A shift from the Archaic era to the Late Prehistoric era took place when arrowpoints became smaller and the bow and arrow was invented. The first group of people in the Texas Panhandle who used the bow and arrow were the Palo Duro people, who probably came from the southwest around 1 AD to 500 AD. They used small arrowpoints with deep corner-notches, and made thick brown-ware pottery. They used very little Alibates flint, although some Alibates flint was used for arrowpoints.
A few hundred years later, people from the eastern Woodland tribes came to the Texas Panhandle. They made cord-marked pottery and used arrowpoints with shallow notches. They may have been the first people to grow corn in the Panhandle.