• Dragonfly

    Russell Cave

    National Monument Alabama

History & Culture

National Park Service Excavation.

National Park Service Digs Through History.

Russell Cave

To characterize the evolving stages of civilization in southeastern America before European contact, archeologists have established a general cultural sequence: Paleo, Archaic, Woodland, Mississippian.

For most of Russell Cave's 10,000 years of human use, its inhabitants were in the Archaic stage. The cave was one of thousands of southeastern Archaic sites. Recent evidence indicates that the earliest users of the cave were actually at the transitional stage between Paleo and Archaic. During the Paleo period they still depended to a great extent on hunting large animals rather than exploiting a wider range of resources.

Did You Know?

Left Entrance to Russell Cave

The Russell Cave National Monument area used to be under the sea during the Mississippian Period around 350 million years ago? Fossils of brachipods, corals and crinoids have been discovered in the limestone rocks and weathered soils at the site.