Access by Shuttle Bus Only
Starting May 24, 2013 all access to the most visited part of the park, Frijoles Canyon, will be via a mandatory shuttle bus from the nearby community of White Rock from 9 AM - 3 PM daily. Private cars may drive in before 9 AM or after 3 PM. More »
Alcove House Closed
Alcove House, with its 140 ft climb on stairs and ladders, is closed to all visitor access from June 10 to August 22, 2013 while important stabalization work is done on the Alcove House kiva. More »
Fire Restrictions in Place
Due to high fire danger, starting June 5, 2013, smoking will be allowed only in designated areas. No open fires will be allowed anywhere in the park. Self-contained stoves only at the campground or backcountry camping. No fireworks.
Main Loop Trail Stop 2
NPS Photo by Stella Carroll
The canyon-and-mesa country around you is part of the Pajarito Plateau, formed by two violent eruptions of the Jemez (HAY-mess) Volcano over one million years ago. Located fourteen miles to the northwest, this powerful volcano ejected enough material to cover this four hundred square-mile area with a layer of volcanic ash up to one thousand feet thick. Each of the two Jemez eruptions was six hundred times more powerful than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.
The pink rock of the canyon wall may look like sandstone but it is actually volcanic ash that compacted over time into a soft, crumbly rock called tuff. Tuff is very easily eroded by the action of wind and rain. Some components of the tuff erode more easily than others. Over time the exposed rock takes on a “swiss cheese” appearance. Ancestral Pueblo people used tools to enlarge some of the small natural openings in the cliff face. The soft rock made excellent building material. Stone dwellings were constructed in front of these enlarged openings.
Frijoles Canyon lies in an area where numerous volcanic eruptions have shaped the landscape. Other local volcanic activity provided harder stones such as obsidian and basalt. The Ancestral Pueblo people used these materials for tools and as trade items.
Did You Know?
Pinon nuts are rich in vitamins, flavor, and calories (3,000 per pound). Although produced in abundance only every 7 to 10 years, these nuts were a valuable native food source for the Ancestral Pueblo people. More...