• Long House in autumn

    Bandelier

    National Monument New Mexico

There are park alerts in effect.
show Alerts »
  • Access by Shuttle Bus Only

    Through October 27, 2014 all access to the most visited part of the park, Frijoles Canyon, will be via a mandatory shuttle bus from the nearby community of White Rock from 9 AM - 3 PM daily. Private cars may drive in before 9 AM or after 3 PM. More »

Tuff

tuff block wall

The Ancestral Pueblo people made walls out of blocks of tuff.

photo by sally king

The Rock
Tuff is a pinkish-tan rock which forms from volcanic ash flows that consolidate into thick layers of soft rock. The cliffs you see throughout Frijoles Canyon are tuff.

The Uses
Because tuff is relatively soft and light, it could be carved with hand tools to create cavates and shaped into blocks for building houses.

Did You Know?

Pinon cone with nuts

Pinon nuts are rich in vitamins, flavor, and calories (3,000 per pound). Although produced in abundance only every 7 to 10 years, these nuts were a valuable native food source for the Ancestral Pueblo people. More...