our nation's threatened archeological heritage. Public awareness is an important part of protection. Public involvement can be increased by education programs, publicity and promotion campaigns, and other outreach activities. Public awareness can discourage the looting and vandalism of archeological sites, increase support for stronger protective legislation, and encourage provision of greater amounts of public and private funding. Preserving archeological properties through the NHL Program in these comprehensive ways insures they will continue to exist for the "inspiration and benefit of the people of the United States."

Suggested Reading

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation.
1984      National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as Amended. 2nd Edition. Washington, DC.

History Division, National Park Service.
1987a        History and Prehistory in the National Park System and the National Historic Landmaks Program. Washington, DC.

1987b        Catalog of National Historic Landmarks. Washington, DC.

Levy, Ben
1988        "Historians in the NHL Program." CRM Bulletin 11(1):15-16.

National Park Service
1983a        "National Historic Landmarks Program." Federal Register: Notices, 48(23):4652-4661.

1983b        "Archeology and Historic Preservation: Secretary of the Interior's Standards and Guidelines." Federal Register: Notices, 48(190):44716-44740.

1986        "Guidelines for Completing National Register of Historic Places Forms." National Register Bulletin 16. Interagency Resources Division, Washington, DC.

1987a        Section 8 Report on Threatened and Damaged National Historic Landmarks. Preservation Assistance Division, Washington, DC.

1987b        Systemwide Cultural Resources Summary and Action Program (RSAP). Interagency Resources Division, Washington, DC.

1988        "Guidelines for Federal Agency Responsibilities, Under Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act." Federal Register: Notices, 53(31):4727-4746.

Waldbauer, Richard C.
1987        "Archeological Resources in the NHL Program." CRM Bulletin, 10(6): 6.

Weber, Sandra S.
1988        "Systemwide Cultural Resources Summary and Action program." CRM Bulletin, 11 (2):3-5.

Return to: Technical Briefs


Quick Menu