Mississippian Time Period
The Woodland period civilizations that took root in the Mississippi and Tennessee River Valleys flowered in the Mississippian period. Large towns and ceremonial complexes with huge temple mounds were made possible by the refinement of corn agriculture. Because of the establishment of these permanent settlements, places like Russell Cave were used only sporadically as stopovers for hunting and trading parties. The Cherokee Indians of the historic period rarely used the cave.
Did You Know?
Site 44 of the North Alabama Birding Trail is located at Russell Cave National Monument. Researchers have identified more than 115 species of birds at this site. This photo shows a blue gray gnatcatcher nesting in spring.