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Technical Brief 12 Site Stabilization Information Sources

Published by the DOI Departmental Consulting Archeologist/NPS Archeology Program, National Park Service, Washington, DC, December 1991.

Selected References

Step 10 in the modeled approach to stabilization plan development (Thorne 1988:24) calls for identification of the range of potential solutions to resource loss problems based upon the minimal criteria of applicable preservation technologies. The bibliographical entries and annotations that follow are included here to demonstrate how available published data can be utilized to support the development of a stabilization plan. These examples can help in that identification effort. Data from these same references can ultimately be used to select the stabilization technique that will best solve a particular problem.

Keywords that are useful in Clearinghouse bibliographic searches follow each entry in all capital letters.

Thorne, Robert M.
1988      Guidelines for the Organization of Archeological Site Stabilization Projects: A Modeled Approach. Technical Report EL-88-8, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

This set of guidelines is designed to identify means for evaluating archeological site preservation technical options and to define a model for evaluating and selecting the proper options to be employed in specific situations.

In the absence of anything prior, these guidelines were based on interviews with Federal and State archeologists who had direct personal experience on specific site preservation situations. The guidelines were tested at a prehistoric mound site on Huffine Island, IN, and those efforts are presented as a case study in site preservation.


Gilbert, Susan
1989     America Washing Away. Science Digest, 94(8):31.

This article, written in layman's terms, discusses beach erosion relative to the destructive effects of wave action aggravated by rising sea levels and intensive coastal development. Diagrams show how waves move sand to form dunes and how destruction of beaches and barrier islands occurs because of the construction of groins, seawalls, and jetties. Dams constructed on the upper reaches of rivers prevent sand from reaching beaches, making them narrower and less able to absorb the energy of waves. The best solution for beach protection so far is to pile on new sand; however, imported sand erodes more quickly for two reasons. The equilibrium of the beach with the seafloor is destroyed since the beach is steeper and absorbs a heavier blow from each wave. Normal beach sand is almost always coarser than other sands and does not wash as fast as finer grained sand. The study of beach and dune ecosystems shows that salt-tolerant beach grasses indicate the inland movement of the high-water line. Using this information, construction is moved away from beaches to allow them to move and change naturally.


Keown, M.P., N.R. Oswalt, B.B. Perry, and B.A. Dardeau, Jr.
1977     Literature Survey and Preliminary Evaluation of Streambank Protection Methods. Technical Report H-77-9. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

This literature survey emphasizes known streambank protection methods. Mechanisms contributing to streambank erosion are identified, and the effectiveness of various methods are evaluated. Appendix B lists commercial concerns that market streambank protection products. A selected bibliography is included.


Whitlow, Thomas H., and Richard W. Harris
1979      Flood Tolerance in Plants: A State-of-the-Art Review. Technical Report E-79-2, U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Both basic aspects of flood tolerance and applied aspects of establishing vegetation arc discussed. Tables arranged by the common and scientific names of plants are included. This information would be useful in planning shoreline stabilization/revegetation efforts. Available from NTIS.


Henderson, J. E., and F.D. Shields, Jr.
1984     Environmental Features for Streambank Protection Projects. Technical Report E-84-1 1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

This report provides guidance for incorporating environmental considerations into streambank protection projects. The stability of the streambanks of a channel is related to both site-specific and basin-wide stream reach factors. Streambank erosion or failure is a natural fluvial process that is often accelerated by changes in geotechnical or hydraulic factors and especially human activities such as reservoir construction and landuse changes. Streambank protection projects stabilize a streambank, preventing or stopping erosion. Such stabilization results in a range of environmental changes.

A review of available information on environmental features relevant to streambank protection projects was performed. Environmental features are those planning, design, construction, and maintenance procedures or practices that minimize adverse environmental impacts or enhance terrestrial and aquatic habitats and the aesthetic quality of land and water associated with streambank protection projects. Such features include structural and nonstructural designs; construction procedures that are environmentally compatible; maintenance procedures; and institutional, planning and management approaches for streambank protection projects.

Each feature is discussed in terms of concept, the purpose or appropriate use of the feature, environmental considerations, limitations to use of the feature, performance history, and cost.


Allen, Hollis H., and C.V. Klimas
1986     Reservoir Shoreline Revegetation Guidelines. Technical Report E-8&13, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

The results of revegetation efforts at three lakeshore study sites are synthesized in this report. Pertinent revegetation concepts also are reviewed. A set of revegetation guidelines for shorelines having fluctuating water levels is presented. Emphasis is placed on reduced costs, proper planning, procurement of plant materials, appropriate planting times and methods, and special planting techniques.


Schiechtl, Hugo
1980     Bioengineering for Land Reclamation and Conservation. The University of Alberta Press: Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

This book illustrates how the products of scientific and technical research can be integrated with natural materials to realize effective and economic means of stabilizing, protecting, and actually improving the condition of the environment. It is a specific aid in improving cooperation between the civil engineer and bioengineer.

The author begins with a description of the technical preparation, usually done by civil engineers, and shows in succeeding chapters how bioengineering is integrated into these various protection methods to further enhance and protect earthworks and waterways. The criteria for the selection of various plant materials used in bioengineering are fully discussed, as is how, why and where they should be used. A section on the cost of bioengineering is included. The appendices contain a listing of suitable plants, commercially available, for a wide range of environments.


Andropogon Associates, Ltd.
1989     Earthworks Landscape Management Manual; Section 1. Prepared for the Mid-Atlantic Regional Office, National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

This manual's primary focus is on development of management strategies and interpretive guidelines that resolve current conflicts between the requirements for preservation and the impacts of interpretation and visitor use at earthwork sites. The manual is intended to serve as a guide for all earthworks; in the NPS system and for application to similar environments within the NPS system and requiring only limited additional study. A major observation noted during the review of the sites evaluated for the preparation of the manual was that earthwork sites stabilized by healthy, native plant communities are in the best condition, while some current management practices have contributed directly to the degradation of the resource. The manual is divided into two major sections. The first section is a review and evaluation of current management practices and an assessment of present vegetative cover types. Recommendations are made for an overall management program aimed at integrating preservation and interpretation objectives. The second section begins with procedures for evaluating and monitoring a site with respect to the proposed guidelines. Since many of the management techniques focus on native plant communities, the management of which is unfamiliar to many park employees, workshops at various levels of NPS employees were held. Actual hands-on instruction sessions were used as a means of both teaching park employees how to use the soil bioengineering techniques and to begin restabilization and revegetation on damaged ground surfaces which need immediate attention. Critical to the soil bioengineering techniques is the need to prioritize problem areas to include both short- and long-term management practices.


Copies of the Stabilization Bibliography, from which the above selected references are taken, are available on request either as hard copies or on 5.25-inch diskettes on the WordPerfect 5.1 word processing program. Requests should be addressed to: Dr. Robert M. Thorne, National Clearinghouse for Archaeological Site Stabilization, Center for Archaeological Research, University, MS 38677, telephone: (601) 232-7129.

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