Myth: General Ulysses S. Grant stopped the prisoner exchange, and is thus responsible for all of the suffering in Civil War prisons on both sides
Librarry of Congress
"It is hard on our men held in Southern prisons not to exchange them, but it is humanity to those left in the ranks to fight our battles. Every man we hold, when released on parole or otherwise, becomes an active soldier against us at once either directly or indirectly. If we commence a system of exchange which liberates all prisoners taken, we will have to fight on until the whole South is exterminated. If we hold those caught they amount to no more than dead men. At this particular time to release all rebel prisoners North would insure Sherman's defeat and would compromise our safety here." – General Ulysses S. Grant, August 18, 1864.
This quote from General Grant is often cited as evidence that he stopped prisoner exchanges and that he did it because of the callous arithmetic of the war – by stopping exchanges the Union armies could simply outlast the Confederates. His statement is so ingrained into the common interpretation of Civil War prisons that it was engraved on the Wirz Monument in the town of Andersonville. However, the prisoner exchange issue was far more complicated, and the timeline of exchanges does not support this notion that Grant stopped the prisoner exchange.
Library of Congress
The prison exchange system, codified on July 22, 1862 by the Dix Hill Cartel, called for equal exchanges of all soldiers captured, and these soldiers could return to their units. The balance remaining after equal exchanges were to be paroled, and not to take up arms again until they were formally exchanged. Then in September of 1862, President Lincoln called for the enlistment of black soldiers into the Union Armies as part of the preliminary draft of the Emancipation Proclamation. In December 1862, President Davis responded by issuing a proclamation that neither captured black soldiers or their white officers would not be subject to the exchange. In January 1863 the Emancipation Proclamation became official and the United States began the active recruitment of black soldiers. The Lieber Codes, also known as General Order 100, were issued in April 1863 and stipulated that the United States government expected all prisoners to be treated equally, regardless of color. In May of 1863, the Confederate Congress passed a joint resolution that formalized Davis's proclamation that black soldiers taken prisoner would not be subject to the prisoner exchange. In mid-July 1863 this became a reality, as several prisoners from the 54th Massachusetts were not exchanged with the rest of the white soldiers who participated in the assault on Fort Wagner. On July 30, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued General Orders 252, which effectively suspended the Dix-Hill Cartel until the Confederate forces agreed to treat black prisoners the same as white prisoners. The Confederate forces declined to do so at that time, and large scale prisoner exchanges largely ceased by August 1863, resulting in a dramatic increase in the prison populations on both sides.
Part of the issue with attributing this breakdown in the exchange to General Grant is that in the summer of 1863 he was an army commander in the west and would have had little influence in the matter. He was not promoted to command of all union armies until the spring of 1864, well after the prison exchange had stopped and after prisoners had already begun arriving at Andersonville. Thus, blame for the breakdown cannot be placed on Grant, but on politicians from both sides who were unwilling to compromise their policies.Grant's statement needs to be placed in context. In the late summer of 1864, a year after the Dix-Hill Cartel was suspended; Confederate officials approached Union General Benjamin Butler, Union Commissioner of Exchange, about resuming the cartel and including the black prisoners. Butler contacted Grant for guidance on the issue, and Grant responded to Butler on August 18, 1864 with his now famous statement. In their conversation, Grant informed Butler that he approved an equal exchange of soldier for soldier, but did not approve of a full resumption of the Dix-Hill Cartel. His issue was with the cartel's stipulation that the balance after equal exchanges were to be paroled and sent home to await formal exchange. Because by August 1864 the Union army held more Confederate prisoners, a resumption of the Dix-Hill Cartel would release thousands more Confederates than Union soldiers, and Grant felt that they were likely to violate their paroles and rejoin their units, while many of the Union prisoners' enlistments had expired and were likely to go home. An agreement was not reached until the winter of 1864-1865, at which time large scale exchanges resumed.
Grant was not in command when the exchanges stopped, and when he made his statement on August 18, 1864, there were already more than 30,000 prisoners at Andersonville. The photographs taken of Andersonville Prison were taken several days before Grant made his statements, and even if exchanges were resumed in late August, Andersonville would still be the deadliest prison of the war with some 8,000 dead. It is therefore inaccurate to attribute the breakdown of the prisoner exchange and all of the sufferings of prisoners of war to a callous military directive by General Ulysses S. Grant. However, even though Grant was not responsible for the cessation of the Dix-Hill Cartel, he does bear a portion of the responsibility to the failure to resume the exchange. The United States government's policy was to halt the cartel until the Confederacy agreed to include black prisoners. When the Confederacy finally agreed to do so after more than a year, Grant failed to fulfill the Union's end of the agreement, and refused to fully resume the Dix-Hill Cartel as it existed in 1862-1863.