Numerous species of fish have been recorded in the waters around Fire Island.
The finfish species likely to be landed by commercial harvesters from nearby waters are bluefish, winter flounder, summer flounder, weakfish, Atlantic silversides, and menhaden.
Recreational fishing species include fluke, winter flounder, bluefish, weakfish, tautog, and black sea bass.
Some of the fish species found within the boundaries of Fire Island National Seashore are present only as older juveniles and adults, and do not use the bay as a spawning and nursery area. These transient species include striped bass, menhaden, and eels.
Other species (bluefish, winter flounder, fluke, tautog, black sea bass) use Fire Island waters as both nursery grounds for young-of-the-year stages as well as adults. The value of Seashore estuarine habitats for these species is great.
Ecologically important species, those that are an important forage species for piscivorous (fish-eating) fishes, include Atlantic silversides, bay anchovy, sand lance, northern pipefish, and others. Killifishes are a major component of the fish fauna of salt marsh habitats.