American Slavery

Baptist, Edward. The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism. New York, NY: Basic Books, 2006.

Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.

---------- Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Davis, David. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxofrd: Oxford University Press, 2006.

----------- Slavery in the Colonial Chesapeake. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, 1986.

Harris, Matthew. A Mean and Brutal Business: Indentured Servitude in Early America. British Colonial America: People and Perspectives, edited by John A. Grigg and Peter C. Mancall. Pp. 21-41. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2008.

Kolchin, Peter. American Slavery: 1619-1877. New York, NY: Macmillan, 2003.

Kulikoff, Allan. Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Cheaspeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

Morgan, Edmunds. American Slavery American Freedom: the Ordeal of Colonial Virginia.New York, NY: W&W Norton Company, 1995.

Oates, Stephen. The Fires of Jubille: Nat Turner’s Fierce Rebellion. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 2009.


Barrow, John A. and Thomas Tileston Waterman.Domestic Architecture of TidewaterVirginia. New York, NY: DaCapo Press, 1968.

Carson, Cary, ed. "Impermanent Architecture in the Southern American Colonies."Winterthur Portfolio 16, nos. 2/3 (1981): 135-196.

Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.An Illustrated Glossary of Early Southern Architecture and Landscape. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Gleason, David King. Virginia Plantation Homes. Baton Rogue, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1989.

Lane, Mills. Architecture of the Old South. New York, NY: Aberville Press, 1993.

Loth, Calder (ed.).The Virginia Landmarks Register. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1999.

Lounsbury, Carl R.The Courthouses Of Early Virginia: An Architectural History (Colonial Williamsburg Studies in Chesapeake History and Culture).Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 2005.

O'Dell, Jeffrey Marshall.Inventory of Early Architecture and Historic Sites-County of Henrico,Virginia. Richmond, VA: County of Henrico, 1978.

Roberts, Bruce. Plantation Homes of the James River. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1990.

Upton, Dell.Holy Things and Profane: Anglican Parish Churches in Colonial Virginia.New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1997.

Vlach,John Michael.Back of the Big House, The Architecture ofPlantationSlavery.Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

Waterman, Thomas Tileston.The Mansions ofVirginia, 1706-1776. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1946.

Wilson, Richard Guy. Buildings of Virginia: Tidewater and Piedmont.New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2002.


Barber, M.B. The Vertebrate Faunal Analysis of the Slave’s Quarters, Shirley Plantation, Charles City County, Virginia, Addendum: 1980 Season. On file, Department of Anthropology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1981

Crader, Diana. Slave Diet at Monticello. American Antiquity 55(4): 690-717, 1990.

------------------- Faunal Remains from Slave Quarter Sites at Monticello. Archaeozoologia 3: 1-12, 1989.

Deetz, James. Flowderdew Hundred: The Archaeology of a Virginia Plantation, 1619-1864. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.

King, Julia. Rural Landscapes in the Mid-Nineteenth Century Chesapeake. In Historical Archaeology of the Chesapeake, edited by Paul A. Shackel and Barbara J. Little. Pp. 293-299. Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

Mann, Rob. Smoking and Culture: The Archaeology of Tobacco Pipes in Eastern North America. Knoxville,TN: University of Tennessee Press, 2004.

McKee, Larry. Food Supply and Plantation Social Order: An Archaeological Perspective. In I, too, Am America: Archaeological Studies of African American Life, edited by Theresa A. Singleton. Pp. 218-240. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1999.

--------------Plantation Food Supply in Nineteenth-Century Tidewater Virginia. Ph.D. Dissertations, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, 1988.

Moore, Sue Mullins. Social and Economic status on the Coastal Plantation: An Archaeological Perspective. In, The Archaeology of Slavery and Plantation Life, edited by Theresa Singleton, pp. 2141-160. Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1985.

Otto, John S. Race and Class on Antebellum Plantations. Archaeological Perspectives on Ethnicity in America: Afro-American and Asian American Culture History, edited by Robert L. Schuyler. Pp. 3-13. Baywood, Farmingdale, New York, 1980.

---------- A New Look at Slave Life. Natural History 88(1): 8, 16, 20, 22,24, 30, 1979.

---------- Artifacts and Status Differences—A Comparison of Ceramics from Planter, Overseer, and Slave Sites on an Antebellum Plantation. Research Strategies in Historical Archaeology, edited by Stanley South. Pp. 91-118. New York: Academic Press, 1977.

---------Status Differences and the Archaeological Record -- A Comparison of Planter, Overseer, and Slave Sites from Cannon’s Point Plantation (1794-1861), St. Simons Island, Georgia. PhD Dissertation, University of Florida, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, 1975.

Reitz, Elizabeth. Vertebrate Fauna and Socioeconomic Status. Consumer Choice in Historical Archaeology, edited by Suzanne Spencer-Wood. Pp. 101-119. New York: Plenum, 1985.

Sinopoli, Carla M. Approaches to Archaeological Ceramics. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.

Aristocracy, Virginia

Dowdey, Clifford. The Virginia Dynasty The Emergence of "King" Carter and the Golden Age. New York, NY: Bonaza Books, 1974.

Wright, Louis B.The First Gentlemen of Virginia: Intellectual Qualities of the Early Colonial Ruling Class. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1970.

English, Native American Relations

Schmidt, Ethan A. The Divided Dominion: Social Conflict and Indian Hatred in Early Virginia. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado, 2015

History of Counties

Carmody, John M.A Guide to Prince George and Hopewell. Hopewell, VA: The Hopewell News, 1939.

Coski, John M. and James P. Whittenburg (eds.).Charles City County, Virginia-An Official History. Salem, WV: Don Mills, Inc., 1989.

Dowdey, Clifford and Louis H. Manarin. The History of Henrico County. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1984.

Kornwolf, James D.TheSurryCounty,Virginia1776 Bicentennial Committee Guide to the Buildings of Surry County and the American Revolution. Surry, VA: Surry County Bicentennial Committee, 1976.

McCartney, Martha W. James City County-Keystone of the Commonwealth. Virginia Beach, VA: Donning Company, Publishers, 1997.

Rutman, Darrett B. and Anita B. Rutman.A Place in Time: Middlesex County, Virginia 1650-1750. New York, NY: W&W Norton Company, 1984

History of Colonial Virginia, Jamestown

Billings, Warren M. (ed.).The Old Dominion in the Seventeenth Century-A Documentary History of Virginia, 1609-1689. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.

------------.Sir William Berkeley and the Forging of Colonial Virginia. Baton Rogue, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 2004.

Fischer, David Hackett. Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Harriot, Thomas. A Briefe and True Report of The New Found Land of Virginia .New York, NY:Dover Publications, 1972.

Issac, Rhys. The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982.

Rice, James. Tales from a Revolution: Bacon’s Rebellion and the Transformation of Early America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

History of Native Americans

Carlisle, Rodney and J. Geoffrey Golson. Native America from Prehistory to First Contact. ABC-CLIO, 2007.

Egloff, Keith and Deborah Woodward. First People: The Early Indians of Virginia. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2006.

Potter, Stephen R.Commoners, Tribute and Chiefs: The Development of Algonquin Culture in the PotomacValley. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1993.

Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas’s People: The Powhatan Indians of Virginia Through Four Centuries. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

------------ The Powhatan Indians of Virginia: Their Traditional Culture. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990.

Rountree, Helen C. and E. Randolph Turner III. Before and After Jamestown: Virginia's Powhatans and Their Predecessors.Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida, 2002.

Last updated: September 27, 2016


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