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National Park Service
Urban Ecology Series

The city stands as one of man's most intriguing inventions. Though certainly not ancient in the time scale of human evolution, the idea of the city has come to be regarded as his highest development. While the inhabitants of cities do not usually consider them biological communities it is the non-engineering, non-architectural, non-technical components of cities that make them comparable wherever they are found. Clean air, clean water, food, clothing, and shelter are the common requisites of all men, in cities and out. Providing these commodities while providing the environment for the technical activity of man is in essence the function of the city. It is in the ecological relations of man-his environment and his work-that the true forms of the city are to be found. This recognition that every city functions as a biological community was addressed in the following Urban Ecology Series prepared by the National Park Service in the 1970s.

 1. Man, Nature, City, Theodore W. Sudia, 1971.

 2. The Vegetation of the City, Theodore W. Sudia, 1972.

 3. The Ecology of the Walking City, Theodore W. Sudia, 1973.

 4. The River and the City, Theodore W. Sudia, 1974.

 5. The City as a Biological Community, Theodore W. Sudia, 1975.

 6. The City as a Park, Theodore W. Sudia, 1976.

 7. Technology Assessment and the City, Theodore W. Sudia, 1976.

 8. Ecological Engineering of the City, Theodore W. Sudia, 1978.

 8. Wildlife and the City, Theodore W. Sudia, 1978.

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