Staircase is located in the southeastern corner of Olympic National Park, about a one-hour drive from Olympia, and two hours south of Port Angeles (directions.)
The access road to the Staircase area is unpaved and periodically closes due to unfavorable weather conditions such as snow. Make sure to check the status of the road before planning your trip.
A general map and information regarding facilities, picnic areas, camping, and regulations can be found on the park's Staircase brochure (pdf).
There are several short day-hikes that explore the area. Shady Lane trail is flat, and less than a mile to Lake Cushman. The hike to Flapjack Lakes is for the stronger hikers, gaining over 3,000 feet in elevation.
Longer hikes, like the North Fork Skokomish River trail, can be done in a couple of days.