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Archeology and the Public
A special 1995 issue of CRM 18(3)

Fagan, Brian
1998     "Perhaps We May Hear Voices" Common Ground 3(1). (Spring)

McManamon, Francis P.
1991     "The Many Publics for Archaeology" CRM 13(4):43-45.

Public Meaning of Archeological Heritage
2004     Seminar Presentations, Center for Heritage Resource Studies, University of Maryland.


“An Inspiring Guide”: Effective Interpretation of Archeological Resources
This manual describes a curriculum that is adaptable to any geographic region and may be adapted by any agency or organization desiring to improve the quality of archeological presentation to the public. Employing the concept of “shared competency,” archeologists and interpreters receive training in each other’s disciplines and work together to provide effective and accurate interpretation of archeological information and resources to the public.

Interpretation for Archeologists: A Guide to Increasing Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities
Archeologists can now explore the world of interpretation through online activities, illustrated case studies, fun facts, and more. This guide introduces the art and science of interpretation, methods and techniques for engaging the public with archeological resou
rces, and the significant role interpretation can play in encouraging public stewardship.

Archeology for Interpreters: A Guide to Knowledge of the Resource
An online guide to learning about archeological methods that explores how interpretations are made and meaning ascribed to archeological resources, with the goal of increasing public understanding of preservation. Although the guide is designed to help interpreters gain basic knowledge, the ten sections (with bibliographies and links) may be used by anyone with a desire to learn the basics of archeology.

Study Tour of Archeological Interpretation takes archeologists and interpreters through the process of evaluating the interpretation of archeology both in parks and historic sites and through virtual visits. Downloadable worksheets are available. This course assists archeologists and interpreters in working together to provide effective and accurate interpretation to engage the public and foster a preservation ethic. The Study Tour can be used by individuals or adapted by groups who wish to work together to improve archeological interpretation. As with our other distance learning courses, the Study Tour is easily adapted to classroom instruction for credit. Suggestions for potential instructors are included.

Arizona Archaeology Week: Promoting the Past to the Public
by Theresa L. Hoffman and Shereen Lerner, Arizona State Historic Preservation Office
Describes the development and components of an annual archeology week celebration. Technical Brief 2, National Park Service Archeological Assistance Division, 1988.

Archeology in the Classroom: A Case Study from Arizona
by A.E. Rogge and Patti Bell, Arizona Archaeological Council, Archaeology for the Schools Committee
Discusses the Arizona Archaeological Council's efforts with schools to promote the strategy to teach with archeology. Technical Brief 4, National Park Service Archeological Assistance Division, 1989.

Training and Using Volunteers in Archeology: A Case Study From Arkansas
by Hester Davis, Arkansas Archeological Survey
Outlines the training opportunities and certification program for avocational archeologists offered in Arkansas. Technical Brief 9, National Park Service Archeological Assistance Division, 1990.

State Archeology Weeks: Interpreting Archeology for the Public
by Mara Greengrass, National Park Service Archeological Assistance Division
Summarizes approaches and successes from states across the country. Technical Brief 15, National Park Service Archeological Assistance Division, 1993 (revised for the Internet 1999).


Public attitudes

Exploring Public Perceptions and Attitudes About Archaeology
According to this Harris poll, Americans support the goals and practice of archeology, think it's important to today's society, and endorse laws protecting sites and artifacts. Still, they harbor major misconceptions about the discipline and its accomplishments.

Archaeology & You
by G.E. Stuart and Francis P. McManamon

Bibliographies and Books

Public Benefits of Archaeology. Edited by Barbara J. Little (University Press of Florida, 2002).
This collection of essays demonstrates the range of public benefits derived from archeology. Check out the Table of Contents for ideas on applying archeology to your work, and refer to the Selected Bibliography for more information.

Presenting Archaeology to the Public: Digging for Truths. Edited by John H. Jameson, Jr.
Integrated bibliography

Protecting the Past. Edited by George S. Smith and John E. Ehrenhard (CRC Press, 1991)
Online book.

National Park Service Tools

Interpretive Development Program web site
See particularly, under "competencies" Module 440, “Effective Interpretation of Archeological Resources: The Archeology-Interpreter Shared Competency Course of Study.”

NPS Southeast Archeological Center Education and Outreach and Interpretation Workshops

The Archeology Program's Distance learning web site

Teaching with Historic Places archeology lesson plans

Museum Management program: Museum Handbook, part III, Chapter 7: Using Museum Collections in Exhibits

Harpers Ferry Center: Museum Exhibit Planner

Harpers Ferry Center Interpretive Media Institute

Public Archeology in the United States: A Timeline

Agencies and Organizations

The Society for American Archaeology's Public Education Committee

Bureau of Land Management Heritage Program

Project Archaeology (Montana State University and Bureau of Land Management)

U.S. Forest Service Heritage Program

National Association for Interpretation

National Council on Public History