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Ronald F. Lee

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1. Geoffrey T. Hellman, The Smithsonian: Octopus on the Mall (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1967), pp. 105-06.

2. Frederic W. Putnam et. al. (eds.), Reports upon Archaeological and Ethnological Collections from Vicinity of Santa Barbara, California, and from Ruined Pueblos of Arizona and New Mexico, and certain Interior Tribes (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1879).

3. See Roland B. Dixon's account of Frederic W. Putnam in Allen Johnson (ed.), Dictionary of American Biography (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1928), XV, 276-78.

4. Charles H. Lange and Carroll L. Riley (eds.), The Southwestern Journals of Adolph F. Bandelier, 1880-1882 (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1966), p. 4. Hereafter referred to as Southwestern Journals. The first volume of a projected seven. The introduction is especially valuable.

5. Walter Hough, "Otis Tufton Mason," American Anthropologist, N.S., X (1908), 664.

6. American Anthropologist, I (1883), 368.

7. Ibid., pp. 382-86 for a list of members active in 1888.

8. DAB, XIII, 569-72, for an account of Norton by Charles Moore.

9. Ibid., IIV, 322, cited in an account of Parkman by James Truslow Adams.

10. Archaeological Institute of America, Second Annual Report (1881).

11. Francis W. Kelsey, "Recent Archaeological Legislator", Records of the Past, V (1908), 338.

12. Archaeological Institute of America, Sixth Annual Report (1805), p. 32.

13. Ibid., p.32.

14. Ibid., p.32. This is the Council's interpretation of Morgan's views in an account probably written by Henry W. Haynes.

15. Ibid., p. 33.

16. Southwestern Journals, p.18.

17. Archaeological Institute of America, Sixth Annual Report (1885), p.34.

18. A.F. Bandelier, "Report on the Ruins of the Pueblo of Pecos", Papers of the Archeological Institute of America: American Series, (2d ed., Boston: Cupples, Upham and Co., 1883), I.

19. Ibid., p. 42.

20. DAB, XX, 210-11.

21. Ibid., IX, 87-88.

22. Congressional Record, 47th Cong. 1st Sess. (1882), p. 3777.

23. Ibid.

24. Henry W. Haynes, "Recent Progress in American Archaeology," Archaeological Institute of America, Tenth Annual Report (1889), Appendix, p. 98.

25. Desire Charnay, Cites et ruines americaines, Mitla, Palenque, Izamel, Chichen-Itza, Uxmal, recueillies et photographiees par Desire Charnay; avec un texte par m. Viollet-le-Duc...suivi du voyage et des documents de l'auteur (Paris; Gide, 1863).

[Charles Henry Lange and Carroll Laverne Riley. "Bandelier: The Life and adventures of Adolph Bandelier." Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1996.]

26. A. F. Bandelier, "Report by A. F. Bandelier on his Investigation in New Mexico in the Spring and Summer of 1882," Bulletin of the Archeology Institute of America, I (1883), 17.

27. Part I is in Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America: American Series III (Cambridge: John Wilson and Son University Press, 1890). Part II, Ibid, IV, 1890.

28. "The Serpent Mound, Adams County, Ohio," an unsigned article in Records of the Past, V 91906), 119-128. With other leading anthropologists, Putnam served as a consulting editor of this forgotten periodical after 1905.

29. DAB, VIII, 518-19.

30. Sallie Van Valkenburgh, "The Casa Grande of Arizona as a Landmark on the Desert, A Government Reservation, and a National Monument," The Kiva, 27 (1962), 11. A very informative article in the journal of the Arizona Archaeological and Historical Society.

31. Ibid.

32. Memorial of Oliver Ames, John G. Whittier, Mary Hemenway, and others, praying legislation for the protection from destruction of the Ancient Ruin of the Temple of Casa Grande, situated in Pinal County, near Florence, Arizona, Senate Misc. Doc. Nu, 80, 50th Cong. 2d Sess. (1889).

33. 25 Stat. 961.

34. U.S. Department of the Interior, Proclamations and Orders Relating to the National Park Service Up to January 1, 1945, comp. Thomas Alan Sullivan (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947), p. 140.

35. See the sixth, eleventh, and seventeenth Annual Report of the Archaeological Institute of America.

36. Preservation of American Antiquities, House Rep. No 2224, 59th Cong., 1st Sess., p.2.

37. George W. Stocking, Jr., "Franz Boas and the Founding of the American Anthropological Association," American Anthropologist, 62 (1960), 1-17. Sec also an unsigned article in American Anthropologist, N.S., V (1903), 178-92.

38. See an unsigned article, "Recent Progress in Anthropology,"American Anthropologist, N.S., VIII (1906), 504. Also Edgar L. Hewett, "Preservation of American Antiquities; Progress during the Past Year; Needed Legislation, " ibid., 109-114.

39. Henry W. Haynes, "Progress of American Archeology during the Past Ten Years, American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, IV (1900), 19. See also Walter Hough, "Columbian Exposition in Madrid, 1890, "American Anthropologist, VI (1893), 271-72.

40. Ibid, Haynes, pp.20-21.

41. Unsigned article, "Recent Progress in American Anthropology: A Review of the Activities of Institutions and Individuals form 1902 to 1906," American Anthropologist, N.S. XIII (1906), 441-554. This is an excellent summary of the status of American anthropology in 1906.

42. George Grant MacCurdy, "Extent of Instruction in Anthropology in Europe and the United States," Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Forty-eighth meeting, Held at Columbus, Ohio, August, 1899, pp.382-90.

43. "Recent Progress in American Archaeology." See footnote 41.

44. G. Nordenskjold, The Cliff Dwellers of the Mesa Verde, Southwestern Colorado: Their Pottery and Implements, trans. D. Lloyd Morgan (Stockholm, P.A. Norstedt and Soner, 1893), p.12.

45. Ibid., Chaps. I and II.

46. Quoted by John Ise, Our National Park Policy: A Critical History (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1961), p. 145, from the annual report of the Secretary of the Interior for 1909, p. 486.

47. J. Walter Fewkes, "Two Ruins Recently Discovered in the Red Rock Country, Arizona," American Anthropologist, IX (1896), 269-70.

48. W. H. Holmes, "Debasement of Pueblo Art," American Anthropologist, III (1889), 320.

49. Walter Hough, "Notes and News," American Anthropologist, N.S. III (1901), 590.

50. T. Mitchell Pruden, "The Prehistoric Ruins of the San Juan Watershed in Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico, "American Anthropologist, N.S. V (1903), 237.

51. Ibid., p. 263.

52. Edgar L. Hewett, "Preservation of Antiquities," American Anthropologist, N.S. VII (1905), 570.

53. Ise, p. 145, quoting a letter form Dr. Jesse L. Nusbaum to Floyd E. Dotson, March 7, 1956.

54. Lloyd M. Pierson, "A History of Chaco Canyon National Monument," an unpublished manuscript in the library of the Division of Archaeology, National Park Service, Washington, DC, 1956, 48-55.

55. Frank Bond, "The Administration of National Monuments," Proceedings of the National Park Service Conference held at Yellowstone National Park, September 11 and 12, 1911 (Washington, DC, Government Printing Office, 1912), 85-86.

56. Pruden, p. 288.

57. Cliff Dwellers' National Park, House Rep. No. 2427, 56th Cong., 2d Sess., pp.146.

58. American Anthropologist, N.S., II (1908), 600-01.

59. Edgar L. Hewett, "Government Supervision of Historic and Prehistoric Ruins," Science, N.S., XX (1904), 723.

60. Pierson, op. cit.., pp.49-54.

61. Pond, op.cit., pp. 85-86.

62. Hewett, "Government Supervision of...Ruins," 722.

63. Ibid. p. 723.

64. Ibid., p. 725

65. Ibid., p. 726.

66. See Samuel P. Hays, Conservation and the Gospel of Efficiency: The Progressive Conservation Movement, 1890-1920 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959), especially Chaps. V and VII.

67. Hewett, "Government Supervision of....Ruins," p. 727.

68. Hays, p. 47.

69. Annual Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office for 1901, p. 154; for 1902, pp. 115-17; for 1904, pp. 322-23; for 1905, p.40; for 1906, pp. 47-48. These reports are quoted in a multilithed copy of a document on deposit in the files of the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, entitled "Information about the background of the Antiquities Act of 1906, "prepared by Robert Claus, Division of Interior Department Archives, National Archives, Washington, D.C., dated May 10, 1945. Hereafter cited as Claus.

70. Three earlier accounts of the legislative history of the Antiquities Act have been helpful in researching this one (1) Claus, (2) Ise, and (3) John Dishon McDermott, "Breath of Life: An Outline of the Development of a National Policy for Historic Preservation." Manuscript, 115 pages, March 1966. Copy in files, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, Washington, DC. Hereafter cited as McDermott.

71. Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement of Science: Forty-Ninth Meeting, held at New York, N.Y., June, 1900 (Easton, PA, published by the Permanent Secretary, December 1900), p. xii.

72. American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, III (1899), 665. See also VI, Supplement (1902).

73. Thomas Wilson to Walter Hough, March 31, 1900, copy in files of Office of Archaeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, Washington, DC.

74. Preservation of Historic and Prehistoric Ruins, Etc., Senate Ex. Doc. No. 314, 58th Cong., 2d Sess., pp. 7-8. Hereafter cited as S. Doc. 314.

75. Undated, unsigned, printed document entitled "A Bill for the Preservation of Prehistoric Monuments, Ruins, and Objects, and to prevent their Counterfeiting, and for other Purposes." 10 pages including explanation of bill. Files, Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, Washington, DC.

76. Ibid. , pp. 4-5. Rev. Henry Mason Baum secured the Greek antiquities laws and had them translated for the information of the House Public Lands Committee where they remained on file. See S. Doc. 314, p. 8.

77. Ibid., pp. 5-6.

78. Edmund B. Rogers (Comp.), History of Legislation Relating to the National Park System through the 82d Congress (a collection of photostats in 108 Vols., deposited in the Departmental Library, U.S. Dept of the Interior, Washington, DC, 1958), Vol. IV, Appendix A, for copy of H.R. 8066. Hereafter cited as Rogers.

79. Ibid., for H.R.8195.

80. Ibid., for H.R. 9243.

81. Claus, p. 3.

82. Ibid., p. 5.

83. Rogers, Vol. IV, Appendix A, for H.R.11021.

84. McDermott, p. 11.

85. See note 69.

86. Claus, p. 5.

87. Hays, p. 47.

88. Rogers, Vol. IV, Appendix A, for H.R. 10451.

89. Preservation of Prehistoric Monuments, Etc., House Rep. No. 1104, 58th Cong,1st Sess, p. 1.

90. S.Doc, 314, p. 9.

91. Ibid.

92. Rev. Henry Mason Baum, "Records of the Past and American Antiquities," Records of the Past, I (1902), 1-5.

93. S.Doc.314, p. 14.

94. Rev. Henry Mason Baum, "Pending legislation for the Protection of Antiquities on the Public Domain," Records of the Past, III (1904), 103.

95. Ibid., pp. 106-7, where the text of H.R.13349 is also given.

96. S.Doc, 314, pp.11-12.

97. Baum, "Pending Legislation for the Protection of Antiquities on the Public Domain," p. 143.

98. Joseph D. McGuire, "Preservation of Antiquities," American Anthropologist, N.S., VI (1904), 181. McGuire evidently helped draft the Smithsonian bill. See Baum, "Pending Legislation," p. 148.

99. Rogers, Vol. IV, Appendix A, for the texts of S.4127 and H.R.12447.

100. Ibid.

101. Ibid. for the Lodge bill, S.5603.

102. S.Doc. 314, pp. 6-7.

103. Baum, "Pending Legislation," p. 147.

104. Ibid. p. 147-48.

105. Ibid, pp. 148-50.

106. Records of the Past, Vol. IV., 1905.

107. American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, VIII (1904), Supplement, pp. 4-5. Among persons representing chapters on the committee were Miss Alice Fletcher, Baltimore; Mrs. Sara Y. Stevenson, Pennsylvania; Dr. George A. Dorsey, Chicago; Mr. George Grant McCurdy, Connecticut; Dr. W. J. McGee, St. Louis; Dr. Charles K. Lummis, Southwestern Society; Dr. A.L. Kroeber, San Francisco; and Mrs. W. S. Peabody, Colorado - all of whom, with others, went formally on record with Congress in favor of antiquities legislation.

108. American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, IX (1905), Supplement, pp. 6-7. See also American Anthropologist, N.S., VIII (1906), p. 504.

109. The main line of the legislative history is most clearly understood by following the course of S.5603, the Lodge bill, It should not be forgotten, however, that the Department of Interior was still seeking its own bill. In his Annual Report for 1901, Commissioner Binger Hermann again strongly recommended legislation similar to H.R.11021, introduced by Rep. Lacey in 1900, to authorize the President to set apart tracts of public land notable for their scenic beauty, natural wonders, ancient ruins, and relics or objects of scientific or historic interest as national parks. He repeated this recommendation in 1902. His successor, Commissioner W. A. Richards, followed with a similar recommendation in his Annual Reports for 1903 and 1904. H.R.13478, introduced by Rep. Lacey on March 4, 1904, was identical with H.R.11021, which Lacey had also introduced at the request of the Department in 1900. (See Rogers, Vol. IV, Appendix A, for text of H.R.13478.) Nothing came of the Interior bill, however, in the 58th Congress, and it was never again introduced. Neither was the Smithsonian bill re-introduced. To complete the record, it should be noted that Rep. Bernard S. Rodey of New Mexico introduced H.R.12141 on Feb. 10, 1904 "to protect ancient ruins on the public domain," but it got little or not attention. For text see Rogers, Vol. IV.

110. American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, IX (1905), Supplement, pp. 6-7.

111. Prehistoric Ruins on Public Lands, House Rep. NO. 3704, 58th Cong,. 3d Sess., pp. 1-2.

112. For a fascinating account of events leading to the Forest Transfer Act, see Hays, pp. 39-44.

113. James Taylor Forrest, "Edgar Lee Hewett", in Keepers of the Past, ed. Clifford L. Lord (Chapel Hill; The University of North Carolina Press, 1961), pp. 141-56.

114. Mitchell Carroll, "The Story of Our National Monuments," Art and Archeology, X (1920), 4.

115. Hewett's memorandum was published as General Land Office Circular Relating to Historic and Prehistoric Ruins of the Southwest and Their Preservation (Washington, 1904). It also appears as an Appendix to Rep. Lacey's 1905 report, Prehistoric Ruins on the Public Lands. Lacey published it again it again in March 1906 as part of another report from his committee.

116. American Anthropologist, N.S., VII (1905), 165.

117. Hewett, "Preservation of American Antiquities; Progress During the Last Year; Needed Legislation, "American Anthropologist, N.S., VIII (1906), p.113.

118. Ibid., p. 114.

119. Rogers, Vol. IV, Appendix A, for text of H.R.13349.

120. DAB, X, pp. 519-20.

121. Ise, p. 148.

122. Rogers, Vol. IV, Appendix A, for texts of H.R.13349 and S.4698. The Text of Hewett's bill is in American Anthropologist, N.S., VIII (1906), 113-14.

123. Forrest, "Hewett." p. 145.

124. Hewett, "Preservation of American Antiquities", pp. 110-12.

125. Preservation of American Antiquities, House Rep. No. 2224, 59th Cong., 2st Sess.

126. Rogers, House Vol. 58, Part I, p.1.

127. Ibid., Appendix A, for H.R.5998.

128. Francis W. Kelsey, "Recent Archaeological Legislation," Records of the Past, V (1906), p. 341.

129. Mesa Verde National Park, House Rep. No. 4944, 59th Cong., 1st Sess. (1906), pp. 1-2.

130. American Anthropologist, N.S., IX (1907), 233.

131. House Rep. No. 4944, 59th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 1-5. See also Senate Rep. No 1423, 59th Cong., 1st Sess, (1906), pp. 1-3.

132. U.S., Department of the Interior, Laws Relating to the National park Service, The National Parks and Monuments, comp. Hillory A. Tolson (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1933) for enabling acts for all these national parks.

133. Records of the Past, V (1906), 342.

134. Rogers, VI, Appendix A.

135. Cliff Dweller's National Park, House Report, No., 2427, 56th Cong., 2d Sess. (1901), p.2.

136. Rogers, Vol. VI, Appendix C.

137. House Rep. No. 2427, 56th Cong., 2d Sess., p. 2.

138. The Pajarito Cliff Dwellers' National Park, House Rep. No. 3705, 58th Cong. 3d Sess. (1905), pp. 2-6.

139. American Anthropologist, N.S. VII (1905), 570.

140. American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, X (1906), 174-75.

141. Frank Bond, "The Administration of National Monuments," Proceedings of the National Park Conference held at the Yellowstone National Park, September 11 and 12, 1911 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1912), pp. 82-83.

142. Proclamation of September 24, 1906 (No. 658), Sullivan, p.171.

143. Proclamation of December 8, 1906 (No. 695), Sullivan, p. 177.

144. Proclamation of December 8, 1906 (No. 696), Sullivan, p. 235.

145. Proclamation of March 11, 1907 (No. 740), Sullivan, p. 148.

146. Proclamation of January 9, 1908 (No. 793), Sullivan, p. 240.

147. Proclamation of January 11, 1908 (No. 794), Sullivan, p. 28.

148. National Park Service, Hearing before the Committee on Public Lands, House of Representatives, Sixty-Fourth Congress, First Session, on H.R.434 and H.R. 8668, bills to establish a National Park Service and for other purposes, April 5 and 6, 1916 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1916), p. 53. An unnumbered report.

149. Annual Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Office for 1908, cited by Claus, p. 7.

150. Ise, pp. 498-501.

151. Department of the Interior news release from the Office of the Secretary, January 21, 1969.

152. One Third of the Nation's Land, A Report to the President and to the Congress by the Public Land Law Review Commission (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970). See especially Chapter One, "Where and What Are Public Lands?", pp. 19-30, and the excellent map which accompanies the report showing the location of all Federal Lands in the United States and the departments and bureaus having jurisdiction.

153. Proclamation of August 22, 1934 (No. 2054), Sullivan, P. 146.

154. Proclamation of March 15, 1943 (No. 2578), Sullivan, p. 213.

155. Transfer of National Military Parks, Hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, Seventieth Congress, Second Session, on S.4173...January 31, 1929 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1929), pp. 3-10. An unnumbered report.

156. Ibid.

157. Ibid., pp. 11-23.

158. Horace M. Albright, "National Park Service Administration of Historic Sites" typewritten manuscript in files of Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, Washington, DC.

159. War Department, Bulletin No. 27, July 17, 1915, pp. 1-12.

160. War Department, Bulletin No. 2, March 20, 1925, p. 1.

161. Bond, pp. 80-81.

162. Ibid., pp. 96-100.

163. Ibid., p. 100.

164. Bureau of National Parks, Senate Rep. No. 676, 62nd Cong., 2d Sess. (1912), pp. 1-5.

165. S.3463, Calendar No. 607, 62nd Cong., 2d Sess., 1912, p. 2.

166. National Park Service, House Rep. No. 700, 64th Cong., 1st Sess., pp. 6-7.

167. Opinions of Attorneys General (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1933), Vol. 36, 1929-32, pp. 75-79

168. Executive Order No. 6228, July 28, 1933, Sullivan, p. 6.

169. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Compilation of the Administrative Policies for the National Parks and National Monuments of Scientific Significance (Natural Area Category). Revised August 1968. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1968), pp. 76-80.




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